- Birkhoff's theorem (electromagnetism)
In physics, in the context of
electromagnetism, Birkhoff's theorem concerns spherically symmetric static solutions of Maxwell's field equationsof electromagnetism.
The theorem is due to
George D. Birkhoff. It states that any spherically symmetric solution of the source-free Maxwell equationsis necessarily static. Pappas (1984) gives two proofs of this theorem.
Birkhoff's theorem (relativity)
* Richard C Pappas, "Proof of "Birkhoff's theorem" in electrodynamics", Am. J. Phys., 52 (3) 1984, 255-256.
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