- Guthrie Theater
The Guthrie Theater is a center for theater performance, production, education, and professional training in
Minneapolis, Minnesota. It is the result of the desire of Sir Tyrone Guthrie, Oliver Rea, and Peter Zeislerto create a resident acting company that would produce and perform the classics in an atmosphere removed from the commercial pressures of Broadway.
The Guthrie opened on
May 7, 1963, with a production of " Hamlet", with George Grizzardportraying the lead and directed by Sir Tyrone Guthrie. It moved to a new, three-theater building after closing its 2005 - 2006 season with a production " Hamlet" on May 7, 2006.
In 1959 Guthrie published a small invitation in the drama page of the "
New York Times" soliciting communities' interest and involvement in a resident theater. Out of the seven cities that responded, the Twin Cities showed not only interest but also eagerness for the project. [cite web|url= http://www.guthrietheater.org/about_the_guthrie/theater_history| title= Guthrie website, History. Accessed July 9, 2007] Frank Whiting, the director of the University of Minnesota Theater introduced Guthrie to the arts community in the Twin Cities and helped gather support that persuaded Guthrie to locate his theater in Minneapolis. With the help of the newly founded Tyrone Guthrie Theater Foundation a fundraising effort raised over US$2 million. The new theater was completed in 1963 in time for the May 7th opening of "Hamlet". During its first season the Guthrie theater featured well known stage actors Jessica Tandyand Zoe Caldwelland featured a group of younger actors including Joan van Ark. Tyrone Guthrie served as Artistic Directoruntil 1966 and continued to direct at the theater he founded until 1969, two years before his death. In 1966 Douglas Campbell was named Artistic Director.
Throughout the 1960s the Guthrie found
critical acclaim in its productions of "Henry V", " St. Joan", " Caucasian Chalk Circle", "Three Sisters" and especially " The House of Atreus". In 1968 the production of "The House of Atreus" was taken on the road in a national tour that was a first for a resident theater. [cite web|url= http://www.guthrietheater.org/INSIDETHEGUTHRIE/TheaterHistory/tabid/83/Default.aspx| title= Guthrie website / Theater History] Also starting in 1968 the Guthrie started producing a series of plays done on smaller stages in the Twin Cities area, Crawford-Livingston Theater and The Other Place.
Michael Langhambecame Artistic Director and produced highly successful classics including " Oedipus the King", " Love's Labour's Lost", " She Stoops to Conquer", and "A Streetcar Named Desire". After Langham left in 1977, the Guthrie crossed a milestone of sorts when for the first time it selected an artistic director that was not a respected collaborator or friend of Tyrone Guthrie. That year Alvin Epsteinwas selected as Artistic Director and was the first American to fill that role.
Liviu Ciuleireplaced Epstein. Ciulei was the former Artistic Director of Teatrul Bulandrain Romaniaand had a profound influence on the Guthrie theater. He challenged audiences with his bold theatrical interpretations and his highly contemporary and international style. Ciulei's intense interest in theater didn't stop at the productions themselves, he was a world-class designer and architect and one of the first things he did was to redesign the theater itself. [cite web|url= http://theater2.nytimes.com/mem/theater/treview.html?res=9A0DE4DD1238F935A35754C0A960948260| title= "Shaping a 'Dream' Far More Bitter Than Puckish", New York Times, 6 July 1986 (registration required) ] His changes allowed more structural flexibility in the stage to allow each production a unique physical presentation. While Ciulei was not able to attain all the goals he had envisioned, he was able to maintain and advance the Guthrie's national and international reputation as a first-rate example of American Theater and drew critical success with productions of classics such as " Peer Gynt", " The Marriage of Figaro", " A Midsummer Night's Dream", " The Seagull", and " Tartuffe". He also was able to reestablish the Guthrie’s commitment to acting ensembles by gathering together a rotating repertory in his last season as Artistic Director in 1985.
That year the Guthrie turned to Garland Wright who had spent some time as Liviu Ciulei’s Associate Artistic Director in the early 1980s as Ciulei's replacement. Wright had shared a vision with Ciulei that included the desire to have a second, smaller stage that could act as a lab to enable the exploration of new work and performance techniques. Born out of this vision was the Guthrie Laboratory located in the Minneapolis Warehouse District. Wright also shared a desire to keep the concept of a resident acting company alive and used his ensembles to great effect. He was able to combine critical and popular success with a series of productions that helped reestablish a large, enthusiastic and loyal audience base. Productions from this period include "
The Misanthrope", "Richard III", " The Screens", and a trilogy of "Richard II", "Henry IV" (Parts I and II) and "Henry V", " Medea" and " As You Like It". Wright also created a series of outreach programs designed to garner interest in theater among young people and involving high school and colleague instructors.
Garland Wright announced his resignation in 1994 and after an international search for his successor, Irish director
Joe Dowlingwas chosen as the Guthrie's seventh Artistic Director. Dowling had gained an international reputationwith his work at Ireland's national theater, The Abbey Theater, including becoming the Abbey's youngest Artistic Director in its long history.
1963 theater building
Paired with an innovative philosophy that included a resident acting company with high professional standards was a unique
designconcept in the stage itself.
Ralph Rapsonwas selected to design the 1963 theater building. Rapson was a leading contributor to architecture's modern movement on the East Coast from the late 1940s through the 1950s, and served as head of the University of MinnesotaSchool of Architecturein the late 1950s. Rapson had also worked on some preliminary sketches of the Walker Art Center, who donated land for the Guthrie's construction. Guthrie and Rapson selected a modified theater in the rounddesign that featured a thrust stageprojecting from a back wall with seating surrounding nearly two thirds of it. [cite web|url=http://www.mnhs.org/library/tips/history_topics/04guthrie.html| title=Ralph Rapson/Minnesota Historical Society]
The Guthrie's design arose out of
architectRalph Rapson's work with the Walker Art Center who had asked him to work on some ideas for a small auditorium the Walker had in mind near their museum. The result was a theater with a thrust stage that put more demands upon performers on the stage, and for technical staff. The theater seated 1,441 people when it first opened its doors in 1963 and featured an irregularly-shaped stage that had 7 sides and took up 1120 square feet (104 m²). From the angles, seating radiates outward and upward, balconies hung over the space just under ceiling-hung acoustical panels that carried the asymmetrical theme all the way to the top of the theater. The uniqueness of the concept was carried right though to the use of a minimum of scenic props intended for suggestion rather than literal presentation of the physical production. In 1980 Artistic Director Liviu Ciulei redesigned the stage. The stage itself was modified so that its size, shape and height was adjustable, and he opened up the back wall to create more depth. [cite web|url= http://www.minnesotatwinstickets.com/venues/guthrie-theatre-tickets.php| title= Twins Tickets]
2002the National Trust for Historic Preservationput the old Guthrie building on its list of the most endangered historic properties in the United States [cite web|url= http://www.nationaltrust.org/11Most/list.asp?i=52| title=National Trust] in response to plans announced by the Walker Art Centerto expand on the land occupied by the theater. However, demolition started in late 2006 beginning with the common area between the old Guthrie building and the Walker. The site will be turned into a park and part of the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden.
May 7, 2006the Guthrie Theater's original location closed following a final performance of "Hamlet".
2006 theater building
In 2006, the Guthrie finished construction of a new $125 million theater building along the
Mississippi Riverin downtownMinneapolis. The design is the work of architect Jean Nouvel, along with the Minneapolis architectural firm Architectural Allianceand is a 285,000 square foot (26,500 m²) facility that houses three theaters: (1) the theater's signature thrust stage, seating 1,100, (2) a 700-seat proscenium stage, and (3) a black-box studio with flexible seating. It also has a 178-foot cantilevered bridge to the Mississippi which is open to visitors during normal building hours. The outside of the building's walls are covered in large panels which display a large mural of photographs from past plays visible clearly at night.
The first Guthrie production at the new location,"
The Great Gatsby" (adapted for the stage by Simon Levy and directed by David Esbjornson), opened on July 15, 2006.
*Douglas Campbell (1966-1967)
*position not filled (1968-1970)
*Garland Wright (1986-1995)
Little House on the Prairie" - based on the books by Laura Ingalls Wilder, book by Rachel Sheinkin, music by Rachel Portman, lyrics by Donna di Novelli
A View from the Bridge" - by Arthur Miller
The Caretaker" - by Harold Pinter
Shadowlands" - by William Nicholson
A Christmas Carol" - by Charles Dickens, adapted by Barbara Field
A Delicate Balance" - by Edward Albee
The Two Gentlemen of Verona" - by William Shakespeare
*" Happy Days" - by
Caroline, or Change" - book and lyrics by Tony Kushner, music by Jeanine Tesori
The Intelligent Homosexual's Guide to Capitalism and Socialism with a Key to the Scriptures" - by Tony Kushner
*An evening of short plays by
When We Are Married" - by J. B. Priestley
*cite book |last=Cronyn |first=Hume |authorlink=Hume Cronyn |title=A Terrible Liar : A Memoir |year=1991 |publisher=William Morrow and Company, Inc. |location=New York | id=ISBN 0-688-10080-5
*cite web | last=Dowling | first=Joe |authorlink=Joe Dowling | url=http://www.tcg.org/publications/at/sept06/guthrie.cfm | title=Inside the New Guthrie | accessdate = 2006-11-29 | | work=American Theatre "online|publisher="Theatre Communications Group|year=2006|month=Sep
*cite book |last=Guilfoyle |first=Peg |title=The Guthrie Theater : Images, History, and Inside Stories |year=2006 |publisher=Nodin Press |location=Minneapolis | id=ISBN 1-932472-39-8
*cite book |last=Guthrie |first=Tyrone |authorlink=Tyrone Guthrie |title=A New Theatre |year=1964 |month= |publisher=McGraw-Hill |location=New York | id=LCCN 64022458
*cite book |last=Guthrie |first=Tyrone | title=A New Theatre |series=expanded edition|year=2008 |month= |publisher=University of Minnesota Press | id=ISBN 9780816653607
*cite news |last=Guthrie | first=Tyrone |coauthors=Ralph Rapson, H. Frederick Koeper | title=Architecture for the Stage: Tyrone Guthrie Theatre, Designed by Ralph Rapson, AIA |work=Design Quarterly", No 58|date="1963
*cite web | last=Hammel | first=Bette | url=http://archrecord.construction.com/news/daily/archives/070321guthrie.asp | title=The Guthrie Spurs Development on Minneapolis Riverfront | accessdate = 2007-12-07 | work=Architectural Record "online|publisher="McGraw-Hill |year=2007|month=Mar
*cite book |last=Hession |first=Jane King |coauthors=Rip Rapson, Bruce N. Wright |title=Ralph Rapson: Sixty Years of Modern Design |year=1999 |publisher=Afton Historical Society Press |location=Afton, Minnesota | id=ISBN 1-890434-14-0
*cite book |last=Morrison |first=Bradley G. |coauthors=Kay Fliehr |title=In Search of an Audience |year=1968 |publisher=Pitman |location=New York | id=LCCN 68018783
*cite book |last=Rossi |first=Alfred |title=Minneapolis Rehearsals : Tyrone Guthrie Directs Hamlet |year=1970 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley | id=ISBN 0520017196
*cite news |last=Steel | first=Mike | title=The Not So Empty Stage |work=American Theatre | date=October 1993
*cite news |last=Sullivan | first=Dan | title=Compelling 'Hamlet' is Traditional (review) |work=Minneapolis Tribune | date=May 8th, 1963|url=http://ww3.startribune.com/blogs/oldnews/archives/92 | accessdate = 2008-04-03
*cite book |last=Zeigler |first=Joseph Wesley |title=Regional Theatre : The Revolutionary Stage |year=1973 |publisher=University of Minnesota Press |location=Minneapolis | id=ISBN 0-8166-0675-7
* [http://www.guthrietheater.org Guthrie Theater web site]
* [http://millcity.pconline.com/Guthrie%20II/ Photos of the new Guthrie]
* [http://www.arcspace.com/architects/nouvel/guthrie/guthrie.html Building profile at arcspace.com]
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