Wicked (musical)


Wicked (musical)

Infobox Musical
name= Wicked


image_size= 188
caption= Broadway Poster
music= Stephen Schwartz
lyrics= Stephen Schwartz
book= Winnie Holzman
basis= Gregory Maguire's novel ""
productions= 2003 San Francisco tryout
2003 Broadway
2005 North American tour
2005 Chicago
2006 West End
2007 Los Angeles
2007 Tokyo
2007 Stuttgart
2008 Melbourne

awards= Drama Desk Outstanding Musical
Drama Desk Outstanding Book
Drama Desk Outstanding Lyrics
Grammy for Best Cast Album

"Wicked" is a musical with songs and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz and a book by Winnie Holzman. The story is based on the best-selling novel "" by Gregory Maguire, a parallel novel of L. Frank Baum's classic story "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" from the perspective of the witches of the Land of Oz.

"Wicked" tells the story of Elphaba, the future Wicked Witch of the West and her relationship with Glinda, the Good Witch of the North. Their friendship struggles through their opposing personalities and viewpoints, rivalry over the same love-interest, their reactions to the Wizard's corrupt government, and, ultimately, Elphaba's public fall from grace. The plot is set mostly before Dorothy's arrival from Kansas, and includes several references to well-known scenes and dialogue in the 1939 film "The Wizard of Oz".

The musical debuted on Broadway on October 30, 2003. It is produced by Universal Pictures and directed by Joe Mantello, with musical staging by Wayne Cilento. Its original stars were Idina Menzel as Elphaba, Kristin Chenoweth as Glinda, and Joel Grey as the Wizard.cite web|url=http://www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=13485 |title=Wicked |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=Internet Broadway Database ] Although the production received mixed reviews and was panned by "The New York Times", it has proved to be a favorite among patrons. The Broadway production's success spawned productions in Chicago, Los Angeles, London's West End, Tokyo, Melbourne, and Stuttgart, along with two North American tours that have visited over 30 cities in Canada and the United States. [cite web|url=http://www.wickedthemusicaltour.com/tour_cities.htm|title=Wicked cities|publisher=Wicked musical tour official website|accessdate=2007-11-09]

"Wicked" has broken box office records around the world, holding weekly-gross-takings records in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and London, and the record for biggest opening in the West End (£100,000 in the first hour on sale). [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=West End musical 'Wicked' launches with record-breaking sales | date=2006-03-07 | publisher= | url =http://www.wickedthemusical.co.uk/pressreleases/07-mar-06.php | work =WICKED The Musical - UK | pages = | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | language = ] The West End production has played to more than 1.4 million people, and the North American tour has been seen by over two million patrons. The show was nominated for ten 2004 Tony Awards, winning those for Best Actress, Scenic Design and Costume Design. It also won six Drama Desk Awards.

Development

Stephen Schwartz discovered the 1995 Maguire novel while on holiday and immediately realized its potential for dramatic adaptation. [cite web|url=http://www.musicalschwartz.com/recordings/bucchino.htm |title=John Bucchino and the Origins of Wicked |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=MusicalSchwartz.com ] Schwartz met Maguire in Connecticut in 1998 and persuaded him to release the rights for a stage production.cite web|url=http://www.wickedwestend.co.uk/articles-reviews/wicked-history.htm |title=Wicked - A Brief History |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=Wicked West End ]

Schwartz considered how best to condense the novel's complicated plot into a sensible script. To this end, he collaborated with Emmy Award-winning writer Winnie Holzman to develop the outline of the plot over the course of a year. [cite web|url=http://www.musicalschwartz.com/wicked-holzman.htm |title=Winnie Holzman - Wicked's bookwriter |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=MusicalSchwartz] While the draft followed Maguire's idea of retelling the story of the 1900 children's book from the perspective of its main villain, the storyline of the stage adaptation "goes far afield" from the novel. As Holzman observed in an interview with "Playbill", "It was [Maguire's] brilliant idea to take this hated figure and tell things from her point of view, and to have the two witches be roommates in college, but the way in which their friendship develops – and really the whole plot – is different onstage."cite news|first=Michael|last=Buckley|title=STAGE TO SCREENS: A Chat with Wicked Nominee and TV Veteran Winnie Holzman|date=2004-06-06|url=http://www.playbill.com/features/article/86583.html|work=Playbill|accessdate=2007-11-08] Schwartz justified the deviation, saying "Primarily we were interested in the relationship between Galinda – who becomes Glinda – and Elphaba...the friendship of these two women and how their characters lead them to completely different destinies."cite web|url=http://www.musicalschwartz.com/wicked-script.htm |title=Wicked - Script |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=MusicalSchwartz.com ] In addition to this change in focus, changes include Fiyero's appearance as the scarecrow, Elphaba's survival at the end, Nessarose's being wheelchair-bound instead of armless, and Doctor Dillamond not being murdered.cite book | author=Gregory Maguire | title=Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West|publisher=ReganBooks| year=1995|id=ISBN 0-0603-9144-8 ]

The book, lyrics, and score for the musical were developed through a series of readings. For these developmental workshops, Kristin Chenoweth, the Tony Award-winning actress whom Stephen Schwartz had in mind while composing the music for the character,cite book | author=David Cote | title=Wicked: The Grimmerie: A Behind-the-Scenes Look at the Hit Broadway Musical|publisher=Hyperion| year=2005|id=ISBN 1-4013-0820-1 ] joined the project as Glinda. Stephanie J. Block read the role of Elphaba before Idina Menzel was cast in the role in 2001. In early 2000, the creators recruited David Stone, the New York producer, to begin the transition to a full Broadway production. Joe Mantello was brought in as director, and by April 2003 he had assembled a full cast, and the show was prepared for a public production.

Tryout and Broadway production

On May 28, 2003, "Wicked" opened for a pre-Broadway tryout at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco. [cite news|url=http://bestof.sfweekly.com/2003-05-28/calendar/witchy-ways/|accessdate=2007-11-19|date=2003-05-28|title=Witchy Ways|publisher=San Francisco Weekly|first=Karen|last=Macklin] The cast included Kristin Chenoweth as Glinda, Idina Menzel as Elphaba, Robert Morse as the Wizard, Norbert Leo Butz as Fiyero and Carole Shelley as Madame Morrible. Stephanie J. Block also served as an ensemble member and understudy for Elphaba, while Laura Bell Bundy was understudy for Glinda. [cite web|url=http://www.broadway.com/gen/Buzz_Star_File.aspx?ci=35400 |title=Stephanie J. Block, Star File |accessdate=2007-11-09 |work=Broadway.com ] The musical staging was created by Wayne Cilento. Tony Award-winning designer Eugene Lee created a set and visual style for the production based on both W. W. Denslow's original illustrations for Baum's novels and Maguire's concept of the story being told through a giant clock. Costume designer Susan Hilferty created a "twisted Edwardian" style through more than 200 costumes, while lighting designer Kenneth Posner used more than 800 individual lights to give each of the 54 distinct scenes and locations "its own mood." The trial run closed on June 29 and extensive retooling for Broadway began. Elements of the book were rewritten and several songs underwent minor transformations. One song from the pre-Broadway version was scrapped before the musical opened on Broadway. Entitled "Which Way Is The Party?” it was replaced by "Dancing Through Life"; each was used to introduce the character Fiyero.

The Broadway production began previews at the George Gershwin Theatre on October 8, 2003, and officially opened on October 30. Most of the production team and original cast members remained when the show opened on Broadway, but Morse was replaced by Joel Grey, who was billed over the title. Other notable actors who have performed in the Broadway production of Wicked include, Jennifer Laura Thompson, Megan Hilty, Kate Reinders, Kendra Kassebaum, and Annaleigh Ashford as Glinda; Shoshana Bean, Eden Espinosa, Ana Gasteyer, Julia Murney, Stephanie J. Block, and Kerry Ellis as Elphaba; Taye Diggs, Joey McIntyre, David Ayers, Sebastian Arcelus as Fiyero; George Hearn, Ben Vereen, David Garrison, and Lenny Wolpe as The Wizard; Michelle Federer and Jenna Leigh Green as Nessarose; Christopher Fitzgerald, Randy Harrison, and Robb Sapp as Boq; Rue McClanahan, Carol Kane, Jayne Houdyshell, and Miriam Margolyes as Madame Morrible, and William Youmans, Sean McCourt, and Timothy Britten Parker as Doctor Dillamond.

ynopsis

Act I

The citizens of Oz celebrate the death of the Wicked Witch of the West. Glinda descends in her bubble to confirm the circumstances of the Witch's melting ("No One Mourns the Wicked").

The scene then shifts to the birth, years earlier, of the green-skinned Elphaba Thropp. Elphaba suffers an unhappy childhood, facing discrimination because of her skin color and only being raised by her father. At Shiz University, Galinda first encounters Elphaba ("Dear Old Shiz"). In a moment of anger, as she is told that she will be rooming with the spoiled and popular Galinda, Elphaba accidentally reveals an innate magical talent. This impresses Madame Morrible, the headmistress of Shiz, who notes that Elphaba's talents may be of use to the Wizard of Oz. ("The Wizard And I") Galinda is horrified, and takes an immediate dislike to Elphaba. Elphaba also dislikes Galinda, and they each lament that they have no choice but to room together ("What Is This Feeling?").

Doctor Dillamond, a Goat and Shiz University's only Animal professor, is teaching history class when it is interrupted by an anti-Animal slogan on the back of his blackboard, apparently written in blood: "Animals should be seen not heard." After dismissing the class, he confides in Elphaba that something is causing the Animals of Oz to lose their powers of speech ("Something Bad"). Fiyero, a prince, arrives at Shiz and immediately impresses his own brand of cavalier, carefree living on the students ("Dancing Through Life").

Fiyero organizes a party at a local ballroom. Galinda, while preparing for the dance, discovers a black pointed hat in a box and gives it to Elphaba as a 'present'. Galinda convinces a munchkin student named Boq to take Nessarose (Elphaba's wheelchair-bound sister) to the party, more to avoid unwanted attention from Boq than out of a desire to be kind. Nessarose has a crush on Boq and is so overjoyed to be invited that she asks Elphaba if there is any way to repay what she perceives as Galinda's kindness. At the dance, Galinda is surprised by the appearance of Madame Morrible, who gives her a training wand and tells her that Elphaba has insisted she be included in the sorcery seminar. Clearly, despite apparent misgivings, Elphaba has done as her sister requested and found something nice to do for Galinda. Elphaba arrives wearing the hat Galinda had given her, only to be ridiculed. Defiant, she proceeds to dance alone and without musical accompaniment. Fiyero is impressed that Elphaba does not seem to care what anyone thinks of her, but Galinda realizes that this is not true. Feeling guilty, she joins Elphaba on the dance floor, marking the start of a new friendship between the two. After the dance, Galinda and Elphaba talk in their room. Elphaba confides that her father hates her because of her green skin and had forced her mother to eat milk flowers to ensure that Nessarose was not born the same, causing Nessarose to be born early, crippling her and killing their mother. Galinda comforts Elphaba, and, moved by a desire to help her new friend, Galinda decides to give Elphaba a makeover and to make her popular ("Popular").

The next day, Ozian officials take Doctor Dillamond away. The new history teacher arrives with a frightened lion cub in a cage, revealing that Animals that are kept in cages will never learn to speak. Outraged, Elphaba casts a spell over the whole class except for Fiyero, and together they steal the cub and set it free. There is a hint of chemistry between the pair, but Fiyero leaves, embarrassed. It begins raining, and Elphaba takes refuge under a bridge and regrets that it would be impossible for someone like Fiyero to love someone like her ("I'm Not That Girl"). Madame Morrible finds Elphaba and announces that she has been granted an audience with the Wizard. At the train station, Galinda and Fiyero see Elphaba off to the Emerald City. Galinda complains to Elphaba privately that Fiyero's affections toward her seem to be waning. Fiyero has brought flowers for Elphaba as a going away present, and seems to be more interested in her than he is in Galinda. In an attempt to impress Fiyero, Galinda announces that she will change her name to "Glinda" in honor of Doctor Dillamond's persistent mispronunciation. Fiyero does not appear to notice and, feeling bad for Glinda, Elphaba invites her along to see the Wizard.

After a day of sightseeing in the Emerald City ("One Short Day"), Elphaba and Glinda meet the Wizard. Eschewing special effects, which he employs for the benefit of most visitors, he invites Elphaba to join him ("Sentimental Man"). As a test, he asks that Elphaba give his Monkey servant, Chistery, the ability to fly using the "Grimmerie", an ancient book of spells. Elphaba demonstrates an innate understanding of the lost language and successfully gives Chistery wings. The Wizard reveals an entire cage full of monkeys who now also have wings because of Elphaba's spell, and remarks that they will make good spies to report any subversive Animal activity. Realizing that she has been used and that the Wizard has no power of his own, Elphaba runs away with the "Grimmerie", pursued by the palace guards.

listen|filename=Defying gravity.ogg|title=Defying Gravity|description=The bridge section of Defying Gravity from Act I finale.
Elphaba and Glinda run into the tallest tower, where they hear Madame Morrible declaring to all of Oz that Elphaba is a "Wicked Witch" and is not to be trusted. Falling to the floor, Elphaba enchants a broomstick to fly and tries to convince Glinda to join her in her cause, but Glinda cannot resist the call of popularity and refuses. Leaving Glinda behind, Elphaba promises to fight the Wizard with all her power. When the guards find them in the tower, not seeing Elphaba yet, they run after Glinda. When Elphaba announces it is her that they want, she rises from the stage (knocking over the guards in the process). All of the Ozians see Elphaba levitating and are finally convinced that she is, in fact, a wicked witch. ("Defying Gravity").

Act II

Time passes, and Elphaba's exploits have earned her the title "The Wicked Witch of the West" ("No One Mourns the Wicked (Reprise)"). Glinda and Morrible hold a press conference to announce Glinda's surprise engagement to Fiyero ("Thank Goodness"). Meanwhile, Elphaba arrives at the governor's residence in Munchkinland seeking refuge. Nessarose, now the governor following their father's suicide, criticizes Elphaba for not using magic to help her to overcome her disability. To assuage her feelings of guilt, Elphaba enchants Nessarose's jeweled shoes, enabling her to walk. Boq, who is now Nessarose's servant, is summoned and reveals that his affection for Nessarose was put on and that his heart lies with Glinda. Furious, Nessarose miscasts a spell from the "Grimmerie", causing Boq's heart to shrink. While Elphaba attempts to save him, Nessarose reflects on how her obsession with Boq has led her to oppress the Munchkin people ("The Wicked Witch of the East"). Elphaba saves Boq by turning him into the Tin Man – horrified, Nessarose lays the blame on Elphaba, which because of all the Wizard and Madame Morrible's propaganda, Boq believes without question.

Elphaba returns to the Wizard's palace to free the rest of the winged monkeys. The Wizard attempts to regain her favor by agreeing to set them free ("Wonderful"). Upon discovering a now-speechless Doctor Dillamond among the monkeys, Elphaba rejects his offer and attempts to escape, running into Fiyero in the process. Confirming his true love for Elphaba, he runs off with her. Glinda sees this and is crestfallen that she has been betrayed by those closest to her ("I'm Not That Girl (Reprise)"). In an attempt to finally capture Elphaba, Madame Morrible decides to create a cyclone that will endanger Nessarose.

listen|filename=As long as you're mine.ogg|title=As Long As You're Mine|description=The introduction and first two lines of "As Long As You're Mine". Note the identical chord progression to the .
In a dark forest, Fiyero and Elphaba express their mutual love ("As Long As You're Mine") but are interrupted when Elphaba senses that her sister is in danger. She flies off to help but is too late, arriving just after Dorothy's house has landed on Nessarose, killing her. The palace guards capture Elphaba, but Fiyero intervenes and tells them to "Let the green girl go!" allowing Elphaba to escape before surrendering himself. The guards take him to a nearby cornfield to be tortured until he tells them where Elphaba has fled. At one of Fiyero's family's castles, Elphaba tries to cast a spell to save Fiyero's life but, thinking she has failed, she begins to accept her reputation as "wicked" ("No Good Deed").

Meanwhile, Boq and the citizens of Oz prepare a witch-hunt ("March of the Witch Hunters"). Boq claims that Elphaba turned him into the Tin Woodman as an act of evil, as he does not know that she saved him. The lion cub that Elphaba freed at Shiz is also at the gathering and turns out to be the "Cowardly" Lion. Boq tells the citizens that because Elphaba fought the lion's fights for him, he never learned to fend for himself, the lion has no courage; again, Elphaba's good deed is lost amongst the crowd. Seeing the witch-hunt and realizing Nessa's death was no accident, Glinda travels to Elphaba and Fiyero's castle to persuade her to let Dorothy go, but she refuses. She does, however, start to talk peacefully with Glinda and starts treating her like a friend again. Elphaba makes Glinda promise not to clear her name and to take charge in Oz. She agrees, and the two confirm a true friendship ("For Good"). As the mob arrives at the castle, Dorothy throws a bucket of water on Elphaba, apparently melting her. It is revealed that the Wizard is actually Elphaba's father. Glinda tells the Wizard to leave Oz in his balloon, and sends Morrible to prison, before preparing to address the citizens of Oz, returning to the opening scene of the show.

Meanwhile, Fiyero, whom Elphaba had turned into the Scarecrow with her spell to prevent his suffering from the torture, opens a trap door in the castle. Elphaba, very much alive, emerges, and the two are reunited. However, Fiyero tells Elphaba that if the two of them want to be safe, they must leave Oz forever. Elphaba agrees, but first, she says that she wants Glinda to know that she is indeed alive. However, Fiyero insists that nobody can ever know. Glinda addresses the citizens of Oz, proclaiming that she would like to be "Glinda the Good" as she will reform the government. Elphaba and Fiyero leave Oz forever, as Glinda celebrates with the citizens of Oz ("Finale").

Principal roles

Music

listen|filename=Wicked overture.ogg|title="Wicked" Overture/No One Mourns the Wicked|description=The first 22 bars of the Act I Overture/No One Mourns the Wicked.
The score of "Wicked" is heavily thematic, bearing in some senses more resemblance to a film score than a musical's score. While many musicals' scores develop new motifs and melodies for each song with little overlap, Schwartz integrated a handful of leitmotifs throughout the production. Some of these motifs indicate irony – for example, when Galinda presents Elphaba with a "ghastly" hat in "Dancing Through Life", the score reprises a theme from "What is this Feeling?" a few scenes earlier, in which Elphaba and Glinda had espoused their mutual loathing.

Two musical themes in "Wicked" run throughout the score. Although Schwartz rarely reuses motifs or melodies from earlier works,cite web|url=http://www.musicalschwartz.com/wicked-musical-themes.htm |title=Wicked - Musical Themes |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=MusicalSchwartz.com ] the first – Elphaba's theme – came from "The Survival of St. Joan", on which he worked as musical director. "I always liked this tune a lot and I never could figure out what to do with it," he remarked in an interview in 2004. The chord progression that he first penned in 1971 became a major theme of the show's orchestration. By changing the instruments that carry the motif in each instance, Schwartz enables the same melody to convey different moods. In the overture, the tune is carried by the orchestra's brass section, with heavy percussion. The result is, in Schwartz' own words, "like a giant shadow terrorising you". When played by the piano with some electric bass in "As Long As You're Mine", however, the same chord progression becomes the basis for a romantic duet. And with new lyrics and an altered bridge, the theme forms the core of the song "No One Mourns the Wicked" and its reprises.

Schwartz uses the "Unlimited" theme as the second major motif running through the score. Although not included as a titled song, the theme appears as an interlude in several of the musical numbers. In a tribute to Harold Arlen, who wrote the score for the 1939 film adaptation, the "Unlimited" melody incorporates the first seven notes of the song "Over the Rainbow." Schwartz included it as an inside joke as, "according to copyright law, when you get to the eighth note, then people can come and say, 'Oh you stole our tune.' And of course obviously it's also disguised in that it's completely different rhythmically. And it's also harmonized completely differently.... It's over a different chord and so on, but still it's the first seven notes of 'Somewhere Over the Rainbow'". Schwartz further obscured the motif's origin by setting it in a minor key in most instances. This also creates contrast in the songs in which it forms a part, for example in "Defying Gravity", which is written primarily in the key of D-flat major. [cite web|url=http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/scorch.asp?ppn=SC0009049 |title=Defying Gravity |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=Musicnotes.com ] In "The Wicked Witch of the East", however, when Elphaba finally uses her powers to let her sister walk, the "Unlimited" theme is played in a major key.

Musical numbers

;Act I
*No One Mourns the WickedGlinda, Father, Mother, Midwife, and the citizens of Oz
*Dear Old Shiz – Glinda, and the students of Shiz University
*The Wizard and I – Madame Morrible and Elphaba
*What Is This Feeling? – Galinda, Elphaba and the students of Shiz University
*Something Bad – Dr. Dillamond and Elphaba
*Dancing Through Life – Fiyero, Galinda, Boq, Nessarose, Elphaba, and the students of Shiz University
*PopularGlinda
*I'm Not That Girl – Elphaba
*The Wizard and I (Reprise) – Elphaba and Madame Morrible
*One Short Day – Elphaba, Glinda and citizens of the Emerald City
*A Sentimental Man – The Wizard
*Defying GravityElphaba, Glinda and the citizens of Oz;Act II
*No One Mourns the Wicked (Reprise) – The citizens of Oz
*Thank Goodness – Glinda, Madame Morrible, and the citizens of Oz
*The Wicked Witch of the East – Nessarose, Elphaba and Boq
*Wonderful – The Wizard and Elphaba
*I'm Not That Girl (Reprise) – Glinda
*As Long As You're MineElphaba and Fiyero
*No Good DeedElphaba
*March of the Witch Hunters – Tin Man and the citizens of Oz
*For GoodElphaba and Glinda
*Finale – Glinda, Elphaba, and the citizens of Oz

Response

Critical reception

The Broadway production opened on October 30, 2003, to mixed reviews from theatre critics. [cite web|url=http://www.newyorktheatreguide.com/reviews/wicked03.htm |title=Wicked reviews |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=New York Theatre Guide ] [cite web|url=http://www.talkinbroadway.com/world/Wicked.html |title=Wicked |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=Talkin' Broadway ] While Menzel and Chenoweth received nearly unanimous praise for their performances as Elphaba and Glinda, the plot was derided as "muddled", and the sound quality in the massive Gershwin Theatre as "smearing". [cite news |first=Charles |last=Isherwood |title=Wicked Review |date=2003-10-30 |publisher= | url=http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117922308.html?categoryid=33&cs=1 |work =Variety |accessdate = 2007-11-08] [cite news |first=Linda |last=Winer |title=Broadway Review: "Wicked" |date=2003-10-31 |publisher= |url =http://www.newsday.com/entertainment/stage/ny-wicked,0,4957916.story |work =Newsday |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] Despite these mixed reviews, interest in "Wicked" spread quickly by word-of-mouth, leading to record-breaking success at the box office, as described below. Speaking to "The Arizona Republic" in 2006, Schwartz commented, "What can I say? Reviews are reviews... I know we divided the critics. We didn't divide the audience [though] , and that's what counts."cite news|publisher=The Arizona Republic|url=http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/ae/articles/0820wicked0820history.html|accessdate=2007-11-11|date=2006-08-20|title=The little musical that could A critical flop, 'Wicked' sets box-office records|first=Kyle|last=Lawson]

The West End production opened to a similarly ambivalent, if slightly more upbeat, critical reception. Although "The Daily Telegraph" described it as "at times... a bit of a mess," it praised Holzman's script, described Kenneth Posner's lighting design as "magical" and lauded Menzel and Helen Dallimore (as Glinda). [cite news |first=Charles |last=Spencer |title=Flawed, but witches' spell still works |date=2006-09-28 |publisher= |url =http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2006/09/28/btwicked28.xml |work =Daily Telegraph |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] "The Guardian" gave it three out of five stars and remarked on the competence of all the lead actors; however, it also complained that "Wicked" was "all too typical of the modern Broadway musical: efficient, knowing and highly professional but more like a piece of industrial product than something that genuinely touches the heart or mind". [cite news |first=Michael |last=Billington |title=Wicked: the musical |date=2006-09-28 |publisher= |url =http://arts.guardian.co.uk/critic/review/0,,1882699,00.html |work=The Guardian|pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08]

Awards

"Wicked" was nominated for ten of the 2004 Tony Awards, including Best Musical, Best Book, Best Orchestration and twice for Best Leading Actress, for Menzel and Chenoweth. [cite web|url=http://www.broadwayworld.com/tonyawardsyear.cfm?year=2004 |title=2004 Tony Awards |accessdate=2007-11-08 |work=BroadwayWorld.com ] Menzel won the Best Actress award, and the show also won the Tony Awards for Best Scenic Design and Best Costume design, although it lost the Best Musical award to "Avenue Q". [cite news | first= | last= |title=Tony Awards 2004: The winners |date=2004-06-07 |publisher= |url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/3782663.stm |work =BBC News |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] In the same year, the show won six Drama Desk Awards out of eleven nominations, including in the Book, Director and Costume Design categories. [cite news |first= |last= |title='wicked' This Way Comes 6 Drama Desk Award Wins | date=2004-05-18 |publisher= | url =http://www.allbusiness.com/services/motion-pictures/4937492-1.html |work =The Hollywood Reporter |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] [cite web|url=http://www.dramadesk.com/2003_2004dd.htm|publisher=Drama Desk Awards|accessdate=2007-11-09|title=2007 Drama Desk Award Winners] The West End production was nominated for four Laurence Olivier Awards in 2007 but did not win any. [cite news |first= |last= |title=Nominations announced for 2007 Laurence Olivier Awards |date=2007-01-18 |publisher=Society of London Theatre |url =http://www.officiallondontheatre.co.uk/news/display/cm/contentId/92392 |work = |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08]

Financial success

With a $14 million capitalization, the Broadway production earned back its entire initial investment by December 21, 2004. In its first year it grossed more than $56 million.cite web|url=http://www.wicked-on-broadway.com/ |accessdate=2007-11-08 |title=Wicked on Broadway ] The production, which was recently extended to September 27, 2008, [cite web|url=http://www.wickedthemusical.co.uk/pressreleases/07-sept-07.php|accessdate=2008-05-14|title=Press release|publisher=Broadway official site] has been playing to capacity crowds for almost every recent performance and grosses more than a million dollars every week according to reports published by "Playbill". [cite news |first=Andrew |last=Ku |title=Broadway Grosses |date=2007-11-05 |publisher= |url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/112527.html |work =Playbill |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] In the week ending January 1, 2006, "Wicked" broke the record, previously held by "The Producers", for the highest weekly box office gross in Broadway history, earning $1,610,934. [cite news |first= |last= |title=Wicked Has Highest Box Office Gross for Any Show in History - $1,610,934 |date=2006-01-03 |publisher= |url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=6615 |work =BroadwayWorld.com |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] "Wicked" broke its own record in the week ending November 26, 2006, when it grossed a total of $1,715,155. [cite news |first= |last= |title=Wicked Smashes Broadway Weekly Box Office Record |date=2006-11-27 |publisher= |url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=14009 |work =BroadwayWorld.com |pages = |accessdate=2007-11-08] The Broadway production broke its own record again in the week ending December 30, 2007, grossing $1,839,950. That week the show also broke its own weekly gross records in Los Angeles ($1,949,968), Chicago ($1,418,363), and on tour ($2,291,608), as the seven worldwide productions of the show grossed a collective $11.2 million. [cite news |first= |last= |title=Wicked Smashes Records, Earning $11.2 Million in One Week |date=2008-01-02 |publisher= |url =http://www.broadway.com/gen/Buzz_Story.aspx?ci=558627 |work =Broadway.com |pages = |accessdate = 2008-01-04]

The Broadway company of "Wicked" celebrated its 1,000th performance on March 23, 2006. [cite news |first= |last= |title=Wicked Flies to 1,000th Broadway Performance, March 23 |date=2006-03-16 |publisher= |url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=8293 |work =BroadwayWorld.com |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] The touring company reached 1,000 performances on August 15, 2007,cite news |first=Andrew |last=Gans |coauthors= |title=Wicked Tour Celebrates 1,000th Performance Aug. 15 |date=2007-08-15 |publisher= |url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/110308.html |work =Playbill Online |pages = |accessdate = 2008-02-12] while the Chicago company celebrated its 1,000th show on November 14, 2007.cite news |first= |last= |title=Wicked Hits 1000th Chicago Performance Nov.14 |date=2007-11-07 |publisher= |url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=22809 |work =BroadwayWorld.com |pages = |accessdate = 2008-01-04]

Although West End theatres do not publish audited weekly grosses, [cite news |first=Mark |last=Shenton |title=Spinning the grosses… and spinning the gossip |date=2006-10-31 |publisher= |url =http://www.thestage.co.uk/shenton/2006/10/spinning_the_grosses_and_spinning_t.php |work =The Stage |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] the London production of "Wicked" claims to hold the record for highest reported one-week gross at £761,000, achieved in the week ending December 30, 2006. [cite news |first= |last= |coauthors= |title=Wicked 'sets record' for West End |date=2006-10-31 |publisher= |url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6102128.stm |work =BBC News |pages = |accessdate = 2007-11-08] cite news |first= |last= |title=Harriet Thorpe in Morrible in West End Wicked April 14|date=2008-02-20 |publisher= |url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=25304 |work =Wicked The Musical (UK) |pages = |accessdate = 2008-04-01] On June 23, 2008, the producers reported that over 1.4 million people had seen the London production since its opening, grossing over £50 million. [cite web|url=http://www.wickedthemusical.co.uk/readnews.asp?id=14wkd|title=The hit musical "Wicked" reaches £50 million gross and continues to break records|accessdate=2008-07-03|publisher=West End production official site|date=2008-06-23] The show has consistently been one of the two highest-grossing shows in the West End.

Popular culture

The extraordinary success of "Wicked" has made several of the songs popular and engendered references to the show, characters, and songs in popular culture. Media as diverse as the anime series "Red Garden", the daytime drama "Passions" and the "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" graphic novels have all parodied "Wicked's" songs and characters. [cite episode |title = At Every Window |episodelink = List of Red Garden episodes |series = Red Garden |serieslink = Red Garden |airdate = 2006-10-31 |season = 1 |number = 5] [Comic book reference |writer=Whedon, Joss |penciller=Jeanty, Georges |inker=Owens, Andy |story=Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight |title=The Long Way Home |volume=3 |issue=1 |date=2007-05-21 |publisher=Dark Horse Comics] The production itself has been featured in episodes of television programs, including "Brothers & Sisters" and "The War at Home". [cite episode|title=Matriarchy|series=Brothers & Sisters|serieslink=Brothers & Sisters (2006 TV series)|airdate=2007-05-20|season=1|number=23] In an episode of "Ugly Betty" ("Brothers"), Betty gets tickets to see "Wicked", discussing with a friend how much she relates to Elphaba's outcast status in a popularity and beauty-oriented environment. [cite episode |title = Brothers |episodelink = Brothers (Ugly Betty episode) |series = Ugly Betty |serieslink = Ugly Betty |airdate = 2007-02-08 |season = 1 |number = 15] In a later episode ("Something Wicked This Way Comes"), Betty goes to see "Wicked" on a date and accidentally stops the show. [cite episode |title = Something Wicked This Way Comes |episodelink = Something Wicked This Way Comes (Ugly Betty) |series = Ugly Betty |serieslink = Ugly Betty |airdate = 2007-11-01 |season = 2 |number = 6] Although Betty attends the Broadway production, the episode is shot primarily in Los Angeles: the Pantages Theatre in Hollywood doubled for the Gershwin Theatre for filming purposes. [cite news |title=A “Wicked” Ugly Betty Episode |date=2007-11-01 |url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=22576 |work = BroadwayWorld TV |accessdate = 2007-11-05] On the March 8, 2008 episode of "Saturday Night Live", Amy Adams and Kristen Wiig kicked off the episode singing the song "What Is This Feeling?" In the episode of "The Dinner Party" on The Office, Michael and Jan are arguing. Michael screams, "When I wanted to see 'Stomp' and you wanted to see 'Wicked,' what did we go see?" Jan meekly replies, "We saw 'Wicked.'"The musician and actor John Barrowman has been singing a version of "The Wizard And I" on his 2008 UK tour, with adapted lyrics referring to his Doctor Who and Torchwood character Jack's affection for The Doctor.

"Behind the Emerald Curtain"

The success of the Broadway production has led to the development of an auxiliary show, "Behind the Emerald Curtain". Created by Sean McCourt and Anthony Galde, two members of the original Broadway ensemble, the show features a sixty minute behind-the-scenes tour of the props, masks, costumes and sets, led by cast members, who also take part in a question-and-answer session. [cite web |url=http://www.broadwayinchicago.com/shows_dyn.php?cmd=display_current&display_showtag=emeraldcurtain07 |title=Behind the Emerald Curtain |accessdate=2008-01-11 |publisher=Broadway in Chicago] "Behind the Emerald Curtain" accompanies the productions on Broadway, in Chicago, and Los Angeles. [cite web|url=http://www.emeraldcurtain.com/WhatIs.html |title=What Is |accessdate=2008-02-22 |work=Behind the Emerald Curtain ]

Other productions

;North American tour"Wicked" launched its first national tour in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in March, 2005. Since then it has visited numerous cities throughout North America. The original touring cast included Kendra Kassebaum as Glinda, Stephanie J. Block as Elphaba, Derrick Williams as Fiyero, Jenna Leigh Green as Nessarose, Carol Kane as Madame Morrible, Timothy Britten Parker as Doctor Dillamond, Logan Lipton as Boq and David Garrison as the Wizard. Notable replacements have included Kristy Cates, Julia Murney, Shoshana Bean, and Victoria Matlock as Elphaba; Megan Hilty and Katie Rose Clarke as Glinda; Sebastian Arcelus and Cliffton Hall as Fiyero; Carole Shelley and Alma Cuervo as Madame Morrible; Lenny Wolpe as the Wizard; and Deedee Magno as Nessarose.

Over 2.2 million people saw the touring production in its first two years, and it grossed over $155 million.cite web|url=http://www.talkinbroadway.com/regional/dallas/dallas152.html|accessdate=2007-11-09|title=Wicked|publisher=Talkin' Broadway] The tour has played to capacity crowds on almost every performance, with tickets for four-week engagements selling out in as little as seven hours. The touring company celebrated its 1,000th performance on August 15, 2007 in Philadelphia. In the week ending December 30, 2007 the production took in $2,291,608 in St Louis, Missouri, the highest weekly gross in North American touring history.cite web|url=http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=24007 |title='Wicked' Shatters Box Office Records Worldwide]

;2005 Chicago productionThe first non-Broadway sit-down production of "Wicked" opened in Chicago, Illinois at the Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre on July 13, 2005. In its first week, the show grossed $1,400,000. It has continued to set records, becoming the longest running Broadway musical in Chicago history, and is considered a key part of the booming Chicago theatre scene. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Wicked now longest-running musical in Chicago history | date=2007-06-21 | publisher= | url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=19445 | work =BroadwayWorld.com | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-09 | language = ] The limited engagement from April 29 to June 12 2005 with the original touring cast was extended to an open-ended run. [cite web|url=http://www.playbill.com/news/article/91888.html|title=Wicked to Have Open-Ended Chicago Run|accessdate=2008-01-11|date=2005-03-23|author=Gans, Andrew|publisher=Playbill, Inc.]

During the Chicago run, the 2005 touring cast has been gradually replaced by local actors.cite web|url=http://aislesay.com/CHI-WICKED.html|title=WICKED|accessdate=2008-01-11|author=Kleiman, Kelly|publisher=AISLE SAY Chicago] The original Chicago cast included Ana Gasteyer as Elphaba, Kate Reinders as Glinda, Rondi Reed as Madame Morrible, Kristoffer Cusick as Fiyero, Heidi Kettenring as Nessarose and Gene Weygandt as the Wizard of Oz. Notable Chicago cast replacements have included Kristy Cates, Dee Roscioli, and Lisa Brescia as Elphaba; Erin Mackey, Kate Fahrner, and Annaleigh Ashford as Glinda; Ben Vereen and David Garrison as the Wizard; Brad Bass as Fiyero; Timothy Britten Parker and William Youmans as Doctor Dillamond; and Carole Shelley and Barbara Robertson as Madame Morrible.

During the 2007 Christmas holiday season, the production broke its own Chicago box office record with a gross $1,418,363.24 for the week ending December 30, 2007. [cite web|url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/stage/chi-0103wicked_personalsjan03,1,2305646.story?track=rss&ctrack=1&cset=true|title=It's a wicked good week|accessdate=2008-01-11|date=2008-01-03|publisher=Chicago Tribune|author=George, Doug] Producer David Stone commented on the unanticipated success of the production in Variety magazine, saying "To be honest, we thought it would run 18 months, then we'd spend a year in Los Angeles and six months in San Francisco... but sales stayed so strong that the producers created another road show and kept the show running in Chicago." [cite news | first=Steven | last=Oxman | coauthors= | title=Touring shows stay in the loop: Broadway in Chicago boost economy | date=2007-01-22 | publisher= | url =http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117957779.html?categoryid=15&cs=1 | work =Variety | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-08 | language = ] The Chicago production played its 1,000th performance on November 14, 2007.cite web|url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/stage/chi-1114_wickednov14,1,2849404.story|accessdate=2007-11-17|title='Wicked' actor ready for 1,000 more shows|publisher=Chicago Tribune|author=Carter, Kelley L.] "Wicked" has now played to more than 2 million visitors in Chicago with a gross of over $200 million, making it the highest grossing show in Chicago history by June 2007. [cite web|url=http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=19445|title= Wicked Now Longest-Running Musical in Chicago History|publisher=Wisdom Digital Media|work=Broadwayworld.com|date=2007-06-21|accessdate=2007-01-11]

On May 20, 2008 it was announced that the production would close on January 25, 2009 after over 1,500 performances. [cite news | first=Andrew | last=Gans |title=Chicago's Wicked to Close in January 2009 |date=2008-05-20 |publisher= |url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/117955.html | work =Playbill | pages = | accessdate = 2008-05-20 | language = ]

;Original London West End productionThe first international production of "Wicked" previewed on September 7, 2006 at the Apollo Victoria Theatre in London's West End with an official opening of September 27, 2006. The West End production reunited the show's original creative team with its Tony Award-winning star, Idina Menzel. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Wicked rehearsals start | date=2006-07-31 | publisher=Society of London Theatre | url =http://www.officiallondontheatre.co.uk/news/display?contentId=90546 | work =Official London Theatre | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-08 | language = ] Other original London cast members included Australian Helen Dallimore as Glinda, Miriam Margolyes as Madame Morrible, Martin Ball as Doctor Dillamond, Adam Garcia as Fiyero, James Gillan as Boq, Katie Rowley Jones as Nessarose and Nigel Planer as the Wizard. Replacements have included Kerry Ellis and Alexia Khadime as Elphaba, Dianne Pilkington as Glinda, Oliver Tompsett as Fiyero, Susie Blake and Harriet Thorpe as Madame Morrible, and Desmond Barrit as the Wizard.

The production was slightly tailored for a British audience, including minor creative changes to dialogue, choreography, and special effects. In the same fashion as the modifications that were made for the US/Canada tour, most of these changes were later incorporated into all productions of "Wicked". [cite news | first=Andrew | last=Gans | coauthors= | title=DIVA TALK: Chatting with "Wicked" and "Rags" Star Eden Espinosa | date=2006-12-01 | publisher= | url =http://www.playbill.com/celebritybuzz/article/103926.html | work =Playbill | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-09 | language = ]

;2006 Universal Studios Japan (Osaka) mini-versionThe theme park Universal Studios Japan in Osaka, Japan presents a 30-minute theme park version of "Wicked", which began performances in July 2006. It focuses mainly on Elphaba and Glinda's relationship, but also includes the Wizard. Fiyero, Nessarose, Madame Morrible, and Doctor Dillimond are absent from the production. The production generally uses American and Australian actresses to play Elphaba, while Japanese actresses play Glinda. The show is performed four times a day, with several actresses sharing each role. This version is performed mostly in Japanese, with portions in English.cite news | first=Andrew | last=Gans | coauthors= | title=Full production of Wicked likely to open in Japan in 2007 | date=2006-07-24 | publisher= | url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/101022.html | work =Playbill | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-09 | language = ]

;2007 Los Angeles production"Wicked" launched its fifth open-ended production in Los Angeles, California at the Pantages Theatre. Performances began on February 10, 2007, with an official opening on February 21. All but two of the principals had previously performed their roles in another production – representatives from the Broadway, Chicago, and touring productions made up most of the original cast, with Eden Espinosa and Megan Hilty in the leads as Elphaba and Glinda, respectively. [cite web|url=http://www.wickedthemusical.com/#WickedCitiesLosAngelesCompany |title=Wicked Cities - Los Angeles |accessdate=2007-11-09 |work=Wicked The Musical ] Other original cast members included Carol Kane as Madame Morrible, Timothy Britten Parker as Doctor Dillamond, Jenna Leigh Green as Nessarose, Adam Wylie as Boq, Kristoffer Cusick as Fiyero, and John Rubinstein as the Wizard. Replacements have included Caissie Levy as Elphaba, Erin Mackey as Glinda, Jo Anne Worley as Madame Morrible, and David Garrison as The Wizard.

In the week ending on March 4, 2007, the show grossed $1,786,110 and became the highest-grossing attraction in Los Angeles theatre history, taking the record from "The Producers", which had set the record in June 2003 at the same theatre. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Wicked Breaks Los Angeles Box Office Records | date=2007-03-05 | publisher= | url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=16365 | work =BroadwayWorld.com | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-08 | language = ] In the week ended December 30, 2007, "Wicked" set a new box office record of $1,949,968 in Los Angeles. The Los Angeles production has so far been seen by over 1.5 million people and has grossed over $120 million. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Final Block of Tickets Goes On Sale 9/7 for LA Wicked | date=2008-09-02 | publisher= | url = http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=31798 | work =BroadwayWorld.com | pages = | accessdate = 2008-09-03 | language = ]

It was announced on April 1, 2008 that the production would close on January 11, 2009. The show will have played 791 performances and 12 previews. [cite news | first=Andrew | last=Gans | coauthors= | title=Los Angeles Wicked Will Close in January 2009 | date=2008-04-01 | publisher= | url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/116414.html | work =Playbill | pages = | accessdate = 2008-04-01 | language = ]

;2007-2008 international productions"Wicked" opened its first non-English production in Tokyo, Japan on June 17, 2007, with previews starting on June 15, 2007. Numao Miyuki and Hamada Megumi played Glinda and Elphaba in the original Tokyo production. The Shiki Theatre Company at the Dentsu Shiki Theatre "Umi" produces it. The production has a Japanese and Chinese cast and is performed entirely in Japanese.

"Wicked: Die Hexen von Oz" ("Wicked: The witches of Oz") premiered November 15, 2007, at the Palladium Theater in Stuttgart. Willemijn Verkaik and Lucy Scherer headline the production as Elphaba and Glinda, and Mark Seibert plays Fiyero. "Wicked" has become one of Germany's top musicals. [cite web|url=http://www.stage-entertainment.de/musicals/wicked-die-hexen-von-oz/wicked-die-hexen-von-oz.html |title=Wicked - die Hexen von Oz |accessdate=2007-11-09 |publisher=Stage Entertainment|language=German] A recording of this production was released on December 7, 2007.

;2008 Melbourne productionAn open-ended Australian production of "Wicked" officially opened on July 12, 2008, with previews commencing June 27, at the Regent Theatre in Melbourne, Australia. [cite news |title=Melbourne braces for a Wicked musical | date=2007-05-16 | publisher= | url =http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21741284-2702,00.html | work =The Australian | accessdate = 2007-11-08] [cite web|url=http://www.frontrowking.com/Wicked/wicked_musical.html|accessdate=2007-11-09|title=Wicked Musical|publisher=Front Row King] Australians Amanda Harrison and Lucy Durack play Elphaba and Glinda, respectively; they are joined Maggie Kirkpatrick as Madame Morrible, Rob Guest as The Wizard, Rob Mills as Fiyero, Anthony Callea as Boq, and Penny McNamee as Nessarose. [cite news | first=Andrew | last=Gans | coauthors= | title=Harrison, Durack, Guest, Mills, Callea and Kirkpatrick to Star in Australia's Wicked | date=2008-02-12 | publisher= | url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/115031.html | work =Playbill | pages = | accessdate = 2008-02-22 | language = ] The Australian production has also broken box-office records selling 24,750 tickets in just three hours during pre-sales, and grossing over $1.3 million worth in ticket sales on the first business day after its official opening. [http://www.wickedthemusical.com.au/wicked/News/assets/wicked_record%20groups.pdf] Rob Guest (the Wizard) died suddenly on October 2nd 2008 after suffering a major stroke a day previously. [http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,24434440-661,00.html] . Rodney Dobson (Doctor Dillamond) has been playing the Wizard since, with Anton Berezin (Elphaba's Father) taking over his role; producers have confirmed Dobson and Berezin will return to their original roles when a permanent replacement for Guest is cast.

;2009 San Francisco productionSHN, who allow Broadway shows to use their theatres in San Francisco, have confirmed that "Wicked", which did a trial run in San Francisco, will return to the Bay Area. It is scheduled to open on January 27, 2009 at the Orpheum Theatre. [cite news | first=Andrew | last=Gans | coauthors= | title=Wicked to Play Open-Ended Run in San Francisco | date=2008-04-09 | publisher= | url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/116634.html | work =Playbill | pages = | accessdate = 2008-04-09 | language = ]

;2009 North American tourA second tour of the United States and Canada is scheduled to begin on March 7, 2009 at the Barbara B. Mann Performing Arts Hall in Fort Myers, FL.

This tour will play until March 29 at the Florida venue, before travelling to Birmingham, Jacksonville, Norfolk, Indianapolis and Memphis. Additional cities and casting will be announced later. In a statement Wicked producer Marc Platt said, "Theatregoers across North America have embraced Wicked, creating an overwhelming demand for tickets and a wildly successful 1st North American tour. The upcoming launch of this second touring company will allow us to bring Wicked to markets which we have not yet been able to visit, as well as return to cities which have been asking for a second (or third) engagement". [cite web|url=http://www.playbill.com/news/article/118007.html|title=Playbill|publisher=Playbill.com|accessdate=2008-06-20]

Recordings

A cast recording of the original Broadway production was released on December 16, 2003, by Universal Music. All of the songs featured on stage are present on the recording with the exception of "The Wizard And I (Reprise)" and "The Wicked Witch of the East". The short reprise of "No One Mourns The Wicked" that opens Act II is attached to the beginning of "Thank Goodness".cite album-notes |title = Wicked |albumlink = Wicked (album) |bandname = Original Broadway Cast |year = 2003 |format = CD liner |publisher = Universal Music] The music was arranged by Stephen Oremus, who was also the conductor and director, and James Lynn Abbott, with orchestrations by William David Brohn. The recording received the Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album in 2005cite news |first=Kenneth |last=Jones | title=Wicked's Cast Album Wins Grammy Award |date=2005-02-13| publisher= |url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/91197.html |work =Playbill | accessdate = 2007-11-08] and was certified platinum by the RIAA on November 30, 2006. [cite news | first= | last= | title=WICKED Original Cast Recording Certified Platinum | date=2006-11-30 | publisher= | url =http://www.broadwayworld.com/viewcolumn.cfm?colid=14090 | work =BroadwayWorld.com |accessdate = 2007-11-08]

A German recording of the Stuttgart production was released on December 7, 2007, featuring a track listing and arrangements identical to those of the Broadway recording. [cite album-notes |title = Wicked: Die Hexen von Oz |albumlink = Wicked (album) |bandname = Ensemble Palladium Theater Stuttgart |year = 2007 |format = CD liner |publisher = Universal Music]

Although a London cast recording has been discussed, none has been recorded. It has also been noted that if a West End recording were to be released, Elphaba would be played by Kerry Ellis, rather than Idina Menzel who originated the part both on Broadway and in the West End. [cite news | title=Episode 37: Ball in our court | date=2007-06-26 | publisher= | url =http://www.musicaltalk.co.uk/episodes_0037.html | work =MusicalTalk | pages = | accessdate = 2008-01-09 | language = ]

The Japanese cast recording was released on July 23, 2008, featuring the Original Tokyo cast. [cite web
url= http://www.shiki.gr.jp/navi/003063.html
title= _ja. ミュージカル『ウィキッド』日本語版CD製作中!
accessdate= 2008-05-15
date= 2008-05-08
publisher= _ja. 劇団四季 (Shiki Theater Company)
language= ja
]

A fifth-anniversary special edition of the original Broadway soundtrack will be released on October 25, 2008, with a bonus CD featuring alternate versions of the songs, including tracks from the Japanese and German cast recordings, "I'm Not That Girl" by Kerry Ellis and Brian May, Menzel's dance mix of "Defying Gravity", and "For Good" sung by LeAnn Rimes and Delta Goodrem.cite news | first=Andrew | last=Gans | title=Anniversary Edition of Wicked CD to Feature Bonus Tracks by Rimes, Goodrem and Menzel | date=2008-09-26 | url =http://www.playbill.com/news/article/121808.html | work =Playbill | accessdate = 2008-09-28 ]

Notes

* – When capitalized, "Animal" is used throughout the musical and Maguire's novel to refer to talking creatures. When begun with a lower-case letter, "animal" refers to creatures that have lost or never had the power of speech. This capitalization applies for species as well as for the generic term; for instance, the book's character Doctor Dillamond is a Goat, being a goat with the ability of speech, while a goat would be the same as a non-fictional goat.

References

External links

*Official production sites
** [http://www.wickedthemusical.com/ North America (Broadway, National Tour, Chicago, Los Angeles)]
** [http://www.wickedthemusical.co.uk/ London West End]
** [http://www.shiki.gr.jp/applause/wicked/index.html Tokyo, Japan]
** [http://www.wicked-welt.de/ Stuttgart, Germany]
** [http://www.wickedthemusical.com.au Melbourne, Australia]
** [http://www.emeraldcurtain.com/ Behind the Emerald Curtain] behind-the-scenes tour
* at Wikia
*ibdb show|id=11169|title=Wicked
* [http://www.musicalschwartz.com/wicked.htm "Wicked"] at MusicalSchwartz.com, the official Stephen Schwartz fan site
* [http://www.musicalsandlyrics.com/wicked.htm "Wicked Lyrics"] at MusicalsAndLyrics.com
* [http://stageagent.com/Shows/View/846 "Wicked" casting information] at StageAgent.com
* [http://www.wikihow.com/wikiHow:Wicked-Obsessed Wicked Obsession Project]


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  • "Wicked, the musical" — Wicked (comédie musicale) Wicked Livret Winnie Holzman Lyrics Stephen Schwartz Musique Stephen Schwartz Mise en scène Joe Mantello Chorégraphie Wayne Cilento Décors Eugene Lee Costumes …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wicked (comedie musicale) — Wicked (comédie musicale) Wicked Livret Winnie Holzman Lyrics Stephen Schwartz Musique Stephen Schwartz Mise en scène Joe Mantello Chorégraphie Wayne Cilento Décors Eugene Lee Costumes …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wicked City — may refer to:* Wicked City (film), a 1987 Japanese anime * The Wicked City (1992 film), a live action adaptation of the anime * Wicked City (novel), a novel by Hideyuki Kikuchi, basis for the anime * Wicked City (1949 film) (French: Hans le marin …   Wikipedia

  • Wicked Game — Single par Chris Isaak extrait de l’album Heart Shaped World Face B Wicked Game (instrumental) Sortie 1989 Durée 4:06 Genre Soft rock …   Wikipédia en Français