- Hildegard of Bingen
Hildegard of Bingen ( _de. Hildegard von Bingen; _la. Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 –
17 September 1179), also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard, was a German abbess, artist, author, counselor, linguist, naturalist, scientist, philosopher, physician, herbalist, poet, visionaryand composer. Elected a "" in 1136, she founded the monasteries of Rupertsbergin 1150 and Eibingenin 1165.
She is the first composer with an extant biography. One of her works, the "
Ordo Virtutum", has been called the first form, and possibly the origin, of opera. [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary; alt Opera, with capitalization, see Florentine Camerata or municipality in the province of Milan, Italy.] [http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/opera.html and http://www.kitbraz.com/gen/rev/1998nytmirapaulHild.html]
She wrote theological, botanical and medicinal texts, as well as letters,
liturgicalsongs, poems, and the first surviving morality play, while supervising brilliant miniature Illuminations.
Hildegard was raised in a family of free nobles in the service of the counts of
Sponheim, close relatives of the Hohenstaufenemperors. She was the 10th child, sickly from birth. From the time she was very young, Hildegard wrote, she experienced visions. In fact, the only surviving tale of Hildegard's childhood involves a conversation she had with her nurse. Hildegard described an unborn calf as "white... marked with different colored spots on its forehead, feet and back." The nurse, amazed with the detail of the young child's account, told Hildegard's mother, who later rewarded her daughter with the calf, whose appearance Hildegard had accurately predicted. ["Hildegard of Bingen: A Visionary Life", Sabina Flanagan]
Perhaps due to Hildegard's visions, or as a method of political positioning, Hildegard's parents, Hildebert and Mechthilde, offered her as a
titheto the church at the age of eight. Hildegard was placed in the care of Jutta, the sister of Count Meinhard of Sponheim, just outside the Disibodenberg monastery in the Rhineland-Palatinateregion of what is now Germany. Jutta was enormously popular and acquired many followers, such that a small nunnery sprang up around her.
Upon Jutta's death in 1136, Hildegard was unanimously elected as "magistra," or leader of her sister community. The election would lead to the significant move, executed in the midst of great opposition, of 20 members of her community to her newly-formed monastery,
Saint Rupertsbergat Bingen on the Rhinein 1150, where Volmar served as provost.
Hildegard "became... reticent" regarding her visions, confiding only to
Jutta, who in turn told Volmar, Hildegard's tutor and, later, secretary and scribe. Throughout her life, she continued to have many visions, and in 1141, at the age of 42, Hildegard had what she believed to be an instruction from God, to "write down that which you see and hear." Hildegard, hesitant to record her visions, soon became physically ill. In her first theological text, "'Scivias", or "Know the Ways," Hildegard describes her struggle within:
I didn’t immediately follow this command. Self-doubt made me hesitate. I analyzed others’ opinions of my decision and sifted through my own bad opinions of myself. Finally, one day I discovered I was so sick I couldn’t get out of bed. Through this illness, God taught me to listen better. Then, when my good friends Richardis and Volmar urged me to write, I did. I started writing this book and received the strength to finish it, somehow, in ten years. These visions weren’t fabricated by my own imagination, nor are they anyone else’s. I saw these when I was in the heavenly places. They are God’s mysteries. These are God’s secrets. I wrote them down because a heavenly voice kept saying to me, 'See and speak! Hear and write!'
Hildegard's vivid description of the physical sensations which accompanied her visions have been diagnosed by neurologist (and popular author)
Oliver Sacksas symptoms of migraine. He details his studies in his book "Migraine".
vita" of Hildegard was written by two monks, Godfrid and Theodoric (PL vol. 197).
Attention in recent decades to women of the medieval church has led to a great deal of popular interest in Hildegard, particularly of her music. Approximately 80 compositions have survived, which is one of the largest repertoires among medieval composers.
Among her better known works, "
Ordo Virtutum", or "Play of the Virtues", is a morality play. It is an example of a rare and early oratoriofor women's voices, with one male part, that of the Devil, who, because of his corrupted nature, cannot sing. The oratorio was created, like much of Hildegard's music, for religious ceremonial performance by the nuns of her abbeys.
Hildegard's music is described as monophonic; that is, consisting of exactly one melodic line, designed for limited instrumental accompaniment and characterised by soaring soprano vocalisations. Hildegard is the first composer whose biography is known. [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/hildegarde.html Hildegard of Bingen ] ]
In addition to music, Hildegard also wrote medical, botanical and geological treatises. She also invented an alternative alphabet. The text of her writing and compositions reveals Hildegard's use of this form of modified medieval
Latin, encompassing many invented, conflated and abridged words. Due to her inventions of words for her lyrics and a constructed script, many conlangers look upon her as a medieval precursor.
Accounts of Hildegard's visions were compiled into three books. The first, "
Scivias" ("Know the Way"), was completed in 1151. " Liber vitae meritorum" ("Book of Life's Merits") and " De operatione Dei" ("Of God's Activities", also known as " Liber divinorum operum" or "Book of Divine Works") followed. In these volumes, works in progress until her death in 1179, she first describes each vision, then interprets them. The narrative of her visions was richly decorated under her direction, with transcription assistance was provided by the monk Volmarand nun Richardis. The book was celebrated in the Middle Agesand was later copied in Parisin 1513.
Hildegard's visionary writings maintain that virginity is the highest level of the spiritual life; however, she also wrote about the secular life, including motherhood. She is the first woman to record a treatise of feminine sexuality, providing scientific accounts of the female orgasm.
When a woman is making love with a man, a sense of heat in her brain, which brings with it sensual delight, communicates the taste of that delight during the act and summons forth the emission of the man's seed. And when the seed has fallen into its place, that vehement heat descending from her brain draws the seed to itself and holds it, and soon the woman's sexual organs contract, and all the parts that are ready to open up during the time of menstruation now close, in the same way as a strong man can hold something enclosed in his fist. [Flanagan, Sabina. (1998). "Hildegard of Bingen, 1098–1179: A Visionary Life". Routledge. p. 97.]
In addition, there are many instances, both in her letters and visions, that decry the misuse of carnal pleasures. In Scivias Book II Vision Six.78,
God united man and woman, thus joining the strong to the weak, that each might sustain the other. But these perverted adulterers change their virile strength into perverse weakness, rejecting the proper male and female roles, and in their wickedness they shamefully follow Satan, who in his pride sought to split and divide Him Who is indivisible. They create in themselves by their wicked deeds a strange and perverse adultery, and so appear polluted and shameful in my sight...
...a woman who takes up devilish ways and plays a male role in coupling with another woman is most vile in My sight, and so is she who subjects herself to such a one in this evil deed...
...And men who touch their own genital organ and emit their semen seriously imperil their souls, for they excite themselves to distraction; they appear to Me as impure animals devouring their own whelps, for they wickedly produce their semen only for abusive pollution...
...When a person feels himself disturbed by bodily stimulation let him run to the refuge of continence, and seize the shield of chastity, and thus defend himself from uncleanness. (translation by Mother Columba Hart and Jane Bishop)
Hildegard communicated with popes such as Eugene III and
Anastasius IV, statesmen such as Abbot Suger, German emperors such as Frederick I Barbarossa, and other notable figures such as Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, who advanced her work, at the behest of her abbot, Kuno, at the Synod of Trierin 1147 and 1148.
Many abbots and abbesses asked her for prayers and opinions on various matters. She traveled widely during her four preaching tours, the only woman known to have done so during the Middle AgesFact|date=September 2008. (see "Scivias", tr. Hart, Bishop, Newman)
Hildegard was one of the first persons for whom the
canonizationprocess was officially applied, but the process took so long that four attempts at canonization (the last was in 1244, under Pope Innocent IV) were not completed, and she remained at the level of her beatification. She has been referred to as a saintby some, nonetheless, particularly in contemporary Germany.
Hildegard's name was taken up in the
Roman Martyrologyat the end of the sixteenth century. Her feast dayis September 17. Hildegard’s Parish and Pilgrimage Church house the relics of Hildegard, including an altarencasing her remains, in Eibingen near Rüdesheim.
As Sister Judith Sutera, O.S.B., of Mount St. Scholastica explains:
For the first centuries, the ‘naming’ and veneration of saints was an informal process, occurring locally and operating locally. . . . When they began to codify, between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, they did not go back and apply any official process to those persons who were already widely recognized and venerated. They simply ‘grandfathered in’ anyone whose cult had been flourishing for 100 years or more. So many quite famous, ancient, and even non-existent saints who have had feast days and devotions since the apostolic era were never canonized per se.
Hildegard of Bingen appears in the
calendar of saintsin various Anglican churches. In both the Church of Englandand ECUSA she is commemorated with a Lesser Festivalon 17 September. [ [http://www.excitingholiness.org/first-edition/index.cgi?m09/d17.html Oremus.org website] . Retrieved September 15, 2008.]
Primary sources;Editions and manuscripts of Hildegard's works
*Wiesbaden, Hessische Landesbibliothek, Hs. 2 (Riesen Codex) or
Wiesbaden Codex(ca. 1180-85)
*Dendermonde, Belgium, St.-Pieters-&-Paulusabdij Cod. 9 (Villarenser codex) (ca. 1174/75)
*Otto Muller Verlag Salzburg 1969: Hildegard von Bingen: Lieder (modern edition in adapted square notation)
*Muenchen, University Library, MS2∞156
*Leipzig, University Library, St. Thomas 371
*Paris, Bibl. Nat. MS 1139
*Hildegardis Bingensis, "Epistolarium pars prima I-XC" edited by L. Van Acker,
Corpus ChristianorumContinuatio Mediaevalis CCCM 91A (Turnhout: Brepols, 1991)
*Hildegardis Bingensis, "Epistolarium pars secunda XCI-CCLr" edited by L. Van Acker, Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis CCCM 91A (Turnhout: Brepols, 1993)
*Hildegardis Bingensis, "Epistolarium pars tertia CCLI-CCCXC" edited by L. Van Acker and M. Klaes-Hachmoller, Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis XCIB (Turnhout: Brepols, 2001)
*Hildegardis Bingensis, "Scivias". A. Führkötter, A. Carlevaris eds., Corpus Christianorum Scholars Version vols. 43, 43A. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2003)
*Hildegardis Bingensis, "Liber vitae meritorum". A. Carlevaris ed. Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis CCCM 90 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1995)
*Hildegardis Bingensis, "Liber divinorum operum". A. Derolez and P. Dronke eds., Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis CCCM 92 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1996);Other sources
*Friedrich Wilhelm Emil Roth, "Glossae Hildigardis", in: Elias Steinmeyer and Eduard Sievers eds., "Die Althochdeutschen Glossen", vol. III. Zürich: Wiedmann, 1895, 1965, pp. 390-404.
*"Analecta Sanctae Hildegardis, in Analecta Sacra" vol. 8 edited by
Jean-Baptiste Pitra(Monte Cassino, 1882).
Patrologia Latinavol. 197 (1855).
*Explanatio Regulae S. Benedicti
*Explanatio Symboli S. Athanasii
*Homeliae LVIII in Evangelia.
*Ignota lingua, cum versione Latina
*Liber divinorum operum simplicis hominis (1163-73/74)
*Liber vitae meritorum (1158-63)
*Libri simplicis et compositae medicinae.
*Physica, sive Subtilitatum diversarum naturarum creaturarum libri novem
Sciviasseu Visiones (1141-51)
*Solutiones triginta octo quaestionum
*Tractatus de sacramento altaris.
*Vita S. Disibodi
*Vita S. Ruperti
* [http://www.hildegard-society.org/faq.html A Hildegard FAQ Sheet]
Hildegard of Bingen bibliography and discography
*Sweet, Victoria. "Rooted in the Earth, Rooted in the Sky: Hildegard of Bingen and Premodern Medicine". New York and London: Routledge, 2006. Pp. xviii, 326.
* [http://www.hildegard-society.org/ International Society of Hildegard von Bingen Studies]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07351a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia]
* [http://www.hildegard.org/ Hildegard of Bingen] Documents, History, Sites to see today, etc.
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07351a.htm New Advent's Page on Hildegard of Bingen]
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/hildegarde.html Source]
* [http://www.9timezones.com/ia/ghildgrd.htm Discography]
* [http://www.poetseers.org/spiritual_and_devotional_poets/christian/hild/ Biography and Prayers of Hildegard]
* [http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/composers/hildegard.html Another discography]
* [http://www.eibingen.de/pfarrei/kirche.html Church of St. Hildegard in Eibingen, Germany with information about Hildegard von Bingen and the Eibinger Hildegardisshrine]
* [http://www.schnitzler-aachen.de/Modellbau/Bingen/Rup.html The Reconstruction of the Monastry on the Rupertsberg]
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Hildegard von Bingen — empfängt eine göttliche Inspiration und gibt sie an ihren Schreiber weiter. Miniatur aus dem Rupertsberger Codex des Liber Scivias Hildegard von Bingen (* um den Sommer 1098 in Bermersheim vor der Höhe (dort befindet sich die Taufkirche) oder… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Hildegard von Bingen — (1098–1179) Medieval mysticism found one of its earliest and best representatives in Hildegard of Bingen. She was born in 1098, as the 10th child of the nobleman Hildebert of Bermersheim and his wife Mechthild, near Alzey in the vicinity of… … Encyclopedia of medieval literature
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