- 18th century London
The 18th century was a period of rapid growth for London, reflecting an increasing national population, the early stirrings of the
Industrial Revolution, and London's role at the centre of the evolving British Empire.
In 1707 an Act of Union was passed merging the Scottish and the English Parliaments, thus establishing The Kingdom of Great Britain. A year later, in 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece,
St. Paul's Cathedralwas completed on his birthday. However, the first service had been held on December 2, 1697; more than 10 years earlier! This Cathedral replaced the original St. Paul's which had been completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London. This building is considered one of the finest in Britain and a fine example of Baroque architecture.
During the Georgian period London spread beyond its traditional limits at an accelerating pace. New districts such as
Mayfairwere built for the rich in the West End, new bridges over the Thames encouraged an acceleration of development in South Londonand in the East End, the Port of London expanded downstream from the City. During this period was also the uprising of the American colonies. In 1780, the Tower of Londonheld its only American prisoner, former Presidentof the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. In 1779 he was the Congress's representative of Holland, and got the country's support for the Revolution. On his return voyage back to America, the Royal Navy captured him and charged him with treason after finding evidence of a reason of war between Great Britain and the Netherlands. He was released from the Tower on December 21, 1781in exchange for General Lord Cornwallis.
In 1762 George III acquired
Buckingham Palace(then known as "house") from the Duke of Buckingham. It was enlarged over the next 75 years by architects such as John Nash. It would not be until the 19th century, however, that the palace would become the principle London royal residence. A phenomenon of 18th century London was the coffee house, which became a popular place to debate ideas. Growing literacyand the development of the printing pressmeant that news became widely available. Fleet Streetbecame the centre of the embryonic British press during the century.
18th century London was dogged by
crime, the Bow Street Runnerswere established in 1750 as a professional police force. Penalties for crime were harsh, with the death penalty being applied for fairly minor crimes. Public hangings were common in London, and were popular public events.
In 1780 London was rocked by the
Gordon Riots, an uprising by Protestants against Roman Catholicemancipation led by Lord George Gordon. Severe damage was caused to Catholic churches and homes, and 285 rioters were killed.
In the year 1787, freed slaves from London, America, and many of Britain's colonies founded
Freetownin modern-day Sierra Leone.
Up until 1750,
London Bridgewas the only crossing over the Thames, but in that year Westminster Bridgewas opened and, for the first time in history, London Bridge, in a sense, had a rival.
The 18th century saw the breakaway of the American colonies and many other unfortunate events in London, but also great change and Enlightenment. This all led into the beginning of modern times, the 19th century.
*Inwood, Stephen. "A History of London" (1998) ISBN 0333671538
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