- Cadmium chloride
Name = Cadmium chloride
ImageFile = Cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate.jpg
ImageName = Cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate
ImageFile1 = Cadmium-chloride-3D-balls.png
ImageName1 = Cadmium chloride
ImageFile2 = Cadmium-chloride-3D-polyhedra.png
ImageName2 = Cadmium chloride
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 10108-64-2
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = CdCl2
MolarMass = 183.316
Appearance = white solid, hygroscopic
Density = 4.08 g/cm3 (solid)
SolubilityOther = 1.7 g/100 ml
Solvent = methanol
SolubilityOther = insoluble
Solvent = acetone
MeltingPt = 564 °C
BoilingPt = 960 °C
Section7 = Chembox Hazards
ExternalMSDS = [http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/c0099.htm External MSDS]
EUClass = Highly toxic (T+)
Carc. Cat. 2
Muta. Cat. 2
Repr. Cat. 2
the environment (N)
NFPA-H = 4
NFPA-F = 4 ox
NFPA-R = 4
RPhrases = R45, R46, R60, R61, R25,
R26, R48/23/25, R50/53
SPhrases = S53, S45, S60, S61
Section8 = Chembox Related
Cadmium fluoride Cadmium bromide Cadmium iodide
Zinc chloride Mercury(II) chloride
Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of
cadmiumand chlorine, with the formula CdCl2. It is a hygroscopicsolid that is highly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Although it is considered to be ionic, it has considerable covalentcharacter to its bonding. The crystal structureof cadmium chloride (described below), composed of two-dimensional layers of ions, is often used as a reference for describing other crystal structures.
Cadmium chloride forms
crystals with cubic symmetry. The structure is based on the sodium chloride crystal structure, but with half of the metal ions removed (the "missing" ions are shown as hatched light-blue balls in the drawing) so that the resultant structure consists of a layered lattice. This same basic structure is found in many other salts and minerals, in particular those that display some degree of covalent bonding, such as in manganese(II) chloride, cobalt(II) chloride, or magnesium chloride. Cadmium iodide, CdI2, has a very similar crystal structure to CdCl2. The individual layers in the two structures are identical, but in CdCl2 the chlorideions are arranged in a CCP lattice, whereas in CdI2 the iodideions are arranged in a HCP lattice.
Cadmium chloride has a high solubility in water, and it dissociates into ions. A certain amount of
hydrolysisto species such as [CdOH(H2O)x] + may occur. The high solubility may be due in part to formation of complex ions such as [CdCl4] 2− ("i.e", CdCl2 is a Lewis acid). With excess chlorideions in water or acetonitrileit forms mainly [CdCl3] − and the tetrahedralanion, [CdCl4] 2−:
CdCl2(aq) + 2 Cl−(aq) → [CdCl4] 2−(aq)
With large cations, it is possible to isolate the trigonal bipyramidal [CdCl5] 3− ion.
Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the action of anhydrous
chlorineor hydrogen chloridegas on heated cadmiummetal. Hydrochloric acidmay be used to make hydrated CdCl2 from the metal, or alternatively from cadmium oxideor cadmium carbonate.
Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of
cadmium sulfide, used as " Cadmium Yellow", a brilliant-yellow pigment, which is stable to heat and sulfide fumes.
In the laboratory, anhydrous CdCl2 can be used for the preparation of
organocadmium compounds of the type R2Cd where R = arylor primary alkyl. These were once used in the synthesis of ketones from acyl chlorides (see below), but nowadays they have largely been supplanted by organocopper compounds, which are much less toxic.
CdCl2 + 2 RMgX → R2Cd + MgCl2 + MgX2
R2Cd + R'COCl → R'COR + CdCl2
Cadmium chloride is also used for
# N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, "Chemistry of the Elements", 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
# "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics", 71st edition, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990.
# "The Merck Index", 7th edition, Merck & Co, Rahway, New Jersey, USA, 1960.
# D. Nicholls, "Complexes and First-Row Transition Elements", Macmillan Press, London, 1973.
# A. F. Wells, "'Structural Inorganic Chemistry", 5th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.
# J. March, "Advanced Organic Chemistry", 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992.
* [http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc01/icsc0116.htm International Chemical Safety Card 0116]
* [http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/monographs/vol58/mono58-2.htm IARC Monograph "Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds"]
* [http://www.npi.gov.au/database/substance-info/profiles/17.html National Pollutant Inventory - Cadmium and compounds]
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