Xacitarxan or Hajji Tarkhan [IPA|xadʒitarˈxan] , alternatively called "Hashtar Khan", Actarxan [IPA|ʌʑtʌrˈxan] or Astrakhan [in Persian sources: حاجی‌ترخان Haji-Tarkhan; Russian sources: Астрахань Astrakhan'] , was a medieval city at the right bank of Volga, situated approximately 12km north of the modern city of Astrakhan. The first mention of the town was recorded in 1333. In the 13th and 14th centuries it was one of the main trade and political centres of Golden Horde. In 1395 the city was sacked by Timur. Astrakhan was rebuilt afterwards and became the capital of the Khanate of Astrakhan in 1459. In 1547 the city was seized by the Crimean khan Sahib Giray. In 1556 Astrakhan was besieged and burned by Ivan the Terrible.




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