- Luanda Trial
The Luanda Trial was a trial held in
Luanda, Angolain June and July 1976 by the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola(MPLA), recently victorious in the Angolan War of Independence, to try thirteen foreign mercenarieswho had served its defeated rival, the National Liberation Front of Angola(FNLA).cite web|author=|year=|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/28/newsid_2520000/2520575.stm|title=1976: Death sentence for mercenaries|format=HTML|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=2008-01-06]
Guilty verdicts for all or some of 130 separate charges, released on
June 28, 1976, resulted in the following sentences:Fact|date=February 2007
*John Nammock (
*Gary Acker, 21 (
United States of America)
*Malcom McIntyre (UK)
24 years' imprisonment for:
*"Satch" Fortuin (UK)
30 years' imprisonment for:
*Gustavo Grillo, 27 (USA)
Costas Georgiou, 25 (UK)
*Andy MacKenzie, 25 (UK)
*John Decker Barker, 35 (UK)
*Daniel Gearhart, 34 (USA)
Some of the verdicts had been expected, especially regarding Georgiou. However, others were considered excessive, particularly over Gearhart, who had arrived in Angola only days before his arrest and never taken part in any activities against the MPLA government. British Prime Minister
James Callaghansent a cable to Angolan President Agostinho Netorequesting mercy for the men.
Nevertheless, the four condemned men were executed by MPLA military police on
July 10, 1976. MacKenzie, who had been seriously wounded in the leg and was confined to a wheelchair, stood up to face the firing squad. The two remaining Americans, Grillo and Acker, were released in 1982in a prisoner exchange worked out by the United States Department of State. The British prisoners were released in 1984after eight years of negotiation by the British Foreign Office.Fact|date=February 2007
The prisoners had a chance to leave prison during a 1977 coup attempt, when their guards offered to free them if they would become their leaders in the rebellion. All ten men chose to remain in their cells. The coup was eventually put down.Fact|date=February 2007
* Cohen Jr., Sylvester "Review"
The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 1979), pp. 342-344
**Stockwell, John. "In Search of Enemies: A CIA story"
**Burchett, Wilfred and Roebuck, Derek. "The Whores of War: Mercenaries Today"
* Kennedy, Bruce. " [http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/17/spotlight/ Soldiers of misfortune] " CNN Interactive
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/11/newsid_2510000/2510947.stm BBC article on the Luanda Trial]
BBCOn this day 11 June.
* [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/interviews/episode-17/tomkins1.html Interview with Dave Tomkins, former guerrilla]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,914277,00.html Time magazine account of the trials]
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