A Clockwork Orange (film)


A Clockwork Orange (film)
A Clockwork Orange

Theatrical release poster by Bill Gold
Directed by Stanley Kubrick
Produced by Stanley Kubrick
Screenplay by Stanley Kubrick
Based on A Clockwork Orange by
Anthony Burgess
Narrated by Malcolm McDowell
Starring Malcolm McDowell
Godfrey Quigley
Anthony Sharp
Patrick Magee
Warren Clarke
Music by Walter Carlos
Cinematography John Alcott
Editing by Bill Butler
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) December 19, 1971 (1971-12-19) (US)
January 13, 1972 (1972-01-13) (UK)
Running time 137 minutes
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Nadsat
Budget $2.2 million
Box office $26,589,355[1]

A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 film adaptation of Anthony Burgess's 1962 novel of the same name. It was written, directed and produced by Stanley Kubrick. It features disturbing, violent images, facilitating its social commentary on psychiatry, youth gangs, and other social, political, and economic subjects in a dystopian, future Britain.

Alex (Malcolm McDowell), the main character, is a charismatic, psychopathic delinquent whose interests include classical music (especially Beethoven), rape, and what is termed 'ultra-violence'. He leads a small gang of thugs (Pete, Georgie, and Dim), whom he calls his droogs (from the Russian друг, "friend", "buddy"). The film chronicles the horrific crime spree of his gang, his capture, and attempted rehabilitation via controversial psychological conditioning. Alex narrates most of the film in Nadsat, a fractured adolescent slang comprising Slavic (especially Russian), English, and Cockney rhyming slang.

A Clockwork Orange features a soundtrack comprising mostly classical music selections and Moog synthesizer compositions by Walter Carlos. The now-iconic poster of A Clockwork Orange was created by designer Bill Gold. The film holds the Guinness World Record for being the first in media history to use the Dolby sound system.[2]

Contents

Plot

In London, Alex DeLarge (Malcolm McDowell) is the leader of his "droogs", Pete (Michael Tarn), Georgie (James Marcus), and Dim (Warren Clarke), one of many youth gangs in the decaying metropolis. One night, after intoxicating themselves on "milk plus", they engage in an evening of "ultra-violence", including beating an elderly vagrant (Paul Farrell) and fighting a rival gang led by Billyboy (Richard Connaught).[3] Stealing a car, they drive to the country home of writer F. Alexander (Patrick Magee), where they beat Mr. Alexander to the point of crippling him for life. Alex then rapes his wife (Adrienne Corri) while singing "Singin' in the Rain".

The next day, while truant from school, Alex is approached by probation officer Mr. P. R. Deltoid (Aubrey Morris), who is aware of Alex's violence and cautions him. After the events of the night before, his droogs express discontent with Alex's petty crimes, demanding more equality and more high-yield thefts. Alex reasserts his leadership by attacking them and throwing them into a canal. That night, Alex invades the mansion of a wealthy woman (Miriam Karlin). While his droogs remain at the front door, Alex bludgeons the woman with a phallic statue. Hearing police sirens, Alex tries to run away, but is betrayed by his droogs. Dim smashes a pint bottle of milk across his face, leaving him stunned and bleeding. Alex is captured and brutally beaten by the police. A gloating Deltoid spits in his face and informs him that the woman subsequently died in the hospital, making him a murderer. Alex is sentenced to 14 years incarceration.

Two years into the sentence, the Minister of the Interior (Anthony Sharp) arrives at the prison looking for volunteers for the Ludovico technique, an experimental aversion therapy for rehabilitating criminals within two weeks; Alex readily volunteers. The process involves drugging the subject, strapping him to a chair, propping his eyelids open, and forcing him to watch violent movies. Alex, initially pleased by the violent images he sees, starts to become nauseated due to the drugs; as he realises that the films' soundtracks are by his favourite composer Ludwig van Beethoven and that the Ludovico technique will make him sick when he hears the music he loves, he tries, unsuccessfully, to end the treatment.

After two weeks of the Ludovico technique, the Minister of the Interior puts on a demonstration to prove that Alex is "cured". He is shown to be incapable of fighting back against a man (John Clive) that insults and attacks him, and becomes violently ill at the sight of a topless woman (Virginia Wetherell). Though the prison chaplain (Godfrey Quigley) protests the results saying that "there's no morality without choice", the prison governor (Michael Gover) asserts they are not interested in the moral questions, but only "the means to prevent violence".

Alex is released and finds that his possessions have been confiscated by the police to help make restitution to his victims, and his parents have rented out his room. Homeless, Alex encounters the same elderly vagrant from before, who attacks him with several other friends. Alex is saved by two policemen but is shocked to discover they are two of his former droogs, Dim and Georgie. They drag Alex to the countryside, where they beat him and attempt to drown him. The dazed Alex wanders the countryside before coming to the home of Mr. Alexander, and collapses. Alex wakes up to find himself being treated by Mr. Alexander and his manservant, Julian (David Prowse). Mr. Alexander does not remember Alex from the earlier attack but has read about his treatment in the newspapers, and sees Alex as a political weapon to usurp the government, exposing the Ludovico technique as a step toward totalitarianism by way of mind control. As Mr. Alexander prepares to introduce Alex to fellow colleagues (John Savident and Margaret Tyzack), he hears Alex singing "Singin' in the Rain" in the bath, and the memories of the earlier assault return. With his colleagues' help, Mr. Alexander drugs Alex and places him in a locked upstairs bedroom, playing Beethoven's Ninth Symphony through the floor below. Alex, in excruciating pain, throws himself from the window and is knocked unconscious by the fall.

Alex wakes up in a hospital, having dreamt about doctors messing around inside his head. While being given a series of psychological tests, Alex finds that he no longer has an aversion to violence. The Minister of the Interior arrives and apologizes to Alex, letting him know that Mr. Alexander has been "put away", and offers Alex an important government job. As a sign of goodwill, the Minister brings in a stereo system playing Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Alex then realizes that instead of an adverse reaction to the music, he sees an image of himself having sex with a woman in front of an approving crowd. He then states, in a sarcastic and menacing voice-over, "I was cured, all right!"

Cast

Themes

Morality

The film's central moral question (as in many of Burgess' books) is the definition of "goodness" and whether it makes sense to use aversion theory to stop immoral behaviour.[4] Stanley Kubrick, writing in Saturday Review, described the film as

...a social satire dealing with the question of whether behavioural psychology and psychological conditioning are dangerous new weapons for a totalitarian government to use to impose vast controls on its citizens and turn them into little more than robots.[5]

Similarly on the film production's call sheet (cited at greater length above), Kubrick wrote

It is a story of the dubious redemption of a teenage delinquent by condition-reflex therapy. It is at the same time a running lecture on free-will.

After aversion therapy, Alex behaves like a good member of society, but not by choice. His goodness is involuntary; he has become the titular clockwork orange — organic on the outside, mechanical on the inside. In the prison, after witnessing the Technique in action on Alex, the chaplain criticises it as false, arguing that true goodness must come from within. This leads to the theme of abusing liberties — personal, governmental, civil — by Alex, with two conflicting political forces, the Government and the Dissidents, both manipulating Alex for their purely political ends.[6] The story critically portrays the "conservative" and "liberal" parties as equal, for using Alex as a means to their political ends: the writer Frank Alexander — a victim of Alex and gang — wants revenge against Alex and sees him as a means of definitively turning the populace against the incumbent government and its new regime. Mr Alexander fears the new government; in telephonic conversation, he says:

. . . recruiting brutal young roughs into the police; proposing debilitating and will-sapping techniques of conditioning. Oh, we've seen it all before in other countries; the thin end of the wedge! Before we know where we are, we shall have the full apparatus of totalitarianism.

On the other side, the Minister of the Interior (the Government) jails Mr Alexander (the Dissident Intellectual) on excuse of his endangering Alex (the People), rather than the government's totalitarian regime (described by Mr Alexander). It is unclear whether or not he has been harmed; however, the Minister tells Alex that the writer has been denied the ability to write and produce "subversive" material that is critical of the incumbent government and meant to provoke political unrest.

It has been noted that Alex's immorality is reflected in the society in which he lives.[7] The Cat Lady's love of hardcore pornographic art is comparable to Alex's taste for sex and violence. Lighter forms of pornographic content adorn Alex's parents' home and, in a later scene, Alex awakens in hospital from his coma, interrupting a nurse and doctor engaged in a sexual act.

Psychology

Another critical target is the behaviourism (or "behavioural psychology") of the 1940s to 1960s as propounded by the psychologists John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner. Burgess disapproved of behaviourism, calling prominent behaviourist B. F. Skinner's most popular book, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971), "one of the most dangerous books ever written".[8] Although behaviourism's limitations were conceded by its principal founder, J. B. Watson, Skinner argued that behaviour modification—specifically, operant conditioning (learned behaviours via systematic reward-and-punishment techniques) rather than the "classical" Watsonian conditioning—is the key to an ideal society.[9] The film's Ludovico technique is widely perceived, however, as a parody of aversion therapy more than of classical or operant conditioning.[10]

In showing the "rehabilitated" Alex repelled by both sex and violence, the film suggests that in depriving him of his ability to fend for himself, Alex's moral conditioning via the Ludovico technique dehumanises him, just as Alex's acts of violence in the first part of the film dehumanise his victims. The technique's attempt to condition Alex to associate violence with severe physical sickness is akin to the CIA's Project MKULTRA of the 1950s.

The Ludovico technique has been compared to the existing technique of chemical castration.[11]

Production

During the filming of the Ludovico technique scene, McDowell scratched a cornea and was temporarily blinded. The doctor standing next to him in the scene, dropping saline solution into Alex's forced-open eyes, was a real physician present to prevent the actor's eyes from drying. McDowell also cracked some ribs filming the humiliation stage show.[12] Special effects-wise, when Alex jumps out of the window in an attempt to commit suicide, the viewer sees the ground approaching the camera until collision, i.e., as if from Alex's point of view. This effect was achieved by dropping a Newman Sinclair clockwork camera in a box, lens-first, from the third story of the Corus Hotel. To Kubrick's surprise, the camera survived six takes[citation needed].

Adaptation

The cinematic adaptation of A Clockwork Orange (1962), by Anthony Burgess, was accidental. Screenplay writer Terry Southern gave Kubrick a copy of the novel, but, as he was developing a Napoleon Bonaparte-related project, Kubrick put it aside. Soon afterward, however, the Bonaparte project was cancelled and, sometime later, Kubrick happened upon the novel. It had an immediate impact. Of his enthusiasm for it, Kubrick said, "I was excited by everything about it, the plot, the ideas, the characters and of course the language ... The story functions, of course, on several levels, political, sociological, philosophical and, what's most important, on a dreamlike psychological-symbolic level". Kubrick wrote a screenplay faithful to the novel, saying, "I think whatever Burgess had to say about the story was said in the book, but I did invent a few useful narrative ideas and reshape some of the scenes".[13]

The novelist's response

Anthony Burgess had mixed feelings about the cinema version of his novel, publicly saying he loved Malcolm McDowell and Michael Bates, and the use of music; he praised it as "brilliant", even so brilliant that it might be dangerous. Despite this enthusiasm, he was concerned that it lacked the novel's redemptive final chapter, an absence he blamed upon his American publisher (this chapter being omitted in all US editions of the novel prior to 1986) and not Kubrick.

Burgess reports in his autobiography You've Had Your Time (1990) that he and Kubrick at first enjoyed a good relationship, each holding similar philosophical and political views and each very interested in literature, cinema, music and Napoleon Bonaparte. Burgess's 1974 novel Napoleon Symphony was dedicated to Kubrick. Their relationship soured, however, when Kubrick left Burgess to defend the film from accusations of glorifying violence. A (lapsed) Catholic, Burgess tried many times to explain the Christian moral points of the story to outraged Christian organizations and to defend it against newspaper accusations that it supported fascist dogma. He also went to receive awards given to Kubrick on his behalf.

Burgess was deeply hurt, feeling that Kubrick had used him as a film publicity pawn. Malcolm McDowell, on publicity tour with Burgess, shared his feelings, and, at times, spoke harshly about Kubrick. As evidence, both novelist and actor cited Kubrick's uncontrolled ego manifest in the film credits: the only author credited is "Kubrick". Later, Burgess spoofed Kubrick's image, firstly in the musical version of A Clockwork Orange, where a Kubrick-like character is beaten; then in The Clockwork Testament (1974) novel, where the poet F.X. Enderby is attacked for "glorifying" violence in a film adaptation; and, in 1980, as the crafty director Sidney Labrick in the novel Earthly Powers.[citation needed]

Previous film versions

The first dramatization of A Clockwork Orange, featuring only the story's first three chapters, was made for the BBC programme Tonight, broadcast soon after the novel's original publication in 1962; no recording is known to exist. Six years before Stanley Kubrick's film, Andy Warhol made Vinyl, a low-budget version of the work.[citation needed] Reportedly, only two scenes are recognizable: "Victor" (Alex) wreaking havoc and undergoing the Ludovico technique. However, both Kubrick's and Warhol's films start with a similar shot, zooming back from Alex's face.[citation needed]

Direction

Kubrick was a perfectionist of meticulous research, with thousands of photographs taken of potential locations, as well as many scene takes; however, per Malcolm McDowell, he usually "got it right" early on, so there were few takes. Filming took place between September 1970 and April 1971, making A Clockwork Orange the quickest film shoot in his career. Technically, to achieve and convey the fantastic, dream-like quality of the story, he filmed with extreme wide-angle lenses[14] such as the Kinoptik Tegea 9.8mm for 35mm Arriflex cameras,[15] and used fast- and slow motion to convey the mechanical nature of its bedroom sex scene or stylize the violence in a manner similar to Toshio Matsumoto's Funeral Parade of Roses (1969).[16]

Nature of the society

The society depicted in the film was perceived by some as Communist (as Michel Ciment pointed out in an interview with Kubrick) due to its slight ties to Russian culture. The teenage slang has a heavily Russian vocabulary, which can be attributed to Burgess. There is some evidence to suggest that the society is a socialist one, or perhaps a society moving out of a failed, Leftist socialism and into a Rightist, or fascist, society. In the novel, streets have paintings of working men in the style of Russian socialist art, and in the film, there is a mural of socialist artwork with obscenities drawn on it. As Malcolm McDowell points out on the DVD commentary, Alex's residence was shot on failed Labour Party architecture, and the name "Municipal Flat Block 18A, Linear North" alludes to socialist-style housing. Later in the film, when the new right-wing government takes power, the atmosphere is certainly more authoritarian than the anarchist air of the beginning. Kubrick's response to Ciment's question remained ambiguous as to exactly what kind of society it is. Kubrick did however assert that the film held comparisons between both the left and right end of the political spectrum and that there is little difference between the two. Kubrick stated, "The Minister, played by Anthony Sharp, is clearly a figure of the Right. The writer, Patrick Magee, is a lunatic of the Left...They differ only in their dogma. Their means and ends are hardly distinguishable."[17]

Locations

Thamesmead South Housing Estate where Alex knocks his rebellious droogs into the lake in a sudden surprise attack

A Clockwork Orange was photographed mostly on location in metropolitan London. The few scenes shot in a studio were the Korova Milk Bar, the prison check-in sequence, and scenes of Alex at F. Alexander's house taking a bath and in the hallway. Sets for these parts were built at an old factory on Bullhead Road, Elstree, which also served as the production office. Other locations used in the film include:

  • The attack on the tramp was filmed at the southern underpass below Wandsworth Bridge roundabout, London.
  • The Billyboy gang fight occurs at the now-demolished casino on Taggs Island, Kingston upon Thames.
  • Alex's apartment is on the top floor of Century House tower block, Borehamwood. An exterior plaque and mosaic at ground level commemorate the film's location.
  • The record shop where Alex picks up the two women was in the former Chelsea Drugstore, located on the corner of Royal Avenue and King's Road in Chelsea. A McDonald's restaurant now occupies the building.
  • The writer's house, site of the rape and beating, was filmed at three different locations: The arrival in the 'Durango 95' by the 'HOME' sign was shot in School Lane, Brickett Wood (as was the trough/beating scene). The house's garden with the footbridge over the pond is Milton Grundy's famous Japanese garden in Shipton-under-Wychwood and the interior is Skybreak House, in The Warren, Radlett, Hertfordshire, designed by Team 4, which included Norman Foster, Wendy Foster, Richard Rogers and Su Rogers.
  • Alex throws Dim and Georgie into a lake at the Thamesmead South Housing Estate, London. This is the same location where Alex walks home at night kicking rubbish.
  • The house where Alex is caught by police is Shenley Lodge, in Hertfordshire, at Blackhorse Lane.
  • Alex is attacked by vagrants underneath the north side of the Albert Bridge, Kensington and Chelsea, London.
  • The prison's exterior is HMP Wandsworth, its interior is the Woolwich Barracks.
  • The check-in at Ludovico Medical Clinic entrance, the brain washing film theatre, Alex's house lobby with the broken elevator, Alex's hospital bedroom and police interrogation room are all Brunel University.
  • The Minister's presentation to the media of Alex's 'cure' takes place at the Nettlefold Hall inside West Norwood Library.
  • Alex's suicide bid leap and corresponding billiard room were at the old Edgewarebury Country Club, Elstree.[18]
  • The hospital where Alex recovers is Princess Alexandra Hospital (Harlow).
  • The final rape fantasy was shot at the demolished Handley Page Ltd's hangars in Radlett.

Reception

A Clockwork Orange was critically well-received and nominated for several awards, including the Academy Award for Best Picture (losing to The French Connection). It also boosted sales of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. More recently, A Clockwork Orange earned a 91% "Certified Fresh" rating in the Rotten Tomatoes movie review website.[19]

Despite general praise from critics, the film had notable detractors. Film critic Stanley Kauffmann commented, "Inexplicably the script leaves out Burgess' reference to the title". [20] Roger Ebert gave A Clockwork Orange two stars out of four, calling it an "ideological mess."[21] In the New Yorker review titled "Stanley Strangelove", Pauline Kael called it pornographic, because of how it dehumanised Alex's victims, while highlighting the sufferings of the protagonist. Also noting that the cinematic Alex no longer enjoyed running over small animals or raping underaged girls, and argued that violent scenes — the Billyboy's gang extended stripping of the very buxom woman they intend to rape — were offered for titillation.

John Simon noted that the novel's most ambitious effects were based on language and the alienating effect of the narrator's Nadsat slang, making it a poor choice for a film. Concurring with some of Kael's criticisms about the depiction of Alex's victims, Simon noted that the writer character (young and likeable in the novel), was played by Patrick Magee, "a very quirky and middle-aged actor who specialises in being repellent"; and "Kubrick over-directs the basically excessive Magee until his eyes erupt, like missiles from their silos, and his face turns every shade of a Technicolor sunset."

Responses and controversy

Along with Bonnie and Clyde (1967), The Wild Bunch (1969), Dirty Harry (1971) and Straw Dogs (1971), the film is considered a landmark in the relaxation of control on violence in the cinema.[22] In the United Kingdom, A Clockwork Orange was very controversial, and withdrawn from release by Kubrick himself. By the time it was re-released in 2000, it had attained "cult film" status.[citation needed] It is 21st in the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills and number 46 in the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies, although in the second listing it is ranked 70th of 100. "Alex De Large" is listed 12th in the villains section of the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains. In 2008, the AFI's 10 Top 10 rated A Clockwork Orange as the 4th greatest science-fiction movie to date.

American censorship

In the United States, A Clockwork Orange was rated X in its original release form. Kubrick later, voluntarily, replaced some 30 seconds of sexually explicit footage, from two scenes, with less bawdy action, for an R rating re-release in 1973. Current DVDs present the original X-rated form, and only some of the early 1980s VHS editions are the R-rated form.[23][24]

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Office for Film and Broadcasting rated it C ("Condemned") because of the explicit sex and violence. Conceptually, said rating of condemnation forbade Roman Catholics from seeing A Clockwork Orange. In 1982, the Office abolished the "Condemned" rating; hence, films the Conference of Bishops deem to have unacceptable sex and violence are rated O, "Morally Offensive".[citation needed]

British withdrawal

The British authorities considered the sexual violence extreme, furthermore, there occurred legal claims that the movie A Clockwork Orange had inspired true copycat crimes, as per press cuttings at the British Film Institute. In March 1972, at trial, the prosecutor accusing the fourteen-year-old-boy defendant of the manslaughter of a classmate, referred to A Clockwork Orange, telling the judge that the case had a macabre relevance to the film.[25] The attacker, a Bletchley boy of sixteen, pleaded guilty after telling police that friends had told him of the film "and the beating up of an old boy like this one"; defence counsel told the trial "the link between this crime and sensational literature, particularly A Clockwork Orange, is established beyond reasonable doubt".[26] The press also blamed the film for a rape in which the attackers sang "Singin' in the Rain".[27] Christiane Kubrick, the director's wife, has said that the family received threats and had protesters outside their home.[28] Subsequently, Kubrick asked Warner Brothers to withdraw the film from British distribution, disliking the allegation that the film was responsible for copycat violence in real life. Quoting Kubrick: "To try and fasten any responsibility on art as the cause of life seems to me to put the case the wrong way around. Art consists of reshaping life but it does not create life, nor cause life. Furthermore, to attribute powerful suggestive qualities to a film is at odds with the scientifically accepted view that, even after deep hypnosis, in a posthypnotic state, people cannot be made to do things which are at odds with their natures."[29] The Scala Cinema Club went into receivership in 1993 after losing a legal battle following an unauthorized screening of the film.[30]

Whatever the reason for the film's withdrawal, for some 27 years, it was difficult to see the film in the United Kingdom. It reappeared in cinemas, and the first VHS and DVD releases followed soon after Kubrick's death. On 4 July 2001, the uncut A Clockwork Orange had its premiere broadcast on Sky TV's Sky Box Office; the run was until mid-September.

Withdrawal controversy documentary

In 1993, Channel 4 broadcast Forbidden Fruit, a 27-minute documentary about the controversial withdrawal of the film in Britain.[31] It contains much footage from A Clockwork Orange, marking the only time portions of the film were shown to British audiences during the twenty-seven-year ban.

Public perception of genre

A Clockwork Orange was not marketed as a horror film, nor reviewed as one upon release. Over a period of time, it has gained a following among horror film aficionados, frequently discussed as one in online bulletin boards and chat rooms devoted to horror films (with some dissenters as to the classification), as well as being listed in an online horror film database. The UK daily paper Metro had a reader poll of favourite horror films in 2010 and reported that The Exorcist beat out Saw and A Clockwork Orange.[32]

One well-known critic who counts the film as horror is Maitland McDonagh, senior movies editor of TVGuide from 1995 to 2008, and author of a book on the horror films of Dario Argento. Commenting on why horror films rarely win Oscars, she notes the exceptions of The Exorcist, Silence of the Lambs, and A Clockwork Orange saying the prestige of the directors meant the films could not be ignored.[33]

On the other hand, American Movie Channel's film critic Cory Abbey in an article on scary movies that are not horror lists A Clockwork Orange [34] along with Jaws, Silence of the Lambs and others. When the American Film Institute chose their top 10 films in several genres, it listed Clockwork as a science-fiction film, while having no horror list at all.[35] The film is listed as crime drama and science fiction by the Internet Movie Database but not as horror.

A Clockwork Orange is most frequently described as political satire, dystopian science-fiction, black comedy, and crime drama, although its crossover appeal to the horror-fan community is unmistakable.

Differences between the film and the novel

Kubrick's film is relatively faithful to the Burgess novel, omitting only the final, positive chapter, wherein, Alex matures and outgrows sociopathy. Whereas the film ends with Alex offered an open-ended government job — implying he remains a sociopath at heart — the novel ends with Alex's positive change in character. This plot discrepancy occurred because Kubrick based his screenplay upon the novel's American edition, its final chapter deleted on insistence of the American publisher.[36] He claimed not having read the complete, original version of the novel until he had almost finished writing the screenplay, and that he never considered using it. The introduction to the 1996 edition of A Clockwork Orange, says that Kubrick found the end of the original edition too blandly optimistic and unrealistic.

Thematic alterations of the novel
  • The film includes the phrase "a clockwork orange" only once: written on a piece of paper in Mr. Alexander's typewriter. The book explains that the author Frank is supposed to have written a political tract by that name (with a passage explaining the title), but this is not mentioned in the movie.
  • As noted above, the last chapter (21) of the novel was not filmed. In this chapter, Alex encounters Pete, the third member of the original gang (who was heavily cut out of the film) who has grown beyond his violent ways and married; Alex realises that he wishes to do the same, but believes his violence was an unavoidable product of his youth. See also "Deleted Scenes" section below.
  • In the novel, the writer whose wife Alex rapes is named "F. Alexander", leading to a coincidental comparison between the two "Alexanders". The film does not mention his surname, though he is called "Mr. Alexander" in the credits. In the film, he is addressed by his first name, "Frank", a detail not revealed in the book. The writer is quite young in the novel and speaks the same peculiar slang as Alex; in the film he is elderly and speaks standard English. The novel is also very overt quite early about his being a political activist. This is strongly hinted at in the film by scattered clues, but not spelled out so clearly. In the novel, the writer is a contemporary of Alex; in the film, he is a contemporary of the Minister of the Interior whose legislation initiated the Ludovico technique.
  • In the film, Alex's surname is spoken as "DeLarge" on arrival at prison; this surname is a pun based on an incident in the book, when Alex (referring to his penis) calls himself "Alexander the Large" (in turn a reference to Alexander the Great). In a close-up shot of multiple newspaper articles, Alex is identified as "Alex Burgess". In the novel, Alex's surname is unknown.
Changes in characterization and motivation
  • Alex's character in the film is more subtly manipulative, as illustrated in a few examples. In the novel, the incarcerated Alex and cell mates brutally beat a man just put in their cell, for being a nuisance. Alex accidentally kills him. For such persistent violence, Alex is selected to undergo the Ludovico technique. However, in the film, Alex volunteers for the treatment and is chosen in part for his good behaviour in prison.
    Similarly, when Alex's parents visit him in the hospital, Alex threatens them with violence in the novel while in the film, he more subtly plays on their feelings of grief and guilt. Alex's behaviour to the prison chaplain is similarly manipulative.
  • Critic Randy Rasmussen has argued that the government in the film is in a considerable shambles and in a state of desperation while the government in the novel is quite strong and self-confident. The former reflects Kubrick's preoccupation with the theme of acts of self-interest masked as simply following procedure.[37]
    One example of this would be differences in the portrayal of P.R. Deltoid, Alex's "post-corrective advisor". In the novel, P.R. Deltoid appears to have some moral authority (although not enough to prevent Alex from lying to him or engaging in crime despite his protestations). In the film, Deltoid is slightly sadistic and seems to have a sexual interest in Alex, interviewing him in his parents' bedroom and smacking him in the crotch.
  • The film also suggests that the experimentation on Alex using the Ludovico technique is far more politically motivated, and that the controlling party is attempting to implement the use of the Ludovico technique as a way to gain votes. The subsequent "curing" and bribing of Alex is used to cover up for the Party's PR struggles and to portray Mr. Alexander and the Left-wing as monstrous.
The penis statue that kills the "cat lady" in the film
  • In the film, the "cat lady" whose house Alex breaks into possesses a great deal of sexual artwork, including a rocking penis sculpture with which Alex delivers the killing strike. None of this artwork is mentioned in the book. The "cat lady" in the novel is elderly, addled, and living in a cat-ridden house of Miss Havisham-style dilapidation; the "cat lady" in the movie is in her early 60s, sharp, and living in a health farm which (according to dialogue) has closed for a week.
  • In the novel, it is completely clear that Mrs. Alexander died of injuries sustained during the gang-rape. Kubrick's film has Mr. Alexander rant that his wife died a few months later during a flu epidemic, though he still blames her death on the rape. He calls her a "victim of the modern age".
  • When Alex re-encounters Mr. Alexander in the novel, Burgess portrays him as a basically decent man struggling to maintain his sanity after his life has been ripped apart. In the film, Kubrick turns Mr. Alexander to a less mentally stable, very traumatized and angry figure whose hair has been teased out to give him a faint resemblance to Beethoven.
Close-up of Beethoven's face. The image appears printed on a window shade in Alex Delarge's home
References to Beethoven
  • While Alex is being tortured by Mr. Alexander's playing of Beethoven on the stereo, Kubrick composes the shot so that the author is transformed into a bust of Beethoven. Even the arrangement of the scarf around his neck suggests the contours of a statuette.
  • The doorbell of the author's house resembles the four-note opening motif of Beethoven's fifth symphony.
  • In the film, when the Cat Lady assaults Alex, she holds a small bust of Beethoven, while Alex holds a large sculpted penis. In the novel, Alex wields a bust of Beethoven during their fight, while the Cat Lady attempts to fight back with a walking stick. Additionally, in the novel, Alex is attacked by the Cat Lady's cats as he tries to escape.
  • Alex is conditioned against all music in the book, but in the film he is only averse to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. During one of the applications of the Ludovico technique, Beethoven's Fifth symphony is played, and Alex begs for them to stop. In the movie, it is the Ninth symphony which is played during this scene.
"Deleted scenes" from the novel
  • Two of the attacks in the opening chapters of the novel—the assault on a library patron carrying rare books, and the strong-arm robbery of a shopkeeper and his wife—are not present in the film. On his commentary on the 2007 DVD release, Malcolm McDowell says the scenes were filmed but later discarded. Billy Russell, the actor playing the library patron, became ill after the initial production and was not available for the scenes in which Alex re-encounters his old victims.
  • In the novel, Alex and his gang buy drinks and snacks for a group of old ladies, bribing them into providing the police with an alibi to cover a crast (shop burglary). None of this appears in the film; the scene with the old ladies was shot, but not used.[38]
  • In the novel, Alex is beaten by prison guards. The film does not show this, but Alex mentions it in his narration.
Characters added to the film
  • In the novel, F. Alexander lives alone after the death of his wife, and manages most of the housework by himself despite his condition. In the film, he is shown to have hired a bodyguard named Julian to help him around the house and guard the home from future break-ins. The bodyguard is played by former bodybuilder and future Darth Vader, David Prowse in a brief role. (George Lucas later related that he chose Prowse for the role of Darth Vader after seeing him in this film).
  • In the film, Alex has a pet snake. There is no mention of this in the novel. This was added by Kubrick due to Malcolm McDowell's fear of snakes.[39]
Other changes to ages of characters
  • The girl that is about to be raped by Billyboy's gang is 10 in the book, but a young woman in the film.
  • In the novel, Alex takes home and rapes two 10-year-old girls, Marty and Sonietta, after meeting them in a record shop. In the film (for obvious reasons), the girls are teenagers, and their sexual encounter with Alex appears to be (at least mostly) consensual. Also, in the book, Alex buys the girls ice cream and food prior to raping them, while this scene is not included in the film (though, in the film, the girls are shown slurping on popsicles at the record shop).
Other differences
  • In the novel, Dr. Branom is a male. In the film, the character is female.
  • The film uses the futuristic slang language Nadsat somewhat less often than the book in order to make the film more accessible.
Changes in plot details (in chronological order)
  • In the film, Alex and his droogs beat a tramp, who later recognizes him and, with other homeless people, assaults him after his treatment. In the book, Alex beats an old man carrying library books, who later recognizes him and (with other aged people) assaults him in a library after his treatment. Alex and his droogs also beat a tramp in the book, but Alex does not encounter him again.
  • Alex's weapon of choice in the book is a britva (razor); in the film, he wields a cane with a knife concealed in the handle (similar to a Victorian London dagger cane).
  • In the film, the car seen before the home invasion is the M-505 Adams Brothers Probe 16, in the novel (and in the film's narration) however, it is referred to as Durango 95. Only three were produced. In the TV-program Top Gear (Season 2004, 2nd episode, aired 31 October 2004), the one used in the film was nominated for restoration in the Restoration Rip-off feature.
  • When trying to escape from the cat lady's house, Alex is stopped by Dim, who attacks him and leaves him for the police. In the novel, Dim uses his "oozy" (or chain) to whip Alex across the face. In the film, Dim smashes a milk bottle across the side of Alex's head.
  • In the novel, Alex's prisoner number is 6655321; in the film, it is 655321.
  • In the novel, an imprisoned Alex learns of the death of his former droog Georgie during a botched burglary. In the film, Alex meets with Dim and Georgie after his release from prison, but what happened to Pete during Alex's incarceration is unknown.
  • In the novel, Alex is beaten by his former droog, Dim, and his former rival, Billyboy, who have both joined the police. The beating itself is not described, though Alex subsequently notes soreness and several teeth knocked loose (he also believes himself to be covered with cuts and bruises). In the film, Billyboy is replaced in this scene by Georgie, another former droog; they take Alex down a wood path to a watering trough, where Dim forces Alex's head underwater and Georgie beats him with his truncheon.
  • In the novel, F. Alexander recognises Alex through a number of careless references to the previous attack (e.g., his wife then claiming they did not have a telephone). In the film Alex is recognised when singing the song 'Singing in the Rain' in the bath, which he hauntingly had done whilst attacking F. Alexander's wife. The song does not appear at all in the book, as it was an improvisation by actor Malcolm McDowell when Kubrick complained that the rape scene was too "stiff".[40]
References to previous Kubrick films
  • The album cover of the soundtrack to 2001: A Space Odyssey, also directed by Kubrick, is visible in the record-shop scene.
  • Alex is given Experimental Serum 114, a phonetic play on the name of the CRM-114 radio seen in Dr. Strangelove.

Soundtrack

Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange
Soundtrack album by Wendy Carlos
Released 1972
Recorded 1971
Genre Electronic music
Label Columbia Records
Wendy Carlos chronology
Sonic Seasonings
(1972)
Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange
(1972)
Walter Carlos' Clockwork Orange
(1972)

The music is a thematic extension of Alex's (and the viewer's) psychological conditioning. The soundtrack of A Clockwork Orange comprises classical music and electronic synthetic music composed by Wendy Carlos (who, having not yet undergone sex reassignment surgery, was credited as "Walter Carlos"). Some of the music is heard only as excerpts, e.g. Edward Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 (aka Land of Hope and Glory) ironically heralding a politician's appearance at the prison. The main theme is an electronic transcription of Henry Purcell's Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary, composed in 1695, for the procession of Queen Mary's cortège through London en route to Westminster Abbey. "March from A Clockwork Orange" was the first recorded song featuring a vocoder for the singing; synthpop bands often cite it as their inspiration. Neither the end credits nor the soundtrack album identify the orchestra playing the Ninth Symphony excerpts, however, in Alex's bedroom, there is a close-up of a microcassette tape labeled: Deutsche Grammophon – Ludwig van Beethoven – Symphonie Nr. 9 d-moll, op. 125 – Berliner Philharmoniker – Chor der St. Hedwigskathedrale – Ferenc Fricsay – Irmgard Seefried, Maureen Forrester, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Ernst Haefliger.

In the novel, Alex is conditioned against all classical music, but in the film, only against L.V. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, the soundtrack of a violent Ludovico Technique film. The audience does not see every violent film Alex is forced to view during Ludovico conditioning, yet the symphony's fourth movement is heard. Later, using the symphony's second movement, Mr Alexander, and fellow plotters, impel Alex to suicide.

Track listing
Side One
No. Title Writer(s) Performer Length
1. "Title Music From A Clockwork Orange" (From Henry Purcell's Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary) Carlos, Rachel Elkind Walter Carlos[3] 2:21
2. "The Thieving Magpie (Abridged)"   Gioacchino Rossini A Deutsche Grammophon Recording 5:57
3. "Theme from A Clockwork Orange (Beethoviana)"   Carlos, Elkind Walter Carlos 1:44
4. "Ninth Symphony, Second Movement (Abridged)"   Ludwig van Beethoven A Deutsche Grammophon Recording conducted by Ferenc Fricsay 3:48
5. "March from A Clockwork Orange (Ninth Symphony, Fourth Movement, Abridged)"   Beethoven, arr. Carlos Walter Carlos
(Articulations: Rachel Elkind)
7:00
6. "William Tell Overture (Abridged)"   Rossini Walter Carlos 1:17
Side Two
No. Title Writer(s) Performer Length
7. "Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1"   Sir Edward Elgar (not credited) 4:28
8. "Pomp and Circumstance March No. IV (Abridged)"   Elgar (not credited) 1:33
9. "Timesteps (Excerpt)"   Carlos Walter Carlos 4:13
10. "Overture to the Sun" (rerecorded instrumental from Sound of Sunforest, 1969) Tucker Terry Tucker 1:40
11. "I Want to Marry a Lighthouse Keeper" (rerecorded song from Sound of Sunforest, 1969; film version differs from soundtrack version) Eigen Erika Eigen 1:00
12. "William Tell Overture (Abridged)"   Rossini A Deutsche Grammophon Recording 2:58
13. "Suicide Scherzo (Ninth Symphony, Second Movement, Abridged)"   Beethoven, arr. Carlos Walter Carlos 3:07
14. "Ninth Symphony, Fourth Movement, (Abridged)"   Beethoven A Deutsche Grammophon Recording (Von Karajan, 1963, uncredited) 1:34
15. "Singin' in the Rain"   lyrics by Arthur Freed, music by Nacio Herb Brown Gene Kelly 2:36

Although two excerpts from Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade are heard during Alex's Biblical daydreams while reading the Bible in jail, this piece does not appear on the soundtrack album, nor is it listed in the closing credits.

However, its presence in the film is acknowledged by critic Michel Ciment in the filmography in the back of his book Kubrick, and at least the composer's name is mentioned as used in the soundtrack in other 3 other books on either Kubrick or the film.[41]

According to the book Kristopher Spencer's book on film scores[42] both Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade and Terry Tucker's Overture to the Sun were used by Kubrick originally as temp tracks for the film, but he ultimately chose to stick to these rather than the pieces Carlos composed for those sections. He states the original LP omitted the first due to lack of space on a traditional vinyl LP recording.

Second version

Three months after the official soundtrack's release, composer Carlos released Walter Carlos' Clockwork Orange (1972) (Columbia KC 31480), a second version of the soundtrack containing unused cues and musical elements unheard in the film. For example, Kubrick used only part of "Timesteps", and a short version of the synthesiser transcription of the Ninth Symphony's Scherzo. The second soundtrack album contains a synthesiser version of Rossini's "La Gazza Ladra" (The Thieving Magpie); the film contains an orchestral version. In 1998, a digitally-remastered album edition, with tracks of the synthesiser music was released. It contains Carlos's compositions, including those unused in the film, and the "Biblical Daydreams" and "Orange Minuet" cues excluded from the 1972 edition.

Carlos composed the first three minutes of "Timesteps" before reading the novel A Clockwork Orange. Originally intending it as the introduction to a vocoder rendition of the Ninth Symphony's Choral movement; it was completed approximately when Kubrick completed the photography; "Timesteps" and the vocoder Ninth Symphony were the foundation for the Carlos–Kubrick collaboration.

Moreover, Stanley Kubrick asked Pink Floyd bassist Roger Waters to use elements of the Atom Heart Mother suite. Waters refused when he found that Kubrick wanted the freedom to cut up the piece to fit the film.[43] Later, Waters asked Kubrick if he could use sounds from 2001: A Space Odyssey; Kubrick refused.[44]

Reuse of music

Wendy Carlos reused many of the musical motifs from this score (including the main themes by Purcell, Rossini, and Beethoven) in Clockwork Black, the 4th movement of her (1998) musical composition Tales of Heaven and Hell.

Awards and honours

  • BAFTA Awards
    • BAFTA Film Award Best Art Direction - John Barry
    • Best Cinematography - John Alcott
    • Best Direction - Stanley Kubrick
    • Best Film
    • Best Film Editing - William Butler
    • Best Screenplay - Stanley Kubrick
    • Best Sound Track - Brian Blamey, John Jordan, Bill Rowe
  • Golden Globes[45]
    • nominated 1972 Nominated Golden Globe Best Director: Motion Picture - Stanley Kubrick
    • nominated Best Motion Picture - Drama
    • nominated Best Motion Picture Actor: Drama - Malcolm McDowell
  • Hugo Awards
    • 1972 Won Hugo Best Dramatic Presentation
  • Writers Guild of America, United States
    • 1972 Nominated WGA Award (Screen) Best Drama Adapted from Another Medium - Stanley Kubrick
  • In 2008, Empire magazine rank this at #37 on their list of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time."

Home media releases

In 2000, the film was released on VHS and DVD, both individually and as part of The Stanley Kubrick Collection DVD set. Consequent to negative comments from fans, Warner Bros re-released the film, its image digitally restored and its soundtrack remastered. A limited-edition collector's set with a soundtrack disc, movie poster, booklet and film strip followed, but later was discontinued. In 2005, a British re-release, packaged as an "Iconic Film" in a limited-edition slipcase was published, identical to the remastered DVD set, except for different package cover art. In 2006, Warner Bros announced the September publication of a two-disc special edition featuring a Malcolm McDowell commentary, and the releases of other two-disc sets of Stanley Kubrick films. Several British retailers had set the release date as 6 November 2006; the release was delayed and re-announced for 2007 Holiday Season.

An HD DVD, Blu-ray, and DVD re-release version of the film was released on October 23, 2007. The release accompanies four other Kubrick classics. 1080p video transfers and remixed Dolby TrueHD 5.1 (for HD DVD) and uncompressed 5.1 PCM (for Blu-ray) audio tracks are on both the Blu-ray and HD DVD editions. Unlike the previous version, the DVD re-release edition is anamorphically enhanced. The Blu-ray was reissued for the 40th anniversary of the film's release, however this release is identical to the previously-released Blu-ray apart from adding a Digibook and the Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures documentary as a bonus feature.

In popular culture

Bart appears as Alex on The Simpsons.

Further reading

  • Stuart Y. McDougal, Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange (Cambridge University Press, 2003). ISBN 0-521-57376-9

See also

  • Aestheticisation of violence

References

Notes

  1. ^ ""A Clockwork Orange"". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=clockworkorange.htm. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  2. ^ Glenday, Craig (2009). Guinness World Records 2009. Random House Digital, Inc.. p. 281. ISBN 0553592564, 9780553592566.  It would be another 4 years before the first film released in Dolby stereo, Ken Russell's Lisztomania
  3. ^ Both Burgess' novel and Stanley Kubrick's published movie script have this character's name as one word "Billyboy" although the Internet Movie Database lists him in the credits with two words "Billy Boy".
  4. ^ A general discussion of this question that references A Clockwork Orange can be found at [1]
  5. ^ Saturday Review, December 25, 1971
  6. ^ A review of the book which discusses Alex's role as a political pawn may be found at [2]
  7. ^ Film analysis at Collative Learning.com http://collativelearning.com/a%20clockwork%20orange%20review.html
  8. ^ "A Clockwork Orange: Context". sparknotes.com. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/clockworkorange/context.html. 
  9. ^ See also, for example, the 1948 utopian novel Walden Two.
  10. ^ Theodore Dalrymple (2006-01-25). "A Prophetic and Violent Masterpiece by Theodore Dalrymple, City Journal Winter 2006". City-journal.org. http://www.city-journal.org/html/16_1_oh_to_be.html. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  11. ^ "A Clockwork Orange revisited". ActNow. http://www.actnow.com.au/Opinion/A_Clockwork_Orange_revisited.aspx. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  12. ^ "Misc". Worldtv.com. http://worldtv.com/blog/misc/. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  13. ^ "The Kubrick Site: The ACO Controversy in the UK". Visual-memory.co.uk. http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/0012.html. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  14. ^ "A Clockwork Orange". Chicago Sun-Times. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19720211/REVIEWS/202110301/1023. 
  15. ^ "film - A Clockwork Orange film". Chalkthefilm.com. http://www.chalkthefilm.com/film/a-clockwork-orange--film-.html. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  16. ^ Name * (2008-04-20). "Similarities – Funeral Parade of Roses and A Clockwork Orange « Recca's Blog". Reccaphoenix.wordpress.com. http://reccaphoenix.wordpress.com/2008/04/20/funeral-orange/. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  17. ^ Ciment 1982. Online at: Kubrick on A Clockwork Orange: An interview with Michel Ciment
  18. ^ Filming Locations Malcolmmcdowell.net, accessed 2007-07-22
  19. ^ "A Clockwork Orange Movie Reviews". Rotten Tomatos. http://au.rottentomatoes.com/m/clockwork_orange/. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  20. ^ Quote in John Walker, Halliwell's Film, Video & DVD Guide 2006, page 223 (Harper Collins, 2005). ISBN 0-00-720550-3
  21. ^ Ebert, R: "A Clockwork Orange," Chicago Sun-Times, 11 February 1972
  22. ^ Ian MacDonald, Revolution in the Head, Pimlico, p.235
  23. ^ "Article discussing the edits, with photographs". geocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-23. http://www.webcitation.org/5kjLwkaI8. 
  24. ^ "Kubrick Film Ratings Comparisons" - actual clips, in both "X" and "R" edits.
  25. ^ "Serious pockets of violence at London school, QC says", The Times, 21 March 1972.
  26. ^ " 'Clockwork Orange' link with boy's crime", The Times, 4 July 1973.
  27. ^ "A Clockwork Orange: Context". SparkNotes. 1999-03-07. http://www.sparknotes.com/film/clockworkorange/context.html. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  28. ^ "Cannes 2011: Re-winding A Clockwork Orange with Malcolm McDowell - video". Guardian News and Media Limited. 2011-05-20. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/video/2011/may/20/cannes-2011-clockwork-orange-malcolm-mcdowell-video. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  29. ^ Paul Duncan, Stanley Kubrick: The Complete Films, page 136 (Taschen GmbH, 2003) ISBN 3-8228-1592-6
  30. ^ "Scala's History". scala-london.co.uk. http://www.scala-london.co.uk/scala/scalashistory.php. Retrieved 2007-11-12. 
  31. ^ "Without Walls: Forbidden Fruit (1993) A Clockwork Orange BBC Special - Steven Berkoff". Archived from the original on 2009-10-23. http://www.webcitation.org/5kjLwLe8z. 
  32. ^ "The Exorcist beats Saw and A Clockwork Orange to top horror spot". http://www.metro.co.uk/film/838599-the-exorcist-beats-saw-and-a-clockwork-orange-to-top-horror-spot. 
  33. ^ "Maitland McDonagh on horror films and the dark dreams of Dario Argento". http://www.uminnpressblog.com/2010/04/maitland-mcdonagh-on-horror-films-and.html. 
  34. ^ "Cartoons, Conspiracy Flicks, and A Clockwork Orange - Non-Horror Movies Terrify Too". http://www.filmcritic.com/features/2009/10/scary-non-horror-movies. 
  35. ^ "AFI choose their top 10 films by genre!". http://www.obsessedwithfilm.com/movie-news/afi-choose-their-top-10-films-by-genre.php. 
  36. ^ "The Kubrick FAQ Part 2". visual-memory.co.uk. http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/faq/index2.html#slot21. 
  37. ^ Kubrick: Seven Films Analyzed by Randy Rasmussen p. 112
  38. ^ "A Clockwork Orange (1971) Deleted, Cut Scenes and Outtake Pictures from the Film not on DVD". Archived from the original on 2009-10-23. http://www.webcitation.org/5kjLvwXr6. 
  39. ^ Stanley Kubrick by John Baxter p. 255
  40. ^ Stanley Kubrick by Vincent Lobrutto p. 365-6 and Stanley Kubrick, director by Alexander Walker, Sybil Taylor, Ulrich Ruchti p. 204
  41. ^ Thomas Nelson Kubrick, inside a film artist's maze p. 303, Stanley Kubrick's A clockwork orange by Stuart MacDougal - Page 157, Stanley Kubrick: a narrative and stylistic analysis by Mario Falsetto - Page 193
  42. ^ Film and television scores, 1950-1979: a critical survey by genre by Kristopher Spencer pp.191-192
  43. ^ Blake, Mark (2007). Pigs Might Fly: The Inside Story of Pink Floyd. London, United Kingdom: Aurum Press Limited. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-84513-366-5. 
  44. ^ Blake, Mark (2007). Pigs Might Fly: The Inside Story of Pink Floyd. London, United Kingdom: Aurum Press Limited. p. 349. ISBN 978-1-84513-366-5. 
  45. ^ http://www.goldenglobes.org/browse/film/23471

Bibliography

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Clockwork Orange (Film) — Filmdaten Deutscher Titel: Uhrwerk Orange Originaltitel: A Clockwork Orange Produktionsland: Großbritannien Erscheinungsjahr: 1971 Länge: 131 Minuten Originalsprache: Englisch …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • A Clockwork Orange (film) — Orange mécanique  Pour le roman d Anthony Burgess, voir L Orange mécanique Orange Mécanique Titre original A Clockwork Orange Réalisation Stanley Kubrick Genre science fiction …   Wikipédia en Français

  • A Clockwork Orange (Film) — Filmdaten Deutscher Titel: Uhrwerk Orange Originaltitel: A Clockwork Orange Produktionsland: Großbritannien Erscheinungsjahr: 1971 Länge: 131 Minuten Originalsprache: Englisch …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Clockwork Orange (disambiguation) — A Clockwork Orange is a novel by Anthony BurgessClockwork Orange can also refer to:* A Clockwork Orange (film) , a movie directed by Stanley Kubrick, based on the novel * Clockwork Orange is a nickname for the Glasgow Subway, the SPT metro line… …   Wikipedia

  • Clockwork Orange — A Clockwork Orange steht für A Clockwork Orange (Buch), ein Roman von Anthony Burgess aus dem Jahr 1962 Uhrwerk Orange (Film), eine Verfilmung des Buchs durch Stanley Kubrick aus dem Jahr 1971 Uhrwerk Orange (Hörspiel), ein Hörspiel des MDR in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Clockwork Orange — Clockwork Or|ange, A a novel written in 1962 by the British writer Anthony Burgess, about a group of young men who live in a future time and behave in a very violent way. It was made into a film by Stanley Kubrick in 1971, but he stopped allowing …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Clockwork Orange — a novel (1962) by Anthony Burgess which was made into a film by Stanley Kubrick in 1971. The story is set in the future and is about a young man, Alex, who loves violence and the music of Beethoven. The characters all speak a future version of… …   Universalium

  • A Clockwork Orange —    1) (1960–1961)    ANTHONY BURGESS’s novella was written early in his literary career, in 1960 and 1961. At the time, Burgess had been told that he had less than a year to live, and Clockwork was only one of several novels that he produced… …   The Encyclopedia of Stanley Kubrick

  • List of cultural references to A Clockwork Orange — The novel A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess and the movie adaptation have wide ranging influences on popular culture, such as popular music, television, movies and other entertainment media.Thill, Scott, 2002, St. James Encyclopedia of… …   Wikipedia

  • A Clockwork Orange — This article is about the novel. For the film, see A Clockwork Orange (film). For other uses, see A Clockwork Orange (disambiguation). A Clockwork Orange …   Wikipedia


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