- La Cagoule
La Cagoule ("The
Cowl", press nickname coined by the " Action Française" nationalist Maurice Pujo), officially called Comité secret d'action révolutionnaire ("Committee for Revolutionary Action"), was a violent French fascist-leaning and anti-communist group, active in the 1930s, and designed to attempt the overthrow of the French Third Republic. Its leader was Eugène Deloncle.
In the Third Republic
Prominent members of the Cagoule ("Cagoulards") included
Eugène Schueller, the founder of the French cosmetics giant L'Oréal, who was also founder of the group. Some of the early meetings of the Cagoule took place at l'Oréal headquarters, and some former Cagoulards, such as Jacques Corrèze, were later hired as executives. Another important activist was Joseph Darnand, who later founded the Service d'ordre légionnaire(SOL), the ancestor of the Milice Collaborationistgroup. Other notable members were Jean Filliol(who became the head of the Milicein Limoges, and fled to Spainat the end of WWII, finding a position at the spanish filial of L'Oréal), Gabriel Jeantet (who recommended François Mitterrandfor the Francisque), Dr. Henri Martin (a medical doctor who is suspected of having forged the Pacte Synarchique, and worked for the OASafter WWII), [Pierre Péan "Le Mystérieux docteur Martin, 1895-1969" Fayard 1993] Henri Charbonneau (nephew of Joseph Darnand) and Mohammed El Maadi (head of "La Cagoule" for french Algeria, creator of the antisemitic "Er Rachid" and of the North-African Brigade on January 28, 1944 also known as "SS-Mohammed"). General Henri Giraudwas the head of the military branch of "La Cagoule" for Metz. [Pierre Péan "Vies et Morts de Jean Moulin" (Fayard, 1998)] In Nice, "Cagoulards" were submitted to an initiation ritual, in which new members, in the presence of the Grand Master dressed in red and accompanied by his "assesseurs" dressed in black, with their faces covered, had to face a table covered by a French flag on which a sword and torches would be deposited, raise their right arm and swear the oath "Ad majorem Galliæ gloriam"("for the greatest glory of France") [Rémi Kauffer [http://www.historia.fr/content/recherche/article?id=18872 La Cagoule tombe le masque] Historia, n°108, July 1, 2007] . This oath imitated the one of the jesuits "Ad majorem Dei Gloria" (for the greatest glory of God). Treason would be punished by death. For instance, the arms suppliers Léon Jean-Baptiste and Maurice Juif were murdered by the "Cagoulards" respectively in October 1936 and in February 1937 for attempting to enrich themselves by lying on the price they had paid for the arms.
The group was founded in
1935, drawing its troops mostly from Orléanists disappointed by the lack of action from Charles Maurras' "Action Française", and undertook various actions aimed at destroying the French Republic. On January 26, 1937 Jean Filliol stabbed to death Dimitri Navachinein the Bois de Boulogne using a shortened bayonet. [Annette Finley-Croswhite and Gayle K. Brunelle [http://www.odu.edu/ao/instadv/quest/metromurder.html Murder in the Metro] ] In order to obtain arms from fascist Italy, the group assassinated two Italian antifascists, the Rosselli brothers, [ Stanislao G. Pugliese [http://www.jstor.org/pss/260963 Death in Exile: The Assassination of Carlo Rosselli] "Journal of Contemporary History", 32 (1997), pp. 305-319] [M. Agronsky "Foreign Affairs" 17 391 (1938)] on June 9, 1937and sabotaged airplanes clandestinely supplied by the French government to the Spanish Republic. The Cagoule blew up two buildings owned by the "Comité des Forges" (Ironmasters Association) on September 11, 1937 to create the impression of a communist conspiracy. Although at the time it was widely believed that the bombs had been deposited by communists, to the disappointment of "cagoulards" no action was taken against the French Communist Party. The Cagoule also triedto infiltrate the International Brigades for the same purpose. The group, organized along military lines, [TIME Magazine [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758534,00.html Monstrous Conspiracy] Monday December 6, 1937] infiltrated parts of the French military via Georges Loustanau-Lacau "Corvignolles" organization (especially in order to get weapons), and prepared the overthrowing of the Popular Front government in November 1937. The plans of the "Cagoulards" were, after having overthrown the French Republic, to make Philippe Pétainchief of state. After Pétain's refusal, they had to chose Marshall Louis Franchet d'Espereyas their future chief of state. However, they were themselves infiltrated by the police (it is believed that Laetitia Toureaux, assassinated in the Paris subway on May 16, 1937 was an informant of the French Police, and that she was stabbed by Filliol), and, on November 15 1937, Marx Dormoy, Minister of the Interior (and thus in charge of law enforcement) denounced their plot and ordered arrests. On this occasion, the french police seized 2 tons of high explosives, several anti-tank or anti-aircraft guns, 500 machine guns, 65 submachine guns, 134 rifles and 17 sawed-off shotguns. [TIME Magazine [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758460,00.html Terrible Gravity] Monday, Nov. 29, 1937] . Some of the arms were of German or Italian origin. About 70 men were arrested, but Deloncle boasted that he had 12,000 men under his order in Paris, and 120,000 in the Province. At the time, the revelations of the French government were disbelieved by the editors of the New York Times, but taken more seriouslyby TIME Magazinewho viewed "La Cagoule" as a french Klan. At the outbreak of WWII, the imprisoned "cagoulards" were released so that they could fight in the French Army. During the Occupation of France, as reprisal for the arrest, Marx Dormoywas assassinated in Montélimarwith a clockwork bomb in 1941. [TIME Magazine [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,884374,00.html Death by bomb] Aug. 4, 1941]
Organization of the Cagoule
* Premier Bureau: Eugène Deloncle and Jacques Corrèze
* Deuxième Bureau (intelligence): Dr. Henri Martin, Alfred Corre (Dagore)
* Troisième Bureau (operations): Georges Cachier
* Quatrième Bureau (recruits and equipment): Jean Moreau de La Meuse
* Sources of funding: Eugène Schueller,
Louis Renault, Lemaigre-Dubreuil (owner of table oil Lesieur and department stores "Le Printemps"), Gabriel Jeantet (Lafarge cements), Pierre Pucheu(Comptoir Sidérurgique)
"La Cagoule" was organized into cells. Light cells comprised 8 men with armed with submachine guns (typically one per light cell), rifles,
automatic pistols and hand grenades. Heavy cells comprised 12 men, and the submachine gun was replaced by a heavy machine gun. A group of 3 cells formed 1 unit, 3 units a batallion, 3 battalions a regiment, two regiments a brigade, and two brigades a division. Battalions could be divided into automobile squads of about 50 men. Written communicationswere avoided as much as possible, and the street fighting handbook was entitled "Secret Rules of the Communist Party" to avoid revealing the existence of the organisation in case it would be foundby the polics. [ John L. Spivak [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22682/22682-h/22682-h.htm#III Secret Armies, the new tactics of nazi warfare] Chapter III, "France's Secret Fascist Army" p. 31 (Modern Age books, NY, 1939)]
World War II
World War II, members of the Cagoule were divided. Some of them joined various Fascist movements; Schueller and Deloncle founded the Mouvement Social Révolutionnaire, which conducted various pro- Nazi Germanyactivities in occupied France, including the October 1941bombing of seven synagogues in Paris. Others were prominent members of Philippe Pétain's Vichy Regime. Darnand was the leader of the " Milice", the Vichy paramilitarygroup of who fought the French Resistance, and enforced anti-semitic policies; he took an oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler, and had a Waffen SSrank.
On the other hand, many sided with the anti-German camp, either as members of the Resistance (such as
Marie-Madeleine Fourcade, Pierre Guillain de Bénouvilleor Georges Loustaunau-Lacau) in the Maquis, or as members of Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forcessuch as General Henri Giraudor Colonel Passy. In the latter case, this has led to charges by Henri de Kérillisthat de Gaulle himself was a member of "La Cagoule" and that he would install a fascistgovernment if the Allies let him become France's chief of state. [Henri de Kérillis, " [http://www.archive.org/details/iaccusedegaulle006746mbp I accuse De Gaulle] " Harcourt, Brace & co. (1946)] The "cagoulards" arrested for the 1937 conspiracy were brought to trial only after the liberation ofFrance, in 1948.
* [http://clg-marx-dormoy.scola.ac-paris.fr/pres/marx.php Bio of Marx Dormoy and details on the Cagoule]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
cagoule — [ kagul ] n. f. • 1552; cogole v. 1175; lat. ecclés. cuculla, de cucullus « capuchon » 1 ♦ Manteau sans manches, muni d un capuchon percé d ouvertures à la place des yeux et de la bouche, que portaient les moines. ⇒ froc. « Un moine en cagoule… … Encyclopédie Universelle
cagoulé — cagoule [ kagul ] n. f. • 1552; cogole v. 1175; lat. ecclés. cuculla, de cucullus « capuchon » 1 ♦ Manteau sans manches, muni d un capuchon percé d ouvertures à la place des yeux et de la bouche, que portaient les moines. ⇒ froc. « Un moine en… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Cagoule (chapeau) — Cagoule Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cagoule (homonymie). Exemple de cagoule … Wikipédia en Français
CAGOULE (LA) — CAGOULE LA Le complot dit de la Cagoule a été l’expression, sous le Front populaire, de l’opposition irréductible au communisme de l’extrême droite activiste. Il y a eu, en fait, plusieurs complots de la Cagoule, cette dénomination ayant été… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Cagoule (Homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom … Wikipédia en Français
Cagoule DRAGGER — La cagoule de protection respiratoire avionée de type Dragger (ou Ocycrew) a été mise en service pour la première fois en 1986. Elle est conçue pour être utilisée par les membres d équipage en cas de fumée, feu ou évacuation de l avion.… … Wikipédia en Français
Cagoule Air Liquide PN 1540 — La cagoule air liquide PN 1540 est un équipement de protection respiratoire spécialement conçu pour le personnel navigant dans le but : d évoluer en atmosphère vicié (fumée à bord, fumée provenant de l extérieur lors de l évacuation, feu en… … Wikipédia en Français
Cagoule air liquide pn 1540 — La cagoule air liquide PN 1540 est un équipement de protection respiratoire spécialement conçu pour le personnel navigant dans le but : d évoluer en atmosphère vicié (fumée à bord, fumée provenant de l extérieur lors de l évacuation, feu en… … Wikipédia en Français
Cagoule — is French for a monk s hood The Chambers Dictionary, 1994, ISBN 0 550 10255 8] or cowl . It may refer to: *Cagoule (raincoat), a type of raincoat *La Cagoule, fascist French group from the 1930sReferences … Wikipedia
Cagoule — [ka gul; französisch »Mönchskappe«], rechtsradikale politische Geheimorganisation in Frankreich, eigentlich Comité Secret d Action Révolutionnaire [kɔmi te sə krɛ dak sjɔ̃ revɔlysjɔ nɛ:r], Abkürzung CSAR, seit 1932; ihre Mitglieder, die… … Universal-Lexikon
cagoule — (also kagoul) ► NOUN ▪ a lightweight, hooded, thigh length waterproof jacket. ORIGIN French, cowl … English terms dictionary