- Teach the Controversy
Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote
intelligent design, a variant of traditional creationism, while discrediting evolutionin United States public high schoolscience courses.citation | url= http://www.centerforinquiry.net/uploads/attachments/intelligent-design.pdf| title = Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy| first = Barbara| last = Forrest| author-link = Barbara Forrest | date = May,2007| month = May| year = 2007| publisher = Center for Inquiry, Inc.| place = Washington, D.C.|accessdate = 2007-08-06.] [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002225932_design31m.html Does Seattle group "teach controversy" or contribute to it?] Linda Shaw. The Seattle Times, March 31, 2005.] [ [http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=1297170&WNT=true Small Group Wields Major Influence in Intelligent Design Debate] ABC News, November 9 2005] ["ID's home base is the Center for Science and Culture at Seattle's conservative Discovery Institute. Meyer directs the center; former Reagan adviser Bruce Chapman heads the larger institute, with input from the Christian supply-sider and former American Spectator owner George Gilder(also a Discovery senior fellow). From this perch, the ID crowd has pushed a "teach the controversy" approach to evolution that closely inﬂuenced the Ohio State Board of Education's recently proposed science standards, which would require students to learn how scientists "continue to investigate and critically analyze" aspects of Darwin's theory." Chris Mooney. The American Prospect. December 2, 2002 [http://www.prospect.org/print/V13/22/mooney-c.html Survival of the Slickest: How anti-evolutionists are mutating their message] ] [ [http://www.arn.org/docs/dembski/wd_teachingid0201.htm Teaching Intelligent Design: What Happened When?] by William A. Dembski"The clarion call of the intelligent design movement is to "teach the controversy." There is a very real controversy centering on how properly to account for biological complexity (cf. the ongoing events in Kansas), and it is a scientific controversy."] [Nick Matzke's analysis shows how teaching the controversy using the "Critical Analysis of Evolution" model lesson plan is a means of teaching all the intelligent design arguments without using the intelligent design label. [http://www.pandasthumb.org/archives/2006/07/no_one_here_but.html No one here but us Critical Analysis-ists...] Nick Matzke. The Panda's Thumb, July 11 2006] A federal court, along with the majority of scientific organizations, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, say the Institute has manufactured the controversy they want to teach by promoting a false perception that evolution is "a theory in crisis" due to it being the subject of purported wide controversy and debate within the scientific community."ID's backers have sought to avoid the scientific scrutiny which we have now determined that it cannot withstand by advocating that the "controversy", but not ID itself, should be taught in science class. This tactic is at best disingenuous, and at worst a canard." ] "That this controversy is one largely manufactured by the proponents of creationism and intelligent design may not matter, and as long as the controversy is taught in classes on current affairs, politics, or religion, and not in science classes, neither scientists nor citizens should be concerned." [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/354/21/2277 Intelligent Judging — Evolution in the Classroom and the Courtroom] George J. Annas, New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 354:2277-2281 May 25, 2006] "Some bills seek to discredit evolution by emphasizing so-called "flaws" in the theory of evolution or "disagreements" within the scientific community. Others insist that teachers have absolute freedom within their classrooms and cannot be disciplined for teaching non-scientific "alternatives" to evolution. A number of bills require that students be taught to "critically analyze" evolution or to understand "the controversy." But there is no significant controversy within the scientific community about the validity of the theory of evolution. The current controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution is not a scientific one." [http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2006/pdf/0219boardstatement.pdf AAAS Statement on the Teaching of Evolution] American Association for the Advancement of Science. February 16, 2006 ] [ [http://www.centerforinquiry.net/uploads/attachments/Forrest_Paper.pdf Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy] Barbara Forrest. May, 2007.] McGill UniversityProfessor Brian Alters, an expert in the creation-evolution controversy, is quoted in an article published by the NIHas stating that "99.9 percent of scientists accept evolution" [ [http://nihrecord.od.nih.gov/pdfs/2006/07282006Record.pdf Finding the Evolution in Medicine] National Institutes of Health] whereas intelligent design has been rejected by the overwhelming majority of the scientific community. ["ID has failed to gain acceptance in the scientific community" Kitzmiller v. Dover.] ["Not a single expert witness over the course of the six week trial identified one major scientific association, society or organization that endorsed ID as science." Kitzmiller v. Dover.]
The central claim the
Discovery Institutemakes with 'Teach the Controversy' is that fairness and equal time requires educating students with a 'critical analysis of evolution' [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=Pr-ZJPcXAvsC Not in Our Classrooms: Why Intelligent Design Is Wrong for Our Schools] by Eugenie Scott, Glenn Branch. Beacon Press, 2006. Page 30.] where "the full range of scientific views", [ [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&id=2112&program=CSC%20-%20Science%20and%20Education%20Policy%20-%20School%20District%20Policy%20-%20MainPage Key Resources for Parents and School Board Members] Discovery Institute staff. August 21, 2007.] evolution's "unresolved issues", and the "scientific weaknesses of evolutionary theory" [ [http://www.discovery.org/csc/topQuestions.php#questionsAboutScienceEducationPolicy CSC Questions about Science Education Policy] Discovery Institute staff.] will be presented and evaluated alongside intelligent design concepts like irreducible complexity[ [http://books.google.com/books?id=Pr-ZJPcXAvsC Not in Our Classrooms: Why Intelligent Design Is Wrong for Our Schools] by Eugenie Carol Scott, Glenn Branch. Beacon Press, 2006.Page 35.] presented as a scientific argument against evolution through oblique references to books by design proponents listed in the bibliography of the Institute-proposed " Critical Analysis of Evolution" lesson plans. [ [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&id=48 Teaching the Origins Controversy: A Guide for the Perplexed. Special Discovery Institute Report] David K. DeWolf. Discovery Institute, August 20, 1999.] The scientific community and science education organizations have replied that there is in fact no scientific controversy regarding the validity of evolution and that the controversy exists solely in terms of religion and politics."Such controversies as do exist concern the details of the mechanisms of evolution, not the validity of the over-arching theory of evolution, which is one of the best supported theories in all of science." [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309064066/html/25.html Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, Second Edition] United States National Academy of Sciences]
intelligent design movementand the Teach the Controversy campaign are directed and supported largely by the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian ["The Board relied solely on legal advice from two organizations with demonstrably religious, cultural, and legal missions, the Discovery Institute and the TMLC." Kitzmiller v. Dover.] [Patricia O’Connell Killen, a religion professor at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma whose work centers around the regional religious identity of the Pacific Northwest, recently wrote that "religiously inspired think tanks such as the conservative evangelical Discovery Institute" are part of the "religious landscape" of that area. [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3944/is_200502/ai_n9521923] ] think tankbased in Seattle, Washington, USA. The overall goal of the movement is to "defeat [the] materialist world view" represented by the theory of evolutionand replace it with "a science consonant with Christianand theistic convictions." [http://www.antievolution.org/features/wedge.pdf Wedge Document] Discovery Institute, 1999.]
With the December 2005 ruling in
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, wherein Judge John E. Jones IIIconcluded that intelligent design is not science and "cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, and thus religious, antecedents", [ (pages 136-138) ] intelligent design proponents were left with the Teach the Controversy strategy as the most likely method left to realize the goals stated in the wedge document. Thus, the Teach the Controversy strategy has become the primary thrust of the Discovery Institute in promoting its aims. Just as intelligent design is a stalking horsefor the campaign against what its proponents claim is a materialist foundation in science that precludes God, Teach the Controversy has become a stalking horse for intelligent design. But the Dover ruling also characterized "teaching the controversy" as part of a religious ploy. ["has the effect of implicitly bolstering alternative religious theories of origin by suggesting that evolution is a problematic theory even in the field of science." . . . The effect of Defendants’ actions in adopting the curriculum change was to impose a religious view of biological origins into the biology course, in violation of the Establishment Clause. ]
Origin of phrase
The term "teach the controversy" originated with
Gerald Graff, a professor of English and education at the University of Illinois at Chicago, [ [http://insidehighered.com/views/2005/09/28/graff "To Debate or Not to Debate Intelligent Design?"] by Gerald Graff, Inside Higher Ed, September 28, 2005.] as an admonition to teach that established knowledge is not simply given as a settled matter, but that it is created in a crucible of debate and controversy. To the chagrin of Graff, who describes himself as a liberal secularist, [ [http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2005/09/28/graff To Debate or Not to Debate Intelligent Design?] By Gerald Graff, Inside Higher Ed, September 28, 2005.] the idea was later appropriated by Phillip E. Johnson, Discovery Institute program advisor and father of the ID movement. Discussing the 1999-2000 Kansas State Board of Education controversy over the teaching of intelligent designin public school classrooms, Johnson wrote "What educators in Kansas and elsewhere should be doing is to 'teach the controversy'." In his book Johnson proposed casting the conflicting points of view and agendas as a scholarly controversy. Johnson's usage differs somewhat from Graff's original concept. While Graff advocated that a comprehensive understanding of what are considered to be "established" concepts must include teaching the debates and conflicts by which they were established, Johnson appropriated the concept to cast doubt upon the very concept of established knowledge. [ [http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/evolution.html?pg=2 The Crusade Against Evolution] , Evan Ratliff, October 2004, "Wired" magazine]
The phrase was picked up by other Discovery Institute affiliates
Stephen C. Meyer, David K. DeWolf, and Mark E. DeForrest in their 1999 article, "Teaching the Controversy: Darwinism, Design and the Public School Science Curriculum" [ [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&program=CSC%20-%20Scientific%20Research%20and%20Scholarship%20-%20Law%20and%20Policy&id=58 Teaching the Controversy: Darwinism, Design and the Public School Science Curriculum] David K. DeWolf, Stephen C. Meyer, Mark E. DeForrest. Foundation for Thought and Ethics, October 1, 1999] published by the Foundation for Thought and Ethics. The Foundation for Thought and Ethics also publishes the controversial pro-intelligent design biology textbook " Of Pandas and People", suggested as an alternative to mainstream science and biology textbooks in the Critical Analysis of Evolutionlesson plans proposed by Teach the Controversy proponents.
Discovery Institute Vice President and Senior Fellow Stephen C. Meyer and Discovery Institute founder and President Bruce Chapman devised the Teach the Controversy strategy in March 2002 when they realized a dispute over intelligent design was complicating their efforts to challenge and weaken the teaching of evolution in public school classrooms. They arrived on an approach that stresses evolution's alleged weakness and presents intelligent design as a scientific alternative. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32444-2005Mar13.html?referrer=email Battle on Teaching Evolution Sharpens] Peter Slevin. Washington Post, March 14 2005] While the Teach the Controversy strategy does not always necessarily require students to study intelligent design, it does present design as the only alternative to evolution, and Discovery Institute-promoted model lesson plans refer students to intelligent design books.
The Discovery Institute's strategy has been for the institute itself or groups acting on its behalf to lobby state and local boards of education, and local, state and federal policymakers to enact policies and/or laws, often in the form of textbook disclaimers and the language of state science standards, that undermine or remove evolutionary theory from the public school science classroom by portraying it as "controversial" and "in crisis;" a portrayal that stands in contrast to the overwhelming consensus of the scientific community that there is no controversy, that evolution is one of the best supported theories in all of science, and that whatever controversy does exist is political and religious, not scientific. [ [http://www.csicop.org/intelligentdesignwatch/teach-controversy.html Turn out the lights, the "Teach the controversy" party’s over] ] The Teach the Controversy strategy has benefitted from 'stacking' municipal, county and state school boards with intelligent design proponents [ [http://www.pfaw.org/pfaw/dfiles/file_161.pdf Creationism in 2001: A State-by-State Report]
People For the American Way. (PDF file)] as alluded to in the Discovery Institute's Wedge Strategy.
As the primary organizer and promoter of the Teach the Controversy campaign, the Discovery Institute has played a central role in nearly all intelligent design cases, often working behind the scenes to orchestrate, underwrite and support local campaigns and intelligent design groups such as the Intelligent Design Network. [ [http://www.intelligentdesignnetwork.org/ Intelligent Design Network.org] ] It has provided support ranging from material assistance to federal, state and regionally elected representatives in the drafting of bills to the provision of support and advice to individual parents confronting their school boards. DI's goal is to move from battles over standards to curriculum writing and textbook adoption while undermining the central positions of evolution in biology and
methodological naturalismin science. In order to make their proposals more palatable, the Institute and its supporters claim to advocate presenting evidence both for and against evolution, thus encouraging students to evaluate the evidence.
Though Teach the Controversy is presented by its proponents as encouraging
academic freedom, it, along with the Santorum Amendment, is viewed by many academics as a threat to academic freedom [ [http://www.bemidjistate.edu/dsiems/ID/teach.html Intelligent Design: Teach the Controversy?] Dann P. Siems, Assistant Professor Biology & Integrative Studies, Bemidji State University] and is rejected by the National Science Teachers Association, [ [http://www.nsta.org/positionstatement&psid=10 NSTA Position Statement: The Teaching of Evolution] ] and the American Association for the Advancement of Science "Some bills seek to discredit evolution by emphasizing so-called "flaws" in the theory of evolution or "disagreements" within the scientific community. Others insist that teachers have absolute freedom within their classrooms and cannot be disciplined for teaching non-scientific "alternatives" to evolution. A number of bills require that students be taught to "critically analyze" evolution or to understand "the controversy." But there is no significant controversy within the scientific community about the validity of the theory of evolution. The current controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution is not a scientific one." [http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2006/pdf/0219boardstatement.pdf AAAS Statement on the Teaching of Evolution] American Association for the Advancement of Science. February 16, 2006 ] The American Society for Clinical Investigation's "Journal of Clinical Investigation" describes the Teach the Controversy strategy and campaign as a " hoax" and that "the controversy is manufactured." [ [http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/116/5/1134 Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action] American Society for Clinical Investigation, Journal of Clinical Investigation. 116:1134-1138 (2006)]
Along with the objection that there is no scientific controversy to teach, another common objection is that the Teach the Controversy campaign and intelligent design arise out of a Christian fundamentalist and evangelistic movement that calls for broad social, academic and political changes. [ Ruling,
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District. Pages 17-35] The Discovery Institute manifestoknown as the "Wedge Document" states that "design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions" and the movement's goals are defeating "scientific materialism" and " replacing "materialistic explanations with the theistic understanding that nature and human beings are created by God." Intelligent design proponents argue their concepts and motives should be given independent consideration. Those critical of intelligent design see the two as intertwined and inseparable, citing the foundational documents of the movement such as the "Wedge Document" and statements made by intelligent design proponents to their constituents. The judge in the " Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District" trial considered testimony and evidence from both sides on the question of the motives of intelligent design proponents when he ruled that "ID cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, and thus religious, antecedents" [, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, Case No. 04cv2688. December 20, 2005 ] and "that ID is an interesting theological argument, but that it is not science." [, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, Case No. 04cv2688. December 20, 2005]
In the debate surrounding the linking of the motives of intelligent design proponents to their arguments, following the
Kansas evolution hearingsthe chairman of the Kansas school board, Dr. Steve Abrams, cited in The New York Times as saying that though he's a creationist who believes that God created the universe 6,500 years ago, he is able to keep the two separate:Afterward, Lawrence Krauss, a Case Western Reserve University physicist and astronomer, in a New York Times essay said: quotation|A key concern should not be whether Dr. Abrams's religious views have a place in the classroom, but rather how someone whose religious views require a denial of essentially all modern scientific knowledge can be chairman of a state school board. ... As we work to improve the abysmal state of science education in our public schools, we will continue to do battle with those who feel that knowledge is a threat to religious faith ... we should remember that the battle is not against faith, but against ignorance. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/science/sciencespecial2/15essa.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin How to Make Sure Children Are Scientifically Illiterate] Lawrence M. Krauss. The New York Times, August 15 2006.]
Shift in strategy
The roots of the intelligent design movement's strategy are found in the past attempts of creationists to force religious views into public school science classes. The most recent of these was
creation science, which sought to provide a scientific veneer for the biblical account of Genesis. The characteristics of the intelligent design movement are a direct response to the tactical and legal failings of earlier creationist movements. Design proponent's strategies represent a natural evolution of the "creation science" movement, proceeding still further in the direction of claiming the mantle of science while denying their religious intentions in argument.
For example, the judge in the 2005 "
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District" trial noted in his ruling that evidence presented comparing the drafts of the intelligent design textbook " Of Pandas and People" before and after the 1987 " Edwards v. Aguillard" ruling showed that the definition given in the book for creation science in pre Edwards drafts is identical to the definition of intelligent design in post Edwards drafts; cognates of the word creation - creationism and creationist, which appeared approximately 150 times were deliberately and systematically replaced with the phrase 'intelligent design'; and the changes occurred shortly after the Supreme Court ruled in Edwards that creation science is religious and cannot be taught in public school science classes. [ " Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District".]
A rudimentary form of the teach the controversy strategy had emerged first among creation scientists following the Supreme Court's "Edwards v. Aguillard" decision. The
Institute for Creation Research(ICR) prepared an evaluation of what the movement should try next, suggesting "school boards and teachers should be strongly encouraged at least to stress the scientific evidences and arguments against evolution in their classes . . . even if they don't wish to recognize these as evidences and arguments for creationism." Glenn Branchof the National Center for Science Educationsays this comment shows that the teach the controversy strategy was "pioneered in the wake of Edwards v. Aguillard." [cite book|url=http://www.waronscience.com/excerpt.php?p=2|title=The Republican War on Science|author=Chris Mooney|publisher=Basic Books|date=August 30, 2005]
Prior to the September 2005 start of the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial, the "Dover trial," prominent intelligent design proponents gradually shifted to a "Teach the Controversy" strategy. They had realised that mandates requiring the teaching of intelligent design were unlikely to survive challenges based on the
Establishment Clauseof the First Amendment, and that an unfavorable ruling had the effect of legally ruling intelligent design a form of religious creationism.
Thus, the Discovery Institute repositioned itself. It publicly abandoned advocating for any policies or laws that required the teaching of intelligent design in favor of a Teach the Controversy strategy. ["In a country in which more than 50 percent of adults consistently tell pollsters that they believe God created humans in their present form within the past 10,000 years, however, there will undoubtedly be a fourth wave that will feature yet another strategy to promote creationism by questioning evolution. It looks as if this next wave will jettison the creationist and intelligent-design baggage and concentrate exclusively on a "teach the controversy" strategy." [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/354/21/2277 Intelligent Judging — Evolution in the Classroom and the Courtroom] George J. Annas,
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 354:2277-2281 May 25, 2006] Institute Fellows reasoned that once the "fact" that a controversy indeed exists had been established in the public's mind, then the reintroduction of intelligent design into public school criteria would be much less controversial later. [http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/dennett05/dennett05_index.html Show Me The Science] Daniel C. Dennett. New York Times.]
The best illustration of this shift in strategy is comparing the Discovery Institute's 1999 guidebook "Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula" which concludes "school boards have the authority to permit, and even encourage, teaching about design theory as an alternative to Darwinian evolution" [http://arn.org/docs/dewolf/guidebook.htm Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula: A Legal Guidebook] David K. DeWolf,
Stephen C. Meyer, Mark E. DeForrest 1999, Foundation for Thought and Ethics.] to 2006 statements by Phillip E. Johnson, that his intent was never to use public school education as the forum for his ideas and that he hoped to ignite and perpetuate a debate in universities and among the higher echelon of scientific thinkers. [ [http://www.sacbee.com/content/news/education/story/14254103p-15069795c.html Father of intelligent design] by Kim Minugh, Sacramento Bee, May 11, 2006]
With the December 2005 ruling in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, wherein Judge
John E. Jones IIIconcluded that intelligent design is not science, intelligent design proponents were left with the Teach the Controversy strategy as the most likely method left to realize the goals stated in the wedge document. Thus, the Teach the Controversy strategy has become the primary thrust of the Discovery Institute in promoting its aims. Just as intelligent design is a stalking horsefor the campaign against what its proponents claim is a materialist foundation in science that precludes God, Teach the Controversy has become a stalking horse for intelligent design. But the Dover ruling also characterized "teaching the controversy" as part of a religious ploy. ["has the effect of implicitly bolstering alternative religious theories of origin by suggesting that evolution is a problematic theory even in the field of science." . . . The effect of Defendants’ actions in adopting the curriculum change was to impose a religious view of biological origins into the biology course, in violation of the Establishment Clause. ]
By May 2006 the Discovery Institute, in a carefully calculated move, sought to broaden the faltering "teach the controversy" strategy to include examples of other supposed legitimate scientific controversies. In Ohio and Michigan where school boards are again reviewing science curricula standards the Discovery Institute and its allies proposed lesson plans that included
global warming, cloningand stem cell researchas further examples of controversies that are akin to the alleged scientific controversy over evolution. All four topics are widely accepted by the majority of the scientific community as legitimate science, and all four are areas where US political conservatives have been known to be critical of the scientific consensus. Members of the scientific community have responded to this tactic by pointing out that like evolution whatever controversy may exist over cloning and stem cell research has been largely social and political, while dissident viewpoints over global warming are often viewed as pseudoscience. [http://www.pandasthumb.org/archives/2006/07/ohio_here_we_go_1.html Ohio: Here We Go Again] Richard B. Hoppe. The Panda's Thumb. July 6, 2006] [ [http://scienceblogs.com/dispatches/2006/06/id_legislation_in_michigan.php ID Legislation in Michigan] Ed Brayton. Dispatches from the Culture Wars, June 7, 2006] Richard B. Hoppe, holder of a Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the University of Minnesota, described the tactic in the following way:
With the Dover ruling describing "teach the controversy" as part of the same religious ploy as presenting intelligent design as an alternative to evolution, intelligent design proponents have moved to a fallback position, emphasizing contrived flaws in evolution and over-emphasizing remaining questions in the theory what they call the "Critical Analysis of Evolution". [ [http://intelligentdesign.podomatic.com/entry/2006-07-11T09_38_44-07_00 Critical Analysis of Evolution is Not the Same as Teaching Intelligent Design] Casey Luskin. Intelligent Design The Future, July 11 2006.] The "Critical Analysis of Evolution" strategy is viewed by
Nick Matzkeand other intelligent design critics as a means of teaching all the intelligent design arguments without using the intelligent design label. [ [http://www.pandasthumb.org/archives/2006/07/no_one_here_but.html No one here but us Critical Analysis-ists...] Nick Matzke. The Panda's Thumb, July 11 2006] "Critical Analysis of Evolution" continues the themes of the teach the controversy strategy, emphasizing what they say are the "criticisms" of evolutionary theory and "arguments against evolution," which continues to be portrayed as "a theory in crisis." Early drafts of the critical analysis of evolution lesson plan referred to the lesson as the "great evolution debate"; one of the early drafts of the lesson plan had one section titled "Conducting the Macroevolution Debate". In a subsequent draft, it was changed to "Conducting the Critical Analysis Activity". The wording for the two sections is nearly identical, with just "debate" changed to "critical analysis activity" wherever it appeared, in the manner of how intelligent design proponents simply replaced "creation" with "intelligent design" in " Of Pandas and People" to repackage a creation sciencetextbook into an intelligent design textbook.
The campaigns of intelligent design proponents seeking curricular challenges have been disruptive, divisive and expensive for the affected communities. In pursuing the goal of establishing intelligent design at the expense of evolution in public school science classes, intelligent design groups have threatened and isolated high school science teachers, school board members and parents who opposed their efforts. [ [http://www.aclupa.org/downloads/Day2PMSession.pdf Testimony, Aralene Callahan]
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School DistrictSeptember 27, 2005] [ [http://www.aclupa.org/downloads/Day3PMSession.pdf Testimony, Julie Smith] Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School DistrictSeptember 28, 2005] [ [http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/116/5/1134#B8 Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action] Journal of Clinical Investigation 116:1134-1138 (2006). American Society for Clinical Investigation.] ["Moreover, Board members and teachers opposing the curriculum change and its implementation have been confronted directly. First, Casey Brown testified that following her opposition to the curriculum change on October 18, 2004, Buckingham called her an atheist and Bonsell told her that she would go to hell. Second, Angie Yingling was coerced into voting for the curriculum change by Board members accusing her of being an atheist and un- Christian. In addition, both Bryan Rehm and Fred Callahan have been confronted in similarly hostile ways, as have teachers in the DASD." Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.]  [In July 2006 a moderator of the blog of intelligent design proponent William A. Dembski, uncommondescent.com, endorsed bullying the children of the plaintiffs in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School Districttrial and committing vandalism to drive them out of town and that he intends to publish their names on the Web to that end. [http://im-from-missouri.blogspot.com/2006/07/more-ed-brayton-lies-about-hr-2679.html#c115231888416610572] [http://im-from-missouri.blogspot.com/2006/07/more-ed-brayton-lies-about-hr-2679.html#c115237382278367587] [http://im-from-missouri.blogspot.com/2006/07/more-ed-brayton-lies-about-hr-2679.html#c115244317192466980] [http://im-from-missouri.blogspot.com/2006/07/more-ed-brayton-lies-about-hr-2679.html#c115246272522552221] ] The campaigns run by intelligent design groups place teachers in the difficult position of arguing against their employers while the legal challenges to local school districts are costly, diverting funding away from education and into court battles. For example, as a result of Dover trial, the Dover Area School District was forced to pay $1,000,011 in legal fees and damages for pursuing a policy of "teaching the controversy". [ [http://www.yorkdispatch.com/searchresults/ci_3535139 Dover gets a million-dollar bill] Christina Kauffman. The York Dispatch, February 22, 2006]
Four days after the six-week Dover trial concluded, all eight of the Dover school board members who were up for reelection were voted out of office.
Televangelist Pat Robertsonin turn told the citizens of Dover, "If there is a disaster in your area, don't turn to God. You just rejected him from your city." Robertson said if they have future problems in Dover, "I recommend they call on Charles Darwin. Maybe he can help them." [ [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/11/10/politics/main1036232.shtml Robertson: PA Voters Rejected God] CBS News, November 11 2005 ]
Wesley R. Elsberry, say the Discovery Institute has cynically manufactured much of the political and religious controversy to further its agenda, pointing to statements of prominent proponents like Johnson:
To the absence of actual scientific controversy over the validity of evolutionary theory, Johnson said:
And to the resistance of science educators over portraying evolution as controversial or disputed, Johnson said:
Elsberry and others allege that statements like Johnson's are proof that the alleged scientific controversy intelligent design proponents seek to have taught is a product of the institute's members and staff. In the Dover trial's ruling the judge wrote that intelligent design proponents had misrepresented the scientific status of evolution. ["ID proponents support their assertion that evolutionary theory cannot account for life’s complexity by pointing to real gaps in scientific knowledge, which indisputably exist in all scientific theories, but also by misrepresenting well-established scientific propositions."
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.]
According to published reports, the nonprofit Discovery Institute received grants and gifts totaling $4.1 million for 2003 from 22 foundations. Of these, two-thirds had primarily religious missions. [ [http://www.lsj.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050911/OPINION02/509110732/1087/opinion Intelligent design group is just a religious front] by Fred Barton, Lansing State Journal. September 11, 2005] The institute spends more than $1 million a year for research, polls, lobbying and media pieces that support intelligent design and their Teach the Controversy campaign [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32444-2005Mar13.html Battle on Teaching Evolution Sharpens] By Peter Slevin
Washington Post, March 14, 2005] and is employing the same Washington, D.C. public relationsfirm that promoted the Contract with America. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/21/national/21evolve.html?ex=1282276800&en=24bc7c9b16cac8a8&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive] By Jodi Wilgoren, New York Times, August 21, 2005]
The Discovery Institute aggressively promotes its Teach the Controversy campaign and intelligent design to the public, education officials and public policymakers. Its efforts are largely aimed at conservative Christian policymakers, where it is cast as a counterbalance to the liberal influences of "atheistic scientists" and "Dogmatic Darwinists." As a measure of their success in this effort, on 1 August 2005, during a round-table interview with reporters from five Texas newspapers, President Bush said that he believes schools should discuss
intelligent designalongside evolution when teaching students about the origin of life. Bush, a conservative Christian, declined to go into detail on his personal views of the origin of life, but advocated the "Teach the Controversy" approach - "I think that part of education is to expose people to different schools of thought... you're asking me whether or not people ought to be exposed to different ideas, the answer is yes." Christian conservatives, a substantial part of Bush's voting base, have been central in promoting the Teach the Controversy campaign.
In some state battles, the ties of Teach the Controversy and intelligent design proponents to the Discovery Institute's political and social activities have been made public resulting in their efforts being temporarily thwarted. The Discovery Institute takes the view that all publicity is good and that no defeat is real. The Institute has shown a willingness to back off, even to not advocate for the inclusion of ID, to ensure that all science teachers are required to portray evolution as a "theory in crisis." The Institute's strategy is to move, relentlessly, from standards battles, to curriculum writing, to textbook adoption, and back again doing whatever it takes to undermine the central position of evolution in biology. Critics of this strategy and the movement contend that the intelligent design controversy diverts much time, effort and tax money away from the actual education of children.
Political battles involving the Discovery Institute
*2000 Congressional briefing: In 2000, the leading ID proponents operating through the Discovery Institute held a congressional briefing in
Washington, D.C., to promote ID to lawmakers. Sen. Rick Santorumwas and continues to be one of ID's most vocal supporters. One result of this briefing was that Sen. Santorum inserted pro-ID language into the No Child Left Behind bill calling for students to be taught why evolution "generates so much continuing controversy," an assertion heavily promoted by the Discovery Institute.
*2001 Santorum Amendment: As a result of the 2000 Congressional briefing, the Discovery Institute drafted and lobbied for the
Santorum Amendmentto the No Child Left Behind education act. The amendment encouraged the "teach the controversy" approach to evolution education. The amendment was passed by the U.S. Senate, but was left out of the final version of the Act, and remains only in highly modified form in the conference report, where it does not carry the weight of law. The conference report language is commonly touted by the Discovery Institute as model language for bills and curricula. The Discovery Institute lobbies states, counties, and municipalities, and offers them legal analysis and Institute-developed curricula and text books they proclaim meet constitutional criteria established by the courts in previous creationism/evolution First Amendmentcases.
*2002-2006 Ohio Board of Education: The Discovery Institute proposed a model lesson plan that featured intelligent design prominently in its curricula. It was adopted in part in October 2002, with the Board's advising that the science standards do "not mandate the teaching or testing of intelligent design." This was touted by the Discovery Institute as a significant victory. By February 2006 the Ohio Board of Education voted 11-4 to delete the science standard and correlating lesson plan adopted in 2002. [http://www.cnn.com/2006/EDUCATION/02/15/evolution.debate.ap/index.html] The board also rejected a competing plan from the institute to request a legal opinion from the state attorney general on the constitutionality of the science standards. Intelligent design proponents pledged to force another vote on the issue.
Kansas evolution hearings:A series of hearings instigated by the institute held in Topeka, Kansas May of 2005 by the Kansas State Board of Education to review changes how the origin of life would be taught in the state's public high school science classes. The hearings were boycotted by the scientific community, and views expressed represented largely those of intelligent design advocates. The result of the hearings was the adoption of new science standards by the Republican-dominated board in defiance of the State Board Science Hearing Committee that relied upon the institute's Critical Analysis of Evolutionlesson plan and adopted the institute's Teach the Controversy approach. In August 2006 conservative Republicans lost their majority on the board in a primary election. The moderate Republican and Democrats gaining seats vowed to overturn the 2005 school science standards and adopt those recommended by a State Board Science Hearing Committee that were rejected by the previous board.
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District: Eleven parents of students in the school districtof Dover, Pennsylvania, sued the Dover Area School Districtover a statement that the school board required to be read aloud in ninth-grade science classes when evolution was taught endorsing intelligent design as an alternative to evolution. The plaintiffs successfully argued that intelligent design is a form of creationism, and that the school board policy thus violated the Establishment Clauseof the First Amendment. In December, 2005 United States federal court judge John E. Jones IIIintelligent design is not science and is essentially religious in nature.
Origin of the campaign
Intelligent design movement
The Intelligent Design movement, which began in the early 1990s, is an organized campaign promoting a religious agenda that calls for broad social, academic and political changes. These changes center around increasing the role of
intelligent designin the public sphere, primarily in the United States. The overall goal of the movement is "to defeat materialism" and the "materialist world view" as represented by evolution, and replace it with "a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions." [http://www.discovery.org/ The Discovery Institute's website] ] [ [http://www.reason.com/rb/rb122305.shtml Christian Science Trial exposes intelligent design as the religion it is] Ronald Bailey. Reason magaizine, December 23 2005] The movement's hub is the Discovery Instituteand its Center for Science and Culture(CSC). The CSC counts the leading ID advocates and authors among its fellows or officers, including the movement's founder Phillip E. Johnson, Michael Behe, William A. Dembski, Stephen C. Meyerand Jonathan Wells.
The movement consists primarily of a
public relationscampaign meant to sway the opinion of the publicand that of the popular media, and an aggressive lobbying campaign, directed at policymakers and the educational community, which seeks to undermine public support for teaching evolution while cultivating support for what the movement terms "intelligent design theory." Its near-term goal is greatly undermining or eliminating altogether the teaching of evolution in public school science, and with the long-term goal of "renewing" American culture by shaping public policy to reflect conservative Christian values. Intelligent design is central and necessary for this agenda as described by the Discovery Institute: "Design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions."
The ID movement grew out of a creationist tradition that argues against evolutionary theory from a religious (usually Evangelical Christian and Fundamentalist Christian) standpoint, and the 1987 US Supreme Court decision
Edwards v. Aguillard, which prohibits the teaching of creationism in public school science classrooms. Although ID advocates often claim that they are only arguing for the existence of a "designer," who may or may not be God, all the leading advocates do believe that the designer is God, and frequently accompany their allegedly scientific arguments with discussion of religious issues, especially when addressing religious audiences. In front of other audiences, they downplay the religious aspects of their agenda.
The Wedge strategy
The "Wedge strategy" is a political and social action plan authored by the
Discovery Institute. Informally known as the "Wedge Document," it was a fund raising tool used by the Discovery Instituteto raise money for its subsidiary, the Center for Science and Culture, (then at the time called the Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC)), which was charged with promoting DI's science and education agenda. As stated in the Wedge Document, the strategy is designed to defeat "Darwinism" and to promote an idea of science "consonant with Christian and theistic convictions." The ultimate goal of the Wedge strategy is to "renew" American culture by shaping public policy to reflect conservative Christian values.
The strategy outlines a
public relationscampaign, of which teaching the controversy is part, meant to sway the opinion of the public, popular media, charitable funding agencies, and the scientific communityin order that they should effect an "overthrow of materialismand its cultural legacies". Wedge advocates have stated they hope to reinstate a "broadly theistic understanding of nature" to replace materialism. Phillip Johnson, the architect of the strategy, invokes the metaphor of a wood-splitting wedge to illustrate his goal of splitting apart the concepts of science and naturalism. A fundamental part of the Wedge strategy is the rejection of naturalism as unnecessary to science. Though the alternative to naturalism is supernaturalism, ID proponents avoid this word when speaking to mainstream audiences, substituting euphemisms like "non-natural" or skirting the issue altogether. Critics of the campaign characterize this as a semantic subterfuge made in the hope that it will enable ID proponents to skirt the First Amendmentprohibition against promoting religion in public schools.
According to critics of the intelligent design movement, the Wedge document, more than any other document issued by the Discovery Institute, betrays the Institute's and intelligent design's political rather than scientific purpose.
The theory of evolution is accepted by the vast majority of biologists and by the
scientific communityin general, in such overwhelming numbers that the theory of evolution is viewed as having scientific consensus. Over 70 scientific societies, institutions, and other professional groups representing tens of thousands individual scientists have issued policy statements supporting evolution education and opposing intelligent design. [ List of scientific societies rejecting intelligent design] [ page 83.] Such controversies as do exist concern the details of the mechanisms of evolution, not the validity of the over-arching theory of evolution. In the absence of an actual professional controversy between groups of experts on evolution, critics say intelligent design proponents have merely renamed the conflict that already existed between biologists and creationists, and that the controversy to which intelligent design proponents refer is political in nature and thus, by definition, outside of the realm of science and scientific educational curricula. Critics contend that intelligent design proponents ignore this point by continuing to make the claim of a "scientific controversy."
For example, the National Association of Biology Teachers, in a statement endorsing evolution as noncontroversial, quoted
Theodosius Dobzhansky: " Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" and went on to state that the quote "accurately reflects the central, unifying role of evolution in biology. The theory of evolution provides a framework that explains both the history of life and the ongoing adaptation of organisms to environmental challenges and changes." They emphasized that "Scientists have firmly established evolution as an important natural process" and that "The selection of topics covered in a biology curriculum should accurately reflect the principles of biological science. Teaching biology in an effective and scientifically honest manner requires that evolution be taught in a standards-based instructional framework with effective classroom discussions and laboratory experiences.". [ [http://www.nabt.org/sub/position_statements/evolution.asp Statement on Teaching Evolution] National Association of Biology Teachers, 2004.]
Prominent evolutionary biologists such as
Richard Dawkinsand Jerry Coynehave proposed various 'controversies' that are worth teaching, instead of intelligent design. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/life/feature/story/0,13026,1559743,00.html One side can be wrong] The Guardian. September 1 2005.] Dawkins compares teaching intelligent design in schools to teaching flat earthism: perfectly fine in a history class but not in science. "If you give the idea that there are two schools of thought within science, one that says the earth is round and one that says the earth is flat, you are misleading children." [ [http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,1090909,00.html The Evolution Wars] Claudia Wallis. TIME magazine. August 15 2005.] Tufts UniversityProfessor of Philosophy Daniel C. Dennett, author of " Darwin's Dangerous Idea", describes how they generate a sense of controversy: "The proponents of intelligent designuse an ingenious ploy that works something like this: First you misuse or misdescribe some scientist's work. Then you get an angry rebuttal. Then, instead of dealing forthrightly with the charges leveled, you cite the rebuttal as evidence that there is a 'controversy' to teach." Such a controversy is then self-fulfilling and self-sustaining, though completely without any legitimate basis in the academic world.
Critics of the Teach the Controversy movement and strategy can also be found outside of the scientific community. Barry W. Lynn, executive director of
Americans United for Separation of Church and State, described the approach of the movement's proponents as "a disarming subterfuge designed to undermine solid evidence that all living things share a common ancestry." "The movement is a veneer over a certain theological message. Every one of these groups is now actively engaged in trying to undercut sound science education by criticizing evolution," said Lynn. "It is all based on their religious ideology. Even the people who don't specifically mention religion are hard-pressed with a straight face to say who the intelligent designer is if it's not God." [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32444-2005Mar13.html Battle on Teaching Evolution Sharpens] Peter Slevin. Washington Post, March 14 2005.] Bill Mahersaid of Teach the Controversy "You don't have to teach both sides of a debate if one side is a load of crap." [ [http://www.hbo.com/billmaher/new_rules/20050819.html New Rules] Bill Maher. Real Time with Bill Maher, HBO, August 19, 2005.]
The Discovery Institute
According to critics of the Discovery Institute's efforts through the Teach the Controversy campaign and the intelligent design movement, the
Wedge strategybetrays the Institute's political rather than scientific and educational purpose. The Discovery Institute and its Center for Science and Culture(CSC) has an overarching conservative Christian social and political agenda that seeks to redefine both law and science and how they are conducted, with the stated goal of a religious "renewal" of American culture.
Critics also allege that the Discovery Institute has a long-standing record of misrepresenting research, law and its own policy and agenda and that of others:
*In announcing the Teach the Controversy strategy in 2002, the Discovery Institute’s
Stephen C. Meyer[ [http://www.talkreason.org/articles/Meyer.cfm Meyer's Hopeless Monster] Alan Gishlick, Nick Matzke, and Wesley R. Elsberry. TalkReason.org, 2005.] presented an annotated bibliography of 44 peer-reviewed scientific articles that were said to raise significant challenges to key tenets of what was referred to as "Darwinian evolution." [ [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?program=CSC&command=view&id=1134 Teach the Controversy] Stephen C. Meyer. Cincinnati Enquirer, March 30 2002.] In response to this claim the National Center for Science Education, an organization that works in collaboration with National Academy of Sciences, the National Association of Biology Teachers, and the National Science Teachers Association that support the teaching of evolution in public schools, [ [http://www.natcenscied.org/about.asp About the NCSE] National Science Teachers Association] contacted the authors of the papers listed and twenty-six scientists, representing thirty-four of the papers, responded. None of the authors considered his or her research to provide evidence against evolution. [ [http://www.ncseweb.org/media/Analysis-of-the-Discovery-Institute.pdf Analysis of the Discovery Institute's "Bibliography of Supplementary Resources for Ohio Science Instruction"] National Center for Science Education(PDF file)]
*The Discovery Institute, following the policies outlined by
Phillip E. Johnson, obfuscates its agenda. Opposed to the public statements to the contrary made by the Discovery Institute, Johnson has admitted that the goal of intelligent design movementis to cast creationism as a scientific concept:quotation
*Our strategy has been to change the subject a bit so that we can get the issue of intelligent design, which really means the reality of God, before the academic world and into the schools. [http://www.christianity.ca/news/social-issues/2004/03.001.html Let's Be Intelligent About Darwin] Elizabeth Nickson. Christianity.ca, February, 2004.]
*This isn't really, and never has been a debate about science. It's about religion and philosophy. [ [http://www.leaderu.com/pjohnson/world2.html Witness For The Prosecution, Darwin on Trial author brings together anti-Darwin coalition to bring down evolution] Joel Belz. World Magazine, Volume 11, Number 28, p. 18. November 30 1996.]
*If we understand our own times, we will know that we should affirm the reality of God by challenging the domination of materialism and naturalism in the world of the mind. With the assistance of many friends I have developed a strategy for doing this....We call our strategy the 'wedge.' [Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds. Phillip E. Johnson. 1997. pp. 91-92]
*So the question is: "How to win?" That’s when I began to develop what you now see full-fledged in the "wedge" strategy: "Stick with the most important thing" —the mechanism and the building up of information. Get the Bible and the Book of Genesis out of the debate because you do not want to raise the so-called Bible-science dichotomy. Phrase the argument in such a way that you can get it heard in the secular academy and in a way that tends to unify the religious dissenters. That means concentrating on, "Do you need a Creator to do the creating, or can nature do it on its own?" and refusing to get sidetracked onto other issues, which people are always trying to do. [ [http://www.touchstonemag.com/docs/issues/15.5docs/15-5pg40.html Berkeley’s Radical An Interview with Phillip E. Johnson] Touchstone Magazine interview, June 2002.] |Phillip E. Johnson
Rob Bostonsummarised Johnson's vision of the Wedge as: "The objective [of the Wedge Strategy] is to convince people that Darwinism is inherently atheistic, thus shifting the debate from creationism vs. evolution to the existence of God vs. the non-existence of God. From there people are introduced to 'the truth' of the Bible and then 'the question of sin' and finally 'introduced to Jesus.'" [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20010508032051/http://www.au.org/churchstate/cs4995.htm "Missionary Man"] , Rob Boston, "Church & State", April 1999]
* Instead of producing original scientific data to support ID’s claims, the Discovery Institute has promoted ID politically to the public, education officials and public policymakers through its Teach the Controversy campaign.
Johnson's statements validate the criticisms leveled by those who allege that the Discovery Institute and its allied organizations are merely stripping the obvious religious content from their anti-evolution assertions as a means of avoiding the legal restriction on establishment. They argue that ID is simply an attempt to put a patina of secularity on top of what is a fundamentally religious belief and agenda.
Given the history of the Discovery Institute as an organization committed to opposing any scientific theory inconsistent with "the theistic understanding that nature and human beings are created by God", [ [http://www.pubtheo.com/savedpages/discovery-institute-wedge-document.pdf The "Wedge Document": So What?] Discovery Institute.] many scientists regard the movement purely as a ploy to insert
creationisminto the science curriculum rather than as a serious attempt to discuss scientific evidence. In the words of Eugenie Scottof the National Center for Education:
Though Teach the Controversy proponents cite the current public policy statements of the Discovery Institute as belying the criticisms that their strategy is a creationist ploy and decry critics as biased in failing to recognize that the intelligent design movement's Teach the Controversy strategy as really just a question of science with no religion involved, is itself belied by Discovery Institute's former published policy statements, [ [http://web.archive.org/web/19970514072337/http://www.discovery.org/crsc/aboutcrsc.html What is The Center for the Renewal of Science & Culture All About?] [http://web.archive.org/web/19970514073708/www.discovery.org/crsc/crscmisn.html The Mission of The Center for Renewal of Science & Culture] ] its "Wedge Document", and statements made to its constituency by its leadership, and in particular
Phillip E. Johnson.
Writes Johnson in the foreword to Creation, Evolution, & Modern Science (2000): Johnson's words bolster the claims of those critics who cite Johnson's admission that the ultimate goal of the campaign is getting "the issue of intelligent design, which really means the reality of God, before the academic world and into the schools."
Amid this political and religious controversy the clear, categorical and oft-repeated view of established national and international scientific organizations remains that there is no "scientific" controversy over teaching evolution in public schools.
George Mason UniversityBiology Department introduced a 1-credit course on the creation/evolution controversy, and a philosophy professor from the university found that as students learn more about biology, they find objections to evolution less convincing. He concluded that "teaching the controversy" would undermine creationists’ criticisms, and that the scientific community’s resistance to this approach was bad public relations. Rather than being taught in a mainstream science course, it would be a separate elective course, probably taught by a scientist but called a course on "philosophy of science", "history of science", or "politics of science and religion". [ [http://www.aaas.org/spp/dser/02_Events/Lectures/2006/02_Lecture_2006_0420.shtml AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion] , 20 April 2006, Emmett Holman, Associate Professor of Philosophy from George Mason University, retrieved 2007-04-29]
Biologist Tom A. Langen argues in a journal letter entitled "What is right with ‘teaching the controversy’?" that teaching students about this controversy will help them understand the demarcation between science and other ways of obtaining knowledge about nature. [cite journal |title=What is right with ‘teaching the controversy’? |first=Tom A. |last=Langen |journal=Trends in Ecology & Evolution |volume=19 |issue=3 |pages=114-115 |year=2004 |doi=10.1016/j.tree.2003.12.005] Similar positions have been expressed by atheists
Julian Baggini[cite news |first=Julian |last=Baggini |authorlink=Julian Baggini |date=2007-06-15 |title=Why we should learn Intelligent Design |work=Times Educational Supplement |publisher=TSL Education Ltd |url=http://www.tes.co.uk/search/story/?story_id=2397963 |accessdate=2008-06-27] and Aaron Sloman. [cite web |first=Aaron |last=Sloman |authorlink=Aaron Sloman |title=Why scientists and philosophers of science should teach intelligent design (ID) alongside the theory of evolution |url=http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~axs/id/ |accessdate=2008-06-27]
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District
Center for Science and Culture
Phillip E. Johnson
Darwin on Trial
Howard Ahmanson, Jr
Flying Spaghetti Monster
* David Morris, Alternet, 23 May 2005, [http://www.alternet.org/story/22039/ "Having Fun With Intelligent Design"]
* Peter Slevin,
Washington Post, March 14, 2005, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32444-2005Mar13.html "Battle on Teaching Evolution Sharpens"]
* Evan Ratliff, Wired, October 2004, [http://wired-vig.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/evolution.html "The Crusade Against Evolution"]
* Discovery Institute, October 13, 2004, [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&id=2251 "Wired magazine reporter criticized for agenda driven reporting] - critique of Wired article and list of alleged misrepresentations
* Gregg Easterbrook, Wired, December 2002, [http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/10.12/convergence.html "The New Convergence"]
* [http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/ Faith and Reason] an overview of the Fall 1998 television documentary presented by PBS dealing with religion and science.
* [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?program=CSC&command=view&id=1134 Teach the Controversy]
Stephen C. Meyer, Cincinnati Enquirer, March 30, 2002
* [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&program=CSC%20-%20Views%20and%20News&id=2475 No Need to Fear Teaching the Controversy, from the Discovery Institute]
* [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&id=2473 Reprint of Washington Post OpEd piece approving of teaching the controversy]
* [http://www.pubtheo.com/savedpages/discovery-institute-wedge-document.pdf The "Wedge Document": "So What?" (An explanation by the Discovery Institute)]
* [http://www.arn.org/wedge.htm The "Wedge" Archives] at the Access Research Network website.
* [http://www.talkreason.org/articles/SI_Resp.cfm Intelligent Design and that Vast Right-wing Conspiracy]
* [http://www.anthro.utah.edu/journalclub/JCArticles/TeachingControversy.pdf What's wrong with 'teaching the controversy'?]
* [http://www.secweb.org/asset.asp?AssetID=200 The Wedge Strategy Three Years Later]
* [http://www.au.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5582&abbr=cs_ The Discovery Institute]
* [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/johnson.html Critiques of Anti-Evolutionist Phillip Johnson's Views]
* [http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2002/1106id2.shtml Resolution disparaging ID and ID politics, by the board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science]
National Center for Science Education[http://www.ncseweb.org/article.asp?category=8 resources on ID]
** [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/996_intelligent_design_not_accep_9_10_2002.asp "Intelligent Design" Not Accepted by Most Scientists]
* [http://www.nap.edu/books/0309064066/html/ Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences] by the Steering Committee on Science and Creationism, National Academy of Sciences, addressing the issue of intelligent design in the guise of creationism.
* [http://www.axisoflogic.com/cgi-bin/exec/view.pl?archive=90&num=15426 The "Intelligent Design" of a Monkey Trial: A Case of Hidden Agendas] by Bob Weitzel. At the axisoflogic.com website.
* [http://www.csicop.org/specialarticles/controversy.html Should We “Teach the Controversy”?] Jason Rosenhouse csicop.org (Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal)
* [http://www.csicop.org/doubtandabout/anti-evolution/ State Your Case] Chris Mooney. csicop.org (Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal) 25 October 2004
* [http://www4.nationalacademies.org/nas/nashome.nsf/urllinks/NAS-6AQJS4?OpenDocument Evolution Controversy in Our Schools] A letter sent to Academy members by President of the National Academy of Sciences, Bruce Alberts 4 March 2005.
* [http://www.evcforum.net/RefLib/NaturalHistory_200204_Forrest.html The Newest Evolution of Creationism, "Intelligent design is about politics and religion, not science."] Barbara Forrest. Natural History magazine, April, 2002, page 80
* [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/3878_analysis_of_the_discovery_inst_4_5_2002.asp Analysis of the Discovery Institute's Bibliography of Supplementary Resources for Ohio Science Education] NCSE staff, National Center for Science Education website
* [http://www.msu.edu/~pennock5/research/papers/Pennock*Teach%20Creationism.pdf Should Creationism Be Taught in the Public Schools?] (PDF) Robert T. Pennock. March 2002
* [http://www.pfaw.org/pfaw/general/default.aspx?oId=3634 Back to School with the Religious Right] A report by People For the American Way Foundation
Audio and video
* [http://www.discovery.org/csc/streamingMedia/Teaching_the_Controversy_Legally.wmv How to Teach the Controversy Legally] By the Discovery Institute
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/video/38111000/rm/_38111794_creation_pigott_vi.ram The BBC's Robert Pigott: Changes to teaching evolution in Ohio]
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1845900 "Intelligent Design" Rivals Evolution in Ohio High Schools]
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4490224 Kansas Schools Struggle with Evolution and Creationism]
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=836932 Ohio State Board of Education proposed new standards for teaching science]
* [http://www.theconnection.org/shows/2004/11/20041110_a_main.asp Textbook Battles]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4248679.stm Why the debate over creationism is dividing the USA]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
The Blessed Trinity — The Blessed Trinity † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Blessed Trinity This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from Scripture; III. Proof of the Doctrine from Tradition;… … Catholic encyclopedia
The Church — The Church † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Church The term church (Anglo Saxon, cirice, circe; Modern German, Kirche; Sw., Kyrka) is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which… … Catholic encyclopedia
The Cantos — by Ezra Pound is a long, incomplete poem in 120 sections, each of which is a canto . Most of it was written between 1915 and 1962, although much of the early work was abandoned and the early cantos, as finally published, date from 1922 onwards.… … Wikipedia
The Incarnation — The Incarnation † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Incarnation I. The Fact of the Incarnation (1) The Divine Person of Jesus Christ A. Old Testament Proofs B. New Testament Proofs C. Witness of Tradition (2) The Human… … Catholic encyclopedia
The United States of America — The United States of America † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The United States of America BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary line to the St. John, and on the north by the… … Catholic encyclopedia
The Pope — The Pope † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Pope (Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas, a variant of pappas father, in classical Latin pappas Juvenal, Satires 6:633). The title pope, once used with far greater latitude (see below … Catholic encyclopedia
The Carmelite Order — The Carmelite Order † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Carmelite Order One of the mendicant orders. Origin The date of the foundation of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel has been under discussion from the fourteenth century to … Catholic encyclopedia
The True Cross — The True Cross † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The True Cross (AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True… … Catholic encyclopedia
The Oxford Movement (1833-1845) — The Oxford Movement (1833 1845) † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Oxford Movement (1833 1845) The Oxford Movement may be looked upon in two distinct lights. The conception which lay at its base, according to the Royal Commission on… … Catholic encyclopedia
THE MIDDLE AGES — … Encyclopedia of Judaism