GPR18


GPR18
G protein-coupled receptor 18
Identifiers
Symbols GPR18;
External IDs OMIM602042 MGI107859 HomoloGene18814 IUPHAR: GPR18 GeneCards: GPR18 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GPR18 210279 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2841 110168
Ensembl ENSG00000125245 ENSMUSG00000050350
UniProt Q14330 Q8K1Z6
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001098200.1 NM_182806.1
RefSeq (protein) NP_001091670.1 NP_877958.1
Location (UCSC) Chr 13:
99.91 – 99.91 Mb
Chr 14:
122.31 – 122.31 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

N-arachidonyl glycine receptor also known as G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR18 gene.[1][2] Along with the other previously "orphan" receptors GPR55 and GPR119, GPR18 has been found to be a receptor for endogenous lipid neurotransmitters, several of which also bind to cannabinoid receptors.[3][4][5]

Recent research supports the hypothesis that GPR18 is the abnormal cannabidiol receptor and N-arachidonoyl glycine, the endogenous lipid metabolite of anandamide, initiates directed microglial migration in the CNS through activation of GPR18.[6]

Ligands

Ligands found to bind to GPR18 include:[6][7]

  • N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly)
  • Abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD)
  • O-1602
  • Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol9-THC)
  • Anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, AEA)
  • Arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA)

References

  1. ^ Gantz I, Muraoka A, Yang YK, Samuelson LC, Zimmerman EM, Cook H, Yamada T (Sep 1997). "Cloning and chromosomal localization of a gene (GPR18) encoding a novel seven transmembrane receptor highly expressed in spleen and testis". Genomics 42 (3): 462–6. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4752. PMID 9205118. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: GPR18 G protein-coupled receptor 18". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=2841. 
  3. ^ Kohno M, Hasegawa H, Inoue A, Muraoka M, Miyazaki T, Oka K, Yasukawa M (September 2006). "Identification of N-arachidonylglycine as the endogenous ligand for orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR18". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 347 (3): 827–32. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.06.175. PMID 16844083. 
  4. ^ Burstein S (December 2008). "The elmiric acids: biologically active anandamide analogs". Neuropharmacology 55 (8): 1259–64. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.11.011. PMC 2621443. PMID 18187165. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2621443. 
  5. ^ Bradshaw HB, Lee SH, McHugh D (September 2009). "ORPHAN ENDOGENOUS LIPIDS AND ORPHAN GPCRS: A GOOD MATCH". Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 89 (3–4): 131–4. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2009.04.006. PMC 2740803. PMID 19379823. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2740803. 
  6. ^ a b McHugh D, Hu SS, Rimmerman N, Juknat A, Vogel Z, Walker JM, Bradshaw HB (2010). "N-arachidonoyl glycine, an abundant endogenous lipid, potently drives directed cellular migration through GPR18, the putative abnormal cannabidiol receptor". BMC Neurosci 11: 44. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-11-44. PMC 2865488. PMID 20346144. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2865488. 
  7. ^ McHugh D, Page J, Dunn E, Bradshaw HB (May 2011). "Δ(9) -THC and N-arachidonyl glycine are full agonists at GPR18 and cause migration in the human endometrial cell line, HEC-1B". Br J Pharmacol: no. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01497.x. PMID 21595653. 

Further reading

Metabolites and
signaling molecules
Peptide
Miscellaneous
Class B: Secretin like Class C: Metabotropic
glutamate / pheromone Class F:
Frizzled / Smoothened
B trdu: iter (nrpl/grfl/cytl/horl), csrc (lgic, enzr, gprc, igsr, intg, nrpr/grfr/cytr), itra (adap, gbpr, mapk), calc, lipd; path (hedp, wntp, tgfp+mapp, notp, jakp, fsap, hipp, tlrp)

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