- Uprising of Polish political exiles in Siberia
Siberian Uprising or Baikal Insurrection ( _pl. Powstanie zabajkalskie or "Powstanie nad Bajkałem", _ru. Кругобайкальское восстание) was a short-lived uprising of about 700 Polish
political prisoners and exilees (" Sybiracy") in Siberia, Russian Empire, that started on 24 June 1866and lasted for a few days, till their defeat on 28 June.
After the failure of the
January Uprisingin Poland in 1863-1865, the Russian empire exiled many of the Poles involved to Siberia. [About 18,623 people were exiled according to Russian sources (ru icon [http://www.cultinfo.ru/fulltext/1/001/008/105/640.htm Dane: Bolzhaja Sovetskaja Encoklopedija] ); out of them about 11,000 to Eastern Siberia(ru icon [http://kcbs.comsat.ru/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=860 A.Jakovec. Strana, w kotoruju ssylali. Polaki w Buriatii.] , ru icon [http://novsvet.narod.ru/krop03-03-07.htm Petr Kropotkin. Zapiski rewolucionera.] ); according to Polish sources about 39,000 were exiled; half of that number to Siberia ( Stefan Kieniewicz, "Powstanie Styczniowe", Warszawa, 1983, ISBN 83-01-03652-4) ]
The insurgents had brief contacts with Siberian nationalists, who hoped for a general Siberian uprising and the establishment of the republic of
Svobodoslaviya(Свободославия). [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=1JGTkzEk79oC&pg=PA107&dq=1866+uprising+Siberia&ei=PVZHR6ThNYue7wLe_9H4Bg&sig=_AC6E5DMRJGCrYn2_k_Y3_wkloI] , [http://books.google.com/books?id=XmrVd7DvWLwC&pg=PA65&dq=1866+uprising+Siberia&ei=PVZHR6ThNYue7wLe_9H4Bg&sig=NpULAUSLJ6xPmAb356g7-PcKGlc] ] They also had contact with Nikolai Serno-Solovyevich; another group supporting the insurgents was the Zemlya i Volyawith activists such as Nikolai Chernyshevskyand Aleksandr Herzen. The Poles and the Russians planned a major uprising under Chernyshevsky and Walenty Lewandowski, but due to betrayal a wave of arrests disrupted their plans.
Although the arrests prevented a major uprising from occurring, a group of about 700 Poles who were assigned to the construction of the
Circumbaikal Highway(a road near Lake Baikaland the Mongolian border) decided to disarm the guards and escape via Mongolia to China, where they hoped to find English ships and return to Europeby way of America.
The insurgents called themselves a Siberian Legion of Free Poles ("Syberyjski Legion Wolnych Polaków"). Numbering about 700 people and led by
Narcyz Celińskiand Gustaw Szaramowiczthey attacked the nearby units of Russian Army, starting with their escort of 138 soldiers. They liberated other small groups of prisoners and raided local institutions such as the post office. However some of the Russian soldiers ( Cossacks) taken captive managed to escape and alerted the governor-generalin Irkutsk. A major mobilization of Russian forces in Siberia occurred, with many thousands of troops converging on the insurgents. The insurgents split, with Celiński trying to evade the enemy forces and Szaramowicz trying to break through them. Some of the insurgents quickly surrendered, particularly those who were content with the partial amnestyand reduction of sentences they received in the aftermath of an assassination attempt on Alexander II of Russiain April that year. On 28 Junethe rest, commanded by Szaramowicz, were defeated at the battle of Mishikha("Miszychna, Мишиха"). [ru icon [http://kcbs.comsat.ru/index.php/option/content/task/view/id/895 Vladimir Polomoshin Ne zginela Polska] ]
Most of the insurgents were either killed or captured. Virtually none escaped, although some were taken prisoner weeks after the uprising started. All of the 400 survivors had their sentences increased, and four of the leaders were to be executed (in addition to Celiński and Szaramowicz,
Władysław Kotkowskiand Jakub Reiner). They were allowed to write letters to their families, but they were never delivered, as the delivery was stopped by a personal order from tsar Alexander II of Russia. They were executed on 27 November 1866near Irkutsk.
Kornel Ujejskidedicated one of his poems to this event. [pl icon [http://pl.wikisource.org/wiki/Na_zgon_rozstrzelanych_w_Irkucku Na zgon rozstrzelanych w Irkucku] ] A street in Irkutsk is also named after "Polish insurgents".
Interia Encyklopedia[http://encyklopedia.interia.pl/haslo?hid=96851 POWSTANIE POLSKIE NAD BAJKAŁEM 1866]
Encyklopedia PWN[http://encyklopedia.wp.pl/sz_tresc.html?encid=1728212&ticaid=14e1a powstanie zabajkalskie 1866]
* Czajna, "Syberyjski Legion Wolnych Polaków", Histmag #1 ( [http://histmag.org/?id=218 Download archival versions from here] )
* Henryk Skok "Powstanie polskich zesłańców za Bajkałem w 1866 r." w: "
Przegląd Historyczny" t. LIV z. 2 1963
* Henryk Skok "Polacy nad Bajkałem 1863-1883"; wyd.
PWN Warszawa 1974
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Sybirak — The Polish term sybirak (plural: sybiracy ) is synonymous to the Russian counterpart sibiryak (a dweller of Siberia) and generally refers to all people resettled to Siberiapl icon cite encyclopedia | editor = Stanisław Dubisz | encyclopedia… … Wikipedia
List of revolutions and rebellions — This is a list of revolutions and rebellions.BC*499 BC 493 BC: Ionian Revolt. Most of the Greek cities occupied by the Persians in Asia Minor and Cyprus rose up against their Persian rulers. *460 BC Inarus revolted against the Persians in Egypt… … Wikipedia
Circumbaikal Highway — The Circumbaikal Highway (Around Baikal Highway, Round Baikal Highway, Russian: Кругобайкальский тракт, Krugabaikalsky Trakt) was part of the Main Siberian Postal Highway (главный сибирский почтовый тракт). It started from Irkutsk, went along the … Wikipedia
Decembrist revolt — Decemberist redirects here. For the rock band, see The Decemberists. For the unfinished Tolstoy novel, see The Decembrists. Decembrist Revolt Decembrists at the Senate Square … Wikipedia
Vladimir Lenin — Lenin redirects here. For other uses, see Lenin (disambiguation). Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Владимир Ильич Ленин … Wikipedia
Cossacks — Not to be confused with Kazakhs. For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). Part of a series on … Wikipedia
Poland — Polska redirects here. For other uses, see Polska (disambiguation). This article is about the country. For other uses, see Poland (disambiguation). Republic of Poland Rzeczpospolita Polska … Wikipedia
Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky — Nikolay Muravyov Amursky. Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov Amursky (also spelled as Nikolai Nikolaevich Muraviev Amurskiy; Russian: Николай Николаевич Муравьёв Амурский; 23 August [O.S. 11 August] 1809 – 30 November [O.S. 18 November] 1881) was a… … Wikipedia
literature — /lit euhr euh cheuhr, choor , li treuh /, n. 1. writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays. 2.… … Universalium
Russia — /rush euh/, n. 1. Also called Russian Empire. Russian, Rossiya. a former empire in E Europe and N and W Asia: overthrown by the Russian Revolution 1917. Cap.: St. Petersburg (1703 1917). 2. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 3. See Russian… … Universalium