- James Fraser (bishop)
James Fraser (
August 18, 1818– October 22, 1885) was a reforming Anglican bishopof Manchester, England. An able Church administrator and policy leader, he was active in developing the Church's approach to educationand in practical politicsand industrial relations. Though his views were ecumenicaland he was respected within a wide variety of religions, against his own instincts he allowed himself to become involved in some unpleasant litigationunder the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874.
Born in Prestbury,
Gloucestershire, Fraser's father was an unsuccessful merchantwho left his wife and seven children in penury when he died in 1832. Fraser was brought up by his grandfather in Bilston, Staffordshire, then at various schools. He finished his education at Shrewsbury Schooland then Lincoln College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1839. His limited funds and the continual competition for bursaries entailed a scholastic life only relieved by his passion for athletics. He loved horses and huntingbut found it difficult to finance the lifestyle.Hamilton (2007)]
Elected a fellow of
Oriel College, Oxford, in 1840, he worked tutoring and in the library before taking deacon's orders in 1846 and giving up his passion for hunting. After some parochial work in Oxford, he was ordained a priestin 1847 before becoming rectorof Cholderton, Wiltshire. He continued his educational work as a tutor and as occasional examiner.
In 1858, he served on the
Royal Commissionon education and in 1860 became rector of Ufton Nervet, Berkshire, soon establishing a reputation as an able church manager. He travelled to the USAand Canadain 1865 on a commission to examine education there and his insightful report enhanced his reputation as a social analyst and leader of church opinion. Though he was offered the post of Bishop of Calcuttahe turned it down. In 1867 he was appointed by the Home Secretaryto a commission on child labourin agricultureand further enhanced his reputation in policy development.
Bishop of Manchester
Respect for his knowledge of educational matters led Prime Minister
William Ewart Gladstoneto appoint him bishop of Manchester and he was consecratedon March 25 1870. The Anglican Diocese of Manchesterwas still comparatively new and its only former bishop, James Prince Lee, had done little to develop its infrastructure. Fraser set to work to remedy this with a programme of consecrating 99 new churches and establishment of a bureaucratic structure including, of course, a Board of Education.
Politics and arbitration
Bishop Fraser's opponents said of him that, "Omnipresence was his "forte", and omniscience his foible", reflecting his restless activity in preaching the
gospel, reform and activity in civil society. He was a common sight on the streets of Manchester, hurrying to address workers of all kinds several times a day. He was governor of many educational institutions including the Manchester Grammar Schooland Owens College. In 1874 he began a career as an arbitrator, working to resolve conflict in a number of strikes. He was an early enthusiast for and advocate of the cooperativemovement. He served as President of the first day of the 1878 Co-operative Congress.Citation | title = Congress Presidents 1869-2002| url =http://archive.co-op.ac.uk/downloadFiles/congressPresidentstable.pdf|date=February 2002| accessdate =2008-05-10]
Doctrine and litigation
Never overly-interested in
theology, Fraser was a liberal in matters of worship who favoured the old high churchschool, though with little sympathy for what he saw as the excesses of the Oxford Movement. He supported the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874but in 1878 was unhappy to be unable to prevent the imprisonment of the Rev. Sidney Faithorn Green, the incumbent of Miles Platting. [Diggle (1887) "pp"398-419]
Fraser ultimately secured Green's release but Green's
beneficewas sequestrated by the courts. The parishpatron, Sir Percival Heywoodnominated Rev. Harry Cowgill, Green's unlawful curate, as the new incumbent. Fraser was involved in much litigationover his opposition to the appointment before being exonerated in a judgement by Baron Pollockin 1884. [Yates (1999) "pp"265-269]
In 1880, he married Agnes Ellen Frances Duncan shortly after the death of his mother who had shared his home. He died suddenly at the bishop's palace following complications from a chill. Long known as the "bishop of all denominations", his death was honoured by all the
nonconformistchurches along with the Jewish and Greek Orthodox congregations. Huge crowds attended his funeral in Manchester. He was interred in Ufton Nervet in his mother's grave.
grade II listed statueby Thomas Woolnerstands in Albert Square, Manchester.
*Bentley, J. (1987) "Ritualism and Politics in Victorian Britain: The Attempt to Legislate for Belief"
*Bullock, C. (1889) "The Lives of Three Bishops"
*Diggle, J.W. (1887) "The Lancashire Life of Bishop Fraser"
*Hamilton, J. A. (1889) "Fraser, James (1818–1885), bishop of Manchester", in S. Lee "
Dictionary of National Biography"
*— rev. H. C. G. Matthew (2007) " [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10110 Fraser, James (1818–1885)] ", "
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, online edn, accessed 27 February 2008 ODNBsub
*Hughes, T. (1887) "James Fraser, Second Bishop of Manchester: A Memoir, 1818–1885"
* cite book | title=Anglican Ritualism in Victorian Britain, 1830-1910 | author=Yates, N. | year=1999 | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=Oxford | id=ISBN 0198269897 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=55aaZGqqh6oC&pg=PA244&lpg=PA244&dq=public+worship+regualtion+act+english+church+union&source=web&ots=Pr4Epd4hiA&sig=YbPgR7F-KK01DygP1duig-8slFk#PPA265,M1 | pages="pp"265-269 ----
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