List of Roman auxiliary regiments


List of Roman auxiliary regiments

This article contains listings of Roman auxiliary regiments attested in the epigraphic record, by province of deployment. For the history, organisation and equipment of these regiments, see Roman auxiliaries.

The article is divided into three parts. Table I displays regiments attested in the 2nd century, the period when there is the most abundant evidence. Table II displays regiments attested only in the 1st century. Table III displays regiments attested only in the 3rd century.

In addition, an index of regimental names is provided that explains the origin of the names, most of which are based on the names of the subject tribes or cities of the empire from which they were originally recruited (as time went by, they became staffed by recruits from anywhere, especially from the province in which they were deployed).

Introduction

Auxiliary regiments, called "auxilia" by the Romans, were formations kept separate from the legions, which were recruited from Roman citizens only. Auxilia were mostly recruited from the peregrini, i.e. subjects of the Roman empire who did not hold Roman citizenship: the vast majority of the empire's inhabitants in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD (in 212 AD, all the inhabitants of the empire were granted Roman citizenship).

There were three basic types of auxiliary regiment: "alae" ("wings") which contained cavalry only; "cohortes" ("cohorts") which contained infantry only; and "cohortes equitatae" which contained both infantry and cavalry. A number of regiments, of all three types, were designated "sagittariorum", indicating that the regiment contains archers. A minority of regiments, designated "milliariae", were double the normal strength.

The province each unit is entered is the one where it was based for the longest attested period.

Sources

* Holder, Paul "Studies in the Auxilia of the Roman Army" (1980)
* Holder, Paul "Auxiliary Deployment in the Reign of Hadrian" in "Documenting the Roman Army" (2003)
* Spaul, John "COHORS 2" (2000)
* Spaul, John "ALA" (1994)

TABLE I: Regiments attested in the 2nd century

To access the table of auxiliary regiments for the province of your interest, click on the relevant note.

* Britannia ("England/Wales") hcref|a|Britannia
* Germania Inferior ("S Netherlands/NW Rhineland") hcref|b|Germania Inf
* Germania Superior ("S Rheinland/Alsace-Lorraine") hcref|c|Germania Sup
* Raetia/Noricum ("Germany S of Danube/Switzerland/Austria") hcref|d|Raetia
* Pannonia Sup & Inf ("E Hungary/Slovenia") hcref|e|Pannonia
* Moesia Superior ("Serbia") hcref|f|Moesia Sup
* Moesia Inferior ("N Bulgaria, coastal Romania") hcref|g|Moesia Inf
* Dacia ("Romania") hcref|h|Dacia
* Cappadocia ("Central/East Turkey") hcref|i|Cappadocia
* Syria inc Judaea, Arabia ("Syria, Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, Jordan") hcref|j|Syria
* Aegyptus ("Egypt") hcref|k|Egypt
* Mauretania inc Africa Pro ("Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco") hcref|l|Mauretania
* Other provinces hcref|m|InternalKEY:

c.R. = "civium Romanorum" ("of Roman citizens"): an honorific title
eq = "equitata" (i.e. contains a cavalry contingent)
sagitt = "sagittariorum" (archer unit)
unit in bold type = milliaria (double-strength) regiment

GLOSSARY:

(a) imperial dedications

* "Augusta": founded by emperor Augustus (r.37BC-14AD), or honoured by any of his successors
* "Claudia": founded by, or honoured by, one of: Tiberius (r.14-37), Caligula (37-41) or Claudius (41-54), all of whom were members of the Claudii clan
* "Flavia": Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus r.69-79) one of his two sons and successors, Titus (79-81) or Domitian (81-96)
* "Ulpia": Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus r.98-117)
* "Aelia": Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus r.117-138)
* "Aurelia": Marcus Aurelius (r.161-180)
* "Septimia": Septimius Severus (r.197-211)N.B. In the 4th century, "Valeria" referred to emperor Diocletian (Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, r.284-305) and "Flavia" to Constantine I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus, r.312-337) or some of his successors.

(b) regiments originally raised in emergencies

* "civium Romanorum" (c.R. for short): regiment (i) originally composed of Roman citizens raised for Illyrian revolt crisis (6-9 AD) OR (ii) granted the title as reward for outstanding service by later emperors. All the regiment's members at the time, but not their successors, would be granted Roman citizenship [Goldsworthy "Complete Roman Army" 97]
* "ingenuorum": regiment originally free-born ("ingenui") Roman citizens
* "classica": regiment originally composed of fleet ("classis") personnel. Also "nauticarum" = "of sailors" ("nautae") and "maritima" (from "mare" "sea")
* "tironum": regiment originally trainees ("tirones")
* "veterana": regiment originally composed of auxiliary veterans recalled to active service
* "voluntariorum": regiment originally volunteers ("voluntarii"), in reality slaves freed in return for military service during the Illyrian revolt crisis [Goldsworthy "Complete Roman Army" 64]

(c) other regiments

* "singularium": elite cavalry squadrons split from "equites singulares Augusti" (imperial horse guards from "singulares" "escorts") after campaigns to become regular "alae".

* "contariorum": heavy lancers (from contus, a long lance), deployed in Pannonia to counter Sarmatians

INDEX

Linguistic group code

* C = Celtic language group
* X = non Indo-European language
* X/C = non Indo-European base with strong Celtic influence
* X/S = Semitic language group

Citatations

ee also

* Roman auxiliaries
* List of Roman legions


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