- Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic)
"Archbishop of Dublin" (Irish: "Ard-Easpuig Bhaile Átha Cliath" ) is the title of the senior cleric who presides over the Archdiocese of Dublin. The
Church of Irelandhas a similar role, heading the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough. In both cases, the Archbishop is also Primate of Ireland. The Archbishop has his seat at Saint Mary's Pro-Cathedral, though formally Dublin's cathedral is still Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin.
Before the diocese
In the early church in Ireland, the organisation had a monastic basis, with greatest power vested in the
abbots of the major communities and bishops, but not organised dioceses in the modern sense, and the offices of abbot and bishop were often comprised in one person. Some early "Bishops of Dublin," back to 633, are mentioned in Ware's "Antiquities of Ireland" but the Diocese of Dublin and so the office proper is not considered to have begun until 1038, and when Ireland began to see organised dioceses, all of the current Diocese of Dublin, and more, was comprised in the Diocese of Glendalough.
The early bishops, dependent on Canterbury
Following a reverted conversion by
Sigtrygg Caech, Norse King of Dublin, his son Godfrey became Christian in 943, and the Kingdom of Dublin first sought to have a bishop of their own in the eleventh century, under Sitric MacAulaf, who had been on pilgrimageto Rome. He sent his chosen candidate, Donat (or Donagh or Donatus) to be consecrated in Canterburyin 1038, and the new prelate set up the Diocese of Dublin as a small territory within the walled city, over which he presided until 1074. The Bishop of Dublin answered to the Archbishop of Canterburyand did not attend councils of the Irish Church.
The second Bishop of Dublin was Patrick or
Gilla Pátraic(1074-1084), consecrated at St. Paul's, London, followed by Donngus Ua hAingliu( Donat O'Haingly), 1085-1095, consecrated at Canterbury, and in turn succeeded by his nephew, Samuel Ua hAingliu( Samuel O'Haingly) (1096-1121), consecrated by St. Anselmat Winchester.
Synod of Rathbreasail, convened in 1118 by Gillebert (Gilbert), Bishop of Limerick, on papal authority, the number of dioceses in Irelandwas fixed at twenty-four. Dublin was not included, the city being described as lying in the Diocese of Glendalough, but the line of Danish Bishops continued, still attached to Canterbury. From 1121, the fifth and last Bishop of Dublin was one Gréne (Gregory), consecrated at Lambethby Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Reorganisation of the Church in Ireland, 1152
Pope Eugene IIIcommissioned Cardinal Paparoto go to Ireland and establish four metropolitans, and at a general synod at Kells in 1152, Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam, were created archiepiscopal sees. In a document drawn up by the then Archbishop of Tuamin 1214, the cardinal is described as finding both a bishop based in Dublin, who at the time exercised his episcopal office within the city walls only, and "He found in the same Diocese another church in the mountains, which likewise had the name of a city [Glendalough] and had a certain chorepiscopus. But he delivered the palliumto Dublin which was the best city and appointed that the diocese (Glendalough) in which both these cities were should be divided, and that one part thereof should fall to the metropolitan." The part of North County Dublinknown as Fingallwas taken from Glendalough Diocese and attached to Dublin City and the new Archbishop presided over 40 parishes.
Gregory, the existing Bishop of Dublin, was elevated as the first Archbishop, with the Bishops of Kildare, Ossory,
Leighlin, Ferns, and Glendalough reporting to him. The second Archbishopwas Lorcán Ua Tuathail (Saint Laurence O'Toole), previously Abbotof Glendalough, who had previously been elected as Bishop of Glendalough but had declined that office. During his time in office, religious orders from the continent came to Ireland, and as part of this trend, Laurence installed a community of canons to minister according to the ArrouasianRule in the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, later known as Christchurch.
Saint Laurence's successor was a Norman, and from then onward to the time of the
Reformation, Dublin's Archbishops were all either Norman or English. High offices in the Church were never free of political influence, and in fact many of Dublin's Archbishops exercised civil authority for the English crown. Archbishop Henry de Loundres's name appears in the text of the " Magna Carta" along with the names of English Bishops as witnesses. In 1185, the Pope had granted a petition to combine the Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough, to take effect on the death of the then Bishop of Glendalough. The union took effect in 1216, with the approval of Innocent III, and the dioceses, and so the offices of bishop, have remained merged ever since.
Archbishops of Dublin and Primates of Ireland
Archbishops of Dublin and Primates of Ireland
* 1152-1162 Gregory
St Laurence O'Toole
* 1181-1212 John Comyn or Cumin
Henry de Loundres(of London)
* 1230-1255 Luke"Due to the increasing association of the Archdiocese with the administration, and the significant secular roles of many office-holders, the Irish clans sought, and received, bishops of their own, designated as Bishops of Glendalough, despite the union of the Dioceses; at least six such appointments were made."
* 1256-1271 Fulk de Sandford
John de Derlington
John de Sandford, O.P."Thomas de Chadworth was elected but not consecrated in 1295, and may also have served in 1299"
* 1296-1298 William of Hotham, O.P.
Richard de Ferings"Richard de Haverings, elected Archbishop of Dublin in March 1307, was never consecrated and resigned in November 1310"
John de Leche
Alexander de Bicknor
John de St Paul
Robert Waldeby, O.S.A.
Richard Northalis, Carmelite
* 1417-1449 Richard Talbot
Hugh Inge, O.P.
John Alen"Following the death of Alen, Henry VIII put pressure on the Chapters of Dublin's cathedrals, who elected (January 1536) an Archbishop of his choice, George Browne. Although Browne was consecrated by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, he was never recognised by the Pope. The Church of Ireland succession began at this time, and, after a gap, the Catholic succession continued.
Hugh Curwen(adhered to Catholicism under Queen Mary but then conformed to the State Church under Queen Elizabeth)
* 1585?-???? Donald (reference in the Papal Bull of Provision of Mateo de Oviedo O.F.M. as being the immediate predecessor as Archbishop but there is no further information known about him)
Mateo de Oviedo, O.F.M., resigned
* 1623-1651 Thomas Fleming, O.F.M.
* 1669-1680 Peter Talbot
* 1683-1692 Patrick Russell
2 Sep1692 - 20 Jul1705 Peter Creagh
* 1724-1729 Edward Murphy
* 1729-1733 Luke Fagan
* 1734-1757 John Linegar
* 1757-1763 Richard Lincoln
* 1763-1769 Patrick Fitzsimon
* 1770-1786 John Carpenter
11 May 1823 John Thomas Troy
* 1823-1852 Daniel Murray
3 May 1852- 24 Oct1878 Paul Cardinal Cullen
4 Apr1879 - 11 Feb1885 Edward Cardinal MacCabe
3 Jul1885 - 9 Apr1921 William Joseph Walsh
28 Aug1921 - 9 Feb1940 Edward Joseph Byrne
6 Nov1940 - 1971 John Charles McQuaid, C.S.Sp.
29 Dec1971 - 1 Sep1984 Dermot J. Ryan
15 Nov1984 - 8 Apr1987 Kevin McNamara
21 Jan1988 - 26 Apr2004 Desmond Cardinal Connell
26 Apr2004 - Diarmuid Martin
From the Middle Ages, the seat of the Archbishop of Dublin was
Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin, although for many centuries, it shared this status with St. Patrick's Cathedral, and the Archbishop had roles at both places. In early times, there was considerable conflict over status but under the six-point agreement of 1300, "Pacis Compositio":
* The consecration and enthronement of the Archbishop of Dublin was to take place at Christ Church - records show that this provision was not always followed, with many Archbishops enthroned in both, and at least two in St. Patrick's only
* Christ Church had formal precedence, as the mother and senior cathedral of the diocese
* Christ Church was to retain the cross, mitre and ring of each deceased Archbishop of Dublin
* Deceased Archbishops of Dublin were to be buried alternately in each of the two cathedrals, unless they personally willed otherwise
* The annual consecration of chrism oil for the diocese was to take place at Christ Church
* The two cathedrals were to act as one, and shared equally in their freedoms
As the established
Church of Irelandretained both ancient cathedrals after the Reformation, the Roman Catholic prelate had no cathedral for several centuries but now maintains his seat at Saint Mary's Pro-Cathedral.
See the article
Primate of Irelandfor a discussion of the relative status of the Archbishops of Dublin and Armagh as Primates.
Notes and references
* New York, 1909: The Catholic Encyclopedia; Robert Appleton Company
* [http://www.gcatholic.com/dioceses/diocese/dubl0.htm Archdiocese of Dublin] by Giga-Catholic Information
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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