- Foreign relations of Hungary
Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the
anti-Sovietleader Imre Nagyin November 1956, Hungary's foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. During the Communist period, Hungary maintained treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria. It was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pactand Comecon, and it was the first central European country to withdraw from those organizations, now defunct.
As with any "country", Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. For Hungary, this is a history of more than 400 years of domination by great powers--the Ottomans, the
Habsburgdynasty, the Germans during World War II, and the Soviets during the Cold War--and a geography of regional instability and separation from Hungarian minorities living in neighboring countries. Hungary's foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a direct response to these factors. Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peaceprogram in 1994 and has actively supported the IFORand SFORmissions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungary's most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATOand the European Unionin 1997. Hungary became member of NATO in 1999, and member of the EU in 2004.
Hungary also has improved its often-chilled neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with
Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Actin 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern Europe. Hungary has been a member of the United Nationssince December 1955.
Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Damsproject, involving Hungary and Czechoslovakia, was agreed on September 16, 1977 ("Budapest Treaty"). The treaty envisioned a cross-borderbarrage system between the towns Gabčíkovo, Czechoslovakiaand Nagymaros, Hungary. After intensive campaign the project became widely hated as a symbol of the old communistregime. In 1989 Hungarian government decided to suspend it.In its sentence from September 1997, the International Court of Justicestated that both sides breached their obligation and that the 1977 Budapest Treaty is still valid. In 1998 the Slovak government turned to the International Court, demanding the Nagymaros part to be built. The international dispute is still not solved as of 2008.
Disputes - international:Ongoing
Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Damsdispute with Slovakia
Illicit drugs:Major trans-shipment point for
Southwest Asian heroinand cannabisand transit point for South American cocainedestined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines
Diplomatic missions of Hungary
List of diplomatic missions in Hungary
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