Biplots are a type of graph used in statistics. A biplot allows information on both samples and variables of a data matrix to be displayed graphically. Samples are displayed as points while variables are displayed either as vectors, linear axes or nonlinear trajectories. In the case of categorical variables, "category level points" may be used to represent the levels of a categorical variable. A "generalised" biplot displays information on both continuous and categorical variables.

The biplot was introduced by Gabriel (1971). Gower and Hand (1996) wrote a monograph. Yan and Kang (2003) published the book "GGE biplot analysis", which contains various methods to visualize and interpret a biplot.


* Gabriel, K.R., 1971. The biplot graphic display of matrices with application to principal component analysis. Biometrika 58 (3), 453-467.
* Gower, J.C., Hand, D.J, 1996. Biplots. Chapman&Hall, London, UK.
* Yan, W., Kang, M.S. 2003. GGE Biplot Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

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