- Military of Iran
Infobox National Military
name=Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran
amount=$6.3 billion (2005)
Defense Industries Organization Iran Aviation Industries Organization Iran Electronics Industries (IEI)
Military history of Iran Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran Dhofar Rebellion Siege of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs Iran–Iraq War Operation Praying Mantis Operation Prime Chance
Air Force Ranks Insignia
Army Ranks Insignia
Navy Ranks Insignia
IRGC Ranks InsigniaThe Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran ( _fa. نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the IRIA ( _fa. ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) , the IRGC ( _fa. سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی), and the Police Force [ [http://www.police.ir/ سایت اطلاع رسانی نیروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران ] ] ( _fa. نيروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران).
These forces total about 545,000 active personnel (not including the Police Force).
IISSMilitary Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p.187] All branches of armed forces fall under the command of General Headquarters of Armed Forces (ستاد کل نیروهای مسلح). The Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logisticsis responsible for planning logistics and funding of the armed forces and is not involved in in-the-field military operational command.
*The Iranian Military consists of the
Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Navy, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force. The regular armed forces have an estimated 420,000 personnel: the Islamic Republic of Iran Army, 350,000 personnel; the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy, 18,000 personnel; and the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, 52,000 airmen.
Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, or Revolutionary Guards, has an estimated 125,000 personnel in five branches: Its own Navy, Air Force, and Ground Forces; and the Quds Force( Special Forces).
Basijis a paramilitary volunteer force controlled by the Islamic Revolutionary Guards. Its membership is a matter of controversy. Iranian sources claim a membership of 12.6 million, including women, of which perhaps 3 million are combat capable. There are a claimed 2,500 battalions of which some are full-time personnel. [ IISSMilitary Balance 2008, p.244] Globalsecurity.orgquotes a 2005 study by the Center for Strategic and International Studiesestimating 90,000 active-duty full-time uniformed members, 300,000 reservists, and a total of 1 million men that can be mobilized if need be. [ GlobalSecurity.org, [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/iran/basij.htm] ]
Iran's military was called the Middle East's most powerful by
General John Abizaidchief of United States Central Command(U.S. forces' commander in the region). However he did not include the Israel Defense Forcesas it did not fall in his area of operations. [ [http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Iran_Favors_Asymmetric_Strategy_In_Joust_With_US_999.html Iran Favors Asymmetric Strategy In Joust With US ] ]
With thousands of years of recorded history, and due to an unchanging geographic (and subsequently geopolitical) condition , Iran (previously known as
Persiain the West until 1935) has had a long, varied, and checkered military culture and history, ranging from triumphant and unchallenged ancient military supremacy affording effective superpower status in its day, to a series of near catastrophic defeats (beginning with the destruction of Elam) at the hand of previously subdued peripheral nations (including Greece, Arabia, and the Asiatic nomadic tribes at the Eastern boundary of the lands traditionally home to the Iranian people).
In its time, Iran has rapidly dispatched ancient powers such as
Babylon; its kings have sat enthroned as Pharaohin Egypt; repeatedly held off, sometimes defeated, the otherwise successful armies of Rome(most memorably recording the submissive demeanor of a captured Roman Caesar), although its capitol was sacked by Trajanand it probably survived as an independent nation due to disinterest in affairs so far east for Romans. Certainly Julius Caesarwould have conquered it if he had not been murdered 3 days before he was about to set out; and apparently affected even a presumably hostile Greek historian to dedicate an entire book considering in detail the pseudo-military culture of the ancient Persians of Shahanshah Darius the Great.
Iranian military actions and martial culture have also left Iran with a rich legacy of contributions to military arts, weapons, tactics, strategy, and conduct of the mankind. Expeditions entailed crossings of entire armies from
Asiato Europeover military bridges constructed by extending a floating platform of ships from the Asian land mass to Europe.
One of the earliest and most effective manifestations of light cavalry equipped with stand-off weapons were the bow and arrow equipped
Knights complete with shining armor and plumed helmets were Sassanid Iranian nobles, and European heraldry is directly traceable to the Iranian Knights and overall culture of (lone) heroes and mythic figures such as Rostam, Zal, Bahram, etc.
And it was the sovereign head of the Iranian Army that marched un-opposed into Babylon that decreed the first codec of the rights of conquered people and nations.
And this is the same country that suffered completely unexpected and decisive defeats at the hands of
Alexander the Great, and later Muslim Arabs, seemingly at the height of its might. And later on felt the full force of the brutally violent and destructive West-ward Mongol tribes.
Combat history and operations
Combat history and operations
Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran(1941).
Dhofar Rebellion(1962-1975). 1500 Iranian troops supported the Sultan of Oman against an insurrection.
Siege of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs(1971).
Operation Praying Mantis(April 18, 1988). The U.S. retaliation for the Iranian mining of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58).
Operation Prime Chance(1987-1989). The U.S. operation to stop Iranian mine-laying vessels from blocking the international sea lanes through the Persian Gulf.
Ali Khamenei(Supreme Leader and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, in Persian: فرمانده کل قوا)
Hasan Firuzabadi(Head of the Armed Forces General Command Headquarters, in Persian: رئیس ستاد کل نیروهای مسلح)
Ataollah Salehi(Commander-in-Chief of the Army, in Persian: فرمانده کل ارتش)
Abdolrahim Mousavi(Chief of the Joint Staff of the Army)
Mohammad-Hossein Dadress(Commander of the Ground Force)
Ahmad Mighani(Commander of the Air Force)
Habibollah Sayyari(Commander of the Navy)
Mohammad Ali Jafari(Commander-in-Chief of the IRGC, in Persian: فرمانده کل سپاه پاسداران)
Mohammad Hejazi(Chief of the Joint Staff of the IRGC) [ [www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=5206 Iran’s top military commanders die in plane crash] ]
Mohammad-Reza Zahedi(Commander of IRGC Ground Force) [http://www.khamenei.ir/EN/Message/detail.jsp?id=20060121A ] ]
Hossein Salami(Commander of IRGC Air Force)
Morteza Saffari(Commander of IRGC Navy) [ [http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=6475 Iran to hold large-scale naval war games] ]
Mohammad Hejazi(Commander of Basijforces) [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/iran/basij.htm Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij Mobilisation Resistance Force] ]
Qassem Soleimani(Commander of Quds Force) [ [http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=3169 Iran Revolutionary Guards expect key changes in high command] ]
Esmaeil Ahmadi-Moghaddam(Commander-in-Chief of the Police, in Persian: فرمانده کل نیروی انتظامی)
Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar(Minister of Defense, in Persian: وزیر دفاع و پشتیبانی نیروهای مسلح)
Iran's 2005 defense budget was estimated to be $6 billion by London's
International Institute for Strategic Studies. This was $91 per capita, a lower figure than other Persian Gulfnations, and lower as a percentage of gross national product than all other Gulf states except the United Arab Emirates. [ [http://www.payvand.com/news/06/jun/1011.html Iran's defense spending 'a fraction of Persian Gulf neighbors' ] ]
Under the last
Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Iran's military industry was limited to assembly of foreign weapons. In the assembly lines that were put up by American firms, such as Bell, Litton and Northrop, Iranian workers put together a variety of helicopters, aircraft, guided missiles, electronic components and tanks. [http://english.daralhayat.com/opinion/commentators/06-2006/Article-20060616-dcfab30e-c0a8-10ed-00c7-f1a5dbdb0907/story.html Dar Al Hayat ] ]
In 1973 the
Iran Electronics Industries (IEI)was established. [ [http://www.ieicorp.com/about.htm] ] The company was set up in a first attempt to organize the assembly and repair of foreign-delivered weapons. [http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Iran/Missile/1788_1789.html NTI: Country Overviews: Iran: Missile Chronology ] ] The Iranian Defense Industries Organizationwas the first to succeed in taking a step into what could be called a military industry by reverse engineering Soviet RPG-7, BM21, and SAM-7missiles in 1979.
Nevertheless, most of Iran's weapons before the
Islamic revolutionwere imported from the United States and Europe. Between 1971 and 1975, the Shahwent on a buying spree, ordering $8 billion in weapons from the United Statesalone. This alarmed the United States Congress, which strengthened a 1968 law on arms exports in 1976 and renamed it the Arms Export Control Act. Still, the United States continued to sell large amounts of weapons to Iran until the 1979 Islamic Revolution. [ [http://www.cdi.org/adm/736/transcript.html A Code of Conduct for Weapons Sales Video Transcript ] ]
After the Islamic revolution, Iran found itself severely isolated and lacking technological expertise. Because of economic sanctions and a weapons embargo put on Iran by the
United States, Iran was forced to rely on its domestic arms industry for weapons and spare parts since there were very few countries willing to do business with Iran. [ [http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htproc/articles/20041103.aspx Procurement: November 3, 2004 ] ] The Islamic Revolutionary Guardswere put in charge of creating what is today known as the Iranian military industry. Under their command Iran's military industry was enormously expanded, and with the Ministry of Defense pouring investment into the missile industry, Iran soon accumulated a vast arsenal of missiles.
Since 1992, it also has produced its own
tanks, armored personnel carriers, guided missiles, submarines, and a fighter plane. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,156160,00.html FOXNews.com - Iran Launches Production of Stealth Sub - U.S. & World ] ]
In recent years, official announcements have highlighted the development of weapons such as the
Fajr-3 (MIRV), Hoot, Kowsar, Fateh-110, Shahab-3missile systems and a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles, at least one of which Israel claims has been used to spy on Israel. [ British Broadcasting Corporation, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3990773.stm Hezbollah drone flies over Israel] , 7 December 2004] In 2006, Iran spied on the American aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reaganfor 25 minutes without being detected before returning safely to its base. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERn75VRlc-o 5 minutes video] ] [RIAN, [http://en.rian.ru/onlinenews/20060530/48833304.html Iranian drone plane buzzes U.S. aircraft carrier in Persian Gulf] , May 30, 2006] [ [http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Iran_Uses_UAV_To_Watch_US_Aircraft_Carrier_On_Gulf_Patrol_999.html Iran Uses UAV To Watch US Aircraft Carrier On Gulf Patrol ] ]
November 2, 2006, Iran fired unarmed missiles to begin 10 days of military war games. Iranian state television reported "dozens of missiles were fired including Shahab-2and Shahab-3missiles. The missiles had ranges from 300 km to up to 1300 km. Iranian experts have made some changes to Shahab-3 missiles installing cluster warheads in them with the capacity to carry 1,400 bombs." These launches come after some United States-led military exercises in the Persian Gulfon October 30, 2006, meant to train for blocking the transport of weapons of mass destruction[ [http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/11/02/iran.manoeuvres.reut/index.html?section=cnn_latest] Dead link|date=February 2008] .Iran is also believed to have started the development of an ICBM/IRBM missile project Fact|date=July 2008, known as Ghadr-110with a range of more than 3000 km; the program is paralleled with advancement of a satellite launcher named IRIS.
Weapons of mass destruction
Israel and some western nations have alleged that Iran is developing
nuclear weapons. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4031603.stm BBC NEWS | Middle East | Q&A: Iran and the nuclear issue ] ] The United Nations' International Atomic Energy Agency, in its February 2006 report on Iran's nuclear program, said it had no evidence of this. Recently, the United States of America released an intelligence report that the Islamic Republic of Iran is not developing a nuclear detonation device. However Iran is currently attempting to create the radioactive fuel that could potentially be used in a nuclear weapon [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/iran/story/0,12858,1304406,00.html 'No proof' of Iranian nuclear weapons programme | World news | guardian.co.uk ] ] [ [http://www.aljazeera.com/me.asp?service_ID=5051] ]
Iran ratified the
Chemical Weapons Convention in 1997. Iranian troops and civilians suffered tens of thousands of casualties from Iraqi chemical weapons during the 1980-88 Iran–Iraq War. As a result, Iran has publicly stood against the use of chemical weapons, making numerous vitriolic comments against Iraq's use of such weapons in international forums.
Even today, more than eighteen years after the end of the Iran–Iraq War, about 30,000 Iranians are still suffering and dying from the effects of chemical weapons employed by Iraq during the war. The need to manage the treatment of such a large number of casualties has placed Iran’s medical specialists in the forefront of the development of effective treatment regimes for chemical weapons victims, and particularly for those suffering from exposure to
mustard gas. [Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, [http://www.opcw.org/basic_facts/html/bf2k3_en_prt.html] ]
Iran ratified the
Biological Weapons Convention in 1973. [ [http://www.opbw.org/convention/status.html Signatories of the Biological Weapons Convention] ] Iran has advanced biology and genetic engineering research programs supporting an industry that produces world-class vaccines for both domestic use and export.Cite web|url=http://www.payvand.com/news/00/oct/1067.html|title=Razi Institute produces dlrs 100 m worth of vaccines, serums a year |accessdate = 2006-04-22] The dual-use nature of these facilities mean that Iran, like any country with advanced biological research programs, could easily produce biological warfare agents.
*The Islamic Republic of Iran
Current Equipment of the Iranian Army
Current Iranian Navy vessels
List of Iranian Air Force aircraft
* [http://www.iranmilitaryforum.com/ Iran Military pictures and video]
* [http://xairforces.net/airforces.asp?id=50 The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force - IRIAF]
* [http://www.diomil.ir/ Defense Industries Organization]
* [http://www.ieimil.com/ Iran Electronics Industries]
* [http://www.aio.ir/ Iranian Aerospace Industries Organization]
* [http://www.hesaco.com/ Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company]
* [http://www.defencetalk.com/news/publish/ News on Iranian Military plus Iran Military Pictures and videos]
Air University, [http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/Iranmilstrat.htm Bibliography on Iran's military strategy]
* [http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/060728_gulf_iran.pdf Iran's military forces - Center for Strategic and International Studies]
* [http://www.begim.com/defense-iran.html/ Defense Iran Video Clip]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Iran Air Flight 655 — Artist s depiction of A300 EP IBU Occurrence summary Date 3 July 1988 … Wikipedia
Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company — (HESA) was established in 1976 and belongs to the Iran Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO). The company is located at Shahin Shahr, Isfahan. The company has thousands of square meters of available grounds and 250,000 square meters of shops… … Wikipedia
Iran–Iraq War — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Iran–Iraq War caption=Iranian soldier with gas mask in the battlefield. date=22 September 1980 ndash; 20 August 1988 place=Persian Gulf, Iranian Iraqi border result=Stalemate; UN Resolution 598 (ceasefire);… … Wikipedia
Military history of Iran — With thousands of years of recorded history, and due to an unchanging geographic (and subsequently geopolitical) condition, Iran (previously known as Persia in the West until 1935) has had a long, varied, and checkered military culture and… … Wikipedia
Iran–Israel relations — Relations between Iran and Israel have alternated from close political alliances between the two states during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty to hostility following the rise to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Currently, the countries do not … Wikipedia
Military of Pakistan — The Pakistan Armed Forces (Urdu: پاک عسکری) are the overall unified military forces of Pakistan. The Pakistani military was first formed when the nation achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.Its component branches are: *Pakistan… … Wikipedia
Iran — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Iran <p></p> Background: <p></p> Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza… … The World Factbook
Iran's Power Dilemma — ▪ 2007 by Keith S. McLachlan Since the early 1990s but especially in the past two years, Iran s policies of opposition to the Western powers had paid off handsomely and transfigured it from a pariah state into a successful leader of the… … Universalium
Iran Kish Air Show — The Iran Airshow is an aviation airshow held in Kish, Iran. Its first airshow was in 2002 on Kish island, where 11 foreign companies participated from France, Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Britain, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Italy, Pakistan … Wikipedia
Iran hostage crisis — Iran United States hostage crisis A defaced Great Seal of the United States at the former U.S. embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appeared in 2004 … Wikipedia