- Battle of the Espero Convoy
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of the Espero Convoy
Mediterranean Theaterof World War II
caption=HMS "Liverpool", Vice-Admiral Tovey's flagship.
June 28 1940
Mediterranean, southwest of Crete
result=Allied tactical victory
Two-thirds of the Italian reinforcements reached destination
Two Allied convoys from
combatant2=flagicon|Italy|1861 Kingdom of Italy
commander1=flagicon|United Kingdom|naval Vice-Admiral John Tovey
commander2=flagicon|Italy|1861-state Captain Enrico BaroniKIA
casualties1=1 cruiser lightly damaged
casualties2=1 destroyer sunk
The Battle of the Espero Convoy was one of the very first naval battles fought during
World War IIbetween vessels of the Italian Royal Navy (" Regia Marina") and vessels of the British Royal Navyand the Royal Australian Navy. The engagement took place southwest of Creteon June 28, 1940, when a force of seven cruisers and sixteen destroyers escorting three Allied convoys headed for Alexandriaspotted a smaller Axis convoy. The Axis convoy consisted of three destroyers bound for Tobrukfrom Taranto.
10 June 1940, Italy declared war on Britain and France. The Italian High Command ("Commando Supremo"), foreseeing a British Armypush into Cirenaicaled by armoured forces, decided that an antitank unit should be deployed at Tobruk as soon as possible. The unit comprised ten antitank guns, one-hundred-and-twenty tons of ammunition, and one-hundred-and-sixty-two servicemen.
The two forces
The Italians chose three destroyers of the "Turbine" class to deliver the antitank unit. These vessels were chosen due to their high speed and loading capabilities. The destroyers chosen were the "Espero" (flagship), the "Zeffiro" and the "Ostro". This class of warships could reach 36
knotsif needed. The commander of the Italian squadron was Captain Enrico Baroni.
At the same time, three Allied convoys (two from
Maltaand the other from Greece) were heading towards Alexandria under the escort of seven cruisers (two light cruisers, HMS "Capetown", HMS "Caledon", the other five from the 7th Squadron: HMS "Liverpool", HMS "Orion", HMAS "Sydney", HMS "Gloucester" and HMS "Neptune") and sixteen destroyers. All twenty-three vessels were under the command of Vice-AdmiralJohn Tovey. Reconnaissance planes from Alexandria and Malta also gave support to the Allied operation. [Greene & Massignani, pp. 63–65.] [ De la Sierra, pp. 58–63.]
The Italian destroyers were spotted at noon by two Sunderland flying-boats some 50 miles west of
Zanteisland. [Greene & Massignani, pp. 63. ] [ De la Sierra, pp. 58.] They were at striking range of Tovey’s 7th Squadron, so the Vice-Admiral ordered the cruisers to intercept the enemy force with a two wings formation. At 18:30, the first 6” salvoes from the five Allied cruisers began to fall on the surprised Italian convoy from a distance of 16,000 meters. Baroni, realizing that despite the best speed of his ships they were hopelessly outgunned, attempted to cover the remaining destroyers using smokescreens and faced his formidable adversaries with evasive maneuvers. Unable to escape this force, he elected to sacrifice his ship, the "Espero", to save the others. [Miller, "War at Sea", pg. 113] While Commander Baroni remained behind in his flagship to fight an unequal battle, the "Zeffiro " and "Ostro" headed safely to the southwest at full speed.
It was not until 19:20 that the first British broadside struck home, when the range had closed to 12,800 meters. By this time, Tovey had given up the chase of the other two destroyers. The 7th Squadron spent about 5,000 rounds before the "Espero" was sent to the bottom, after two hours and ten minutes of fierce fighting. A single Italian 4.7" shell hit the "Liverpool", but caused little damage. The battle resulted in such a shortage of ammunition that the planned Malta convoys were suspended for two weeks. [Green & Massignani, page 65.] HMAS "Sydney" rescued 47 men from the Italian destroyer, and six others were later found alive by an Italian submarine almost twenty-days later. [De la Sierra, page 62.] Captain Baroni was lost with his ship, and was posthumously awarded the "Medaglia d´oro al valor militare". "Zeffiro" and "Ostro" both reached
Bengasithe next day and arrived at Tobruk shortly after. Two-thirds of the convoy had been saved.
There were two main lessons learned by both sides after this battle. For the Allies, the lesson was that a daylight naval action at long range was unlikely to be decisive when the enemy units outmatched one's own speed. For the Italians, it was a grim forecast about the importance of well-coordinated air surveillance. Had Italian aircraft spotted the Allied cruisers before they reached the firing line, the three destroyers would have escaped unscathed. [Greene & Massignani, page 65.]
*Greene, Jack & Massignani, Alessandro: "The Naval War in the Mediterranean, 1940–1943", Chatam Publishing, London, 1998. ISBN 1861760574.
*Miller, Nathan: "War at Sea: A Naval History of World War II", Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995. ISBN 0-19-511038-2 (Pbk.).
*De la Sierra, Luis: "La Guerra Naval en el Mediterráneo", Editorial Juventud, Barcelona, 1976.
ISBN 84-261-0264-6. (in Spanish)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Espero — may mean:*Daewoo Espero, a car made by the South Korean company Daewoo Motors. *La Espero, an Esperanto poem written by L. L. Zamenhof. *Battle of the Espero Convoy, a naval battle in the Mediterranean during WWII … Wikipedia
Battle of Crete — Part of the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II … Wikipedia
Battle of Taranto — This article is about the 1940 battle. For other battles, see Battle of Taranto (disambiguation). Battle of Taranto Part of the Mediterranean Theater of World War II … Wikipedia
History of the Royal Australian Navy — The History of the Royal Australian Navy can be traced back to 1788 and the colonisation of Australia by the British. During the period until 1859, vessels of the Royal Navy made frequent trips to the new colonies. In 1859, the Australia Squadron … Wikipedia
Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon — Part of the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II The French fleet scuttles itself: left is the … Wikipedia
List of World War II topics (B) — # B 17 Flying Fortress (video game) # B 17 Flying Fortress # B 17, Queen of the Skies # B 24 Liberator # B 29 Superfortress # B Reactor # Błyskawica radiostation # Błyskawica submachine gun # Børge Mathiesen # BA 10 # BA 11 # BA 20 # BA 21 # BA… … Wikipedia
HMS Liverpool (C11) — was a Town class light cruiser of the British Royal Navy in service from 1938 to 1952. Named after the port city of Liverpool in north west England, she served in the Second World War and with the Mediterranean Fleet from 1945 until her… … Wikipedia
Turbine class destroyer — Turbine class was a class of destroyers built for the Italian Regia Marina in the late 1920s. They were essentially larger versions of the earlier sclass|Sella|destroyer|1. Turbine class ships * Aquilone Built by Odero, Sestri Ponente. Completed… … Wikipedia
Бой с конвоем Эсперо — Вторая мировая война … Википедия
Malta Convoys — Not to be confused with Battle of the Malta Convoy (1800). The Mediterranean Theatre … Wikipedia