Vascular endothelial growth factor C


Vascular endothelial growth factor C

Vascular endothelial growth factor C is a VEGF. The human gene encoding it is VEGFC.

PBB_Summary
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summary_text = The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF) family, is active in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis [cite web | title = Oncogene: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in the regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis| url = http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v19/n49/abs/1203855a.html| accessdate = ] and endothelial cell growth and survival, and can also affect the permeability of blood vessels. This secreted protein undergoes a complex proteolytic maturation, generating multiple processed forms which bind and activate VEGFR-3 receptors. Only the fully processed form can bind and activate VEGFR-2 receptors. This protein is structurally and functionally similar to vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D). [cite web | title = Entrez Gene: VEGFC vascular endothelial growth factor C| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=7424| accessdate = ]

Pathological VEGF-C Expression

Lymphedema is caused by an imbalance between lymphatic vessel formation and absorption. Experimentally this can be created by overexpression of VEGF-CLymphangioma:
Overexpression of VEGF-C causes lymphatics to enlarge possibly facilitates metastasis.

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Orpana A, Salven P |title=Angiogenic and lymphangiogenic molecules in hematological malignancies. |journal=Leuk. Lymphoma |volume=43 |issue= 2 |pages= 219–24 |year= 2003 |pmid= 11999550 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Joukov V, Pajusola K, Kaipainen A, "et al." |title=A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is a ligand for the Flt4 (VEGFR-3) and KDR (VEGFR-2) receptor tyrosine kinases. |journal=EMBO J. |volume=15 |issue= 7 |pages= 1751 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8612600 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Joukov V, Pajusola K, Kaipainen A, "et al." |title=A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is a ligand for the Flt4 (VEGFR-3) and KDR (VEGFR-2) receptor tyrosine kinases. |journal=EMBO J. |volume=15 |issue= 2 |pages= 290–98 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8617204 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Paavonen K, Horelli-Kuitunen N, Chilov D, "et al." |title=Novel human vascular endothelial growth factor genes VEGF-B and VEGF-C localize to chromosomes 11q13 and 4q34, respectively. |journal=Circulation |volume=93 |issue= 6 |pages= 1079–82 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8653826 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Lee J, Gray A, Yuan J, "et al." |title=Vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein: a ligand and specific activator of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt4. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=93 |issue= 5 |pages= 1988–92 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8700872 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Joukov V, Sorsa T, Kumar V, "et al." |title=Proteolytic processing regulates receptor specificity and activity of VEGF-C. |journal=EMBO J. |volume=16 |issue= 13 |pages= 3898–911 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9233800 |doi= 10.1093/emboj/16.13.3898
*cite journal | author=Fitz LJ, Morris JC, Towler P, "et al." |title=Characterization of murine Flt4 ligand/VEGF-C. |journal=Oncogene |volume=15 |issue= 5 |pages= 613–8 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9247316 |doi= 10.1038/sj.onc.1201191
*cite journal | author=Dunk C, Ahmed A |title=Expression of VEGF-C and activation of its receptors VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 in trophoblast. |journal=Histol. Histopathol. |volume=16 |issue= 2 |pages= 359–75 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11332691 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dias S, Choy M, Alitalo K, Rafii S |title=Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C signaling through FLT-4 (VEGFR-3) mediates leukemic cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy. |journal=Blood |volume=99 |issue= 6 |pages= 2179–84 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11877295 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Ueda M, Terai Y, Yamashita Y, "et al." |title=Correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression and invasion phenotype in cervical carcinomas. |journal=Int. J. Cancer |volume=98 |issue= 3 |pages= 335–43 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11920583 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Witte D, Thomas A, Ali N, "et al." |title=Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and its ligand VEGF-C in human colorectal adenocarcinoma. |journal=Anticancer Res. |volume=22 |issue= 3 |pages= 1463–6 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12168824 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Schoppmann SF, Birner P, Stöckl J, "et al." |title=Tumor-associated macrophages express lymphatic endothelial growth factors and are related to peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. |journal=Am. J. Pathol. |volume=161 |issue= 3 |pages= 947–56 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12213723 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Shin HY, Smith ML, Toy KJ, "et al." |title=VEGF-C mediates cyclic pressure-induced endothelial cell proliferation. |journal=Physiol. Genomics |volume=11 |issue= 3 |pages= 245–51 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12388793 |doi= 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00068.2002
*cite journal | author=Yu DH, Wen YM, Sun JD, "et al." |title= [Relationship among expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C(VEGF-C), angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymphatic metastasis in oral cancer] |journal=Ai Zheng |volume=21 |issue= 3 |pages= 319–22 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12452004 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Nakashima T, Kondoh S, Kitoh H, "et al." |title=Vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human gallbladder cancer and its relationship to lymph node metastasis. |journal=Int. J. Mol. Med. |volume=11 |issue= 1 |pages= 33–9 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12469214 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Tsai PW, Shiah SG, Lin MT, "et al." |title=Up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C in breast cancer cells by heregulin-beta 1. A critical role of p38/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 8 |pages= 5750–9 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12471041 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M204863200
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Masood R, Kundra A, Zhu S, "et al." |title=Malignant mesothelioma growth inhibition by agents that target the VEGF and VEGF-C autocrine loops. |journal=Int. J. Cancer |volume=104 |issue= 5 |pages= 603–10 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12594815 |doi= 10.1002/ijc.10996
*cite journal | author=Ohno M, Nakamura T, Kunimoto Y, "et al." |title=Lymphagenesis correlates with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C in colorectal cancer. |journal=Oncol. Rep. |volume=10 |issue= 4 |pages= 939–43 |year= 2004 |pmid= 12792749 |doi=

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