honey beevenom, is a bitter colorless liquid. The active portion of the venom is a complex mixture of proteins, which causes local inflammation and acts as an anticoagulant. The venom is produced in the abdomen of worker bees from a mixture of acidic and basic secretions. Apitoxin is acidic( pH4.5 to 5.5). A honeybeecan inject 0.1 mg of venom via its stinger. Apitoxin is similar to snake venomand nettle toxin. It is estimated that 1% of the population is allergic to bee stings. Apitoxin can be deactivated with ethanol. Bee venom therapyis used by some as a treatment for rheumatismand joint diseases due to its anticoagulantand anti-inflammatoryproperties. It is also used to desensitize people allergicto insect stings. Bee venom therapy can also be delivered in the form of Bee Venom Balm although this may be less potent than using live bee stings. [cite web|url=http://www.treatment-for.com/bee-venom-therapy.htm|title=Treatment with Bee Venom]
Components of Apitoxin
The main component is
melittincomprising 52% of venom peptides.cite book | author= Meier J, White J. | title = Clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons | year = 1995 | publisher = CRC Press, Inc | id = ISBN 0-8493-4489-1] Melittin is a strong anti-inflammatory agent and induces the production of cortisolin the body. It is also a cell- lytic.
Apaminincreases cortisol production in the adrenal gland. Apamin is a mild neurotoxin.
* [http://ctd.mdibl.org/voc.go?voc=chem&termUI=adolapin Adolapin] , comprising 2-5% of the peptides, acts as an anti-inflammatory and
analgesicbecause it blocks cyclooxygenase.
PhospholipaseA2 comprises 10-12% of peptides and it is the most destructive component of apitoxin. It is an enzymewhich degrades the phospholipids which cellular membranes are made of. It also causes decreased blood pressureand inhibits blood coagulation. Phospholipase A2 activates arachidonic acidwhich is metabolized in the cyclooxygenase-cycle to form prostaglandins. Prostaglandins regulate the body's inflammatory response. The toxin from wasps contains phospholipase A1.
Hyaluronidasecomprising 1-3% of peptides dilates the capillaries causing the spread of inflammation.
Histaminecomprising 0.5-2% and is involved in the allergicresponse.
Dopamineand noradrenalinewhich comprise 1-2% increase pulse rate.
*Protease-inhibitors comprise 2% and act as anti-inflammatory agents and stop bleeding.
* [http://www.apitherapy.com/index.php Apitherapy.com]
* [http://www.apitherapynews.com Apitherapy News]
* [http://www.beelief.com/content.asp?sectionID=35 Beelief.com]
* [http://www.apitox.eu/english.html Apitherapy boxes and tweezers]
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