- Shell Haven
Infobox UK place
official_name= Shell Haven
region= East of England
Shell Haven is the historic name for the port on the north bank of the
Thames Estuaryat the eastern end of Thurrock, Essex, England. DP World, which now owns the port, received planning consent in May 2007 for a new major deep water container port at the site, which is known as London Gateway.
The site previously known as Shell Haven or Shellhaven was originally an inlet on the north bank of the Thames, about a mile to the west of
Canvey Island. This was the mouth of Shell Haven Creek, which runs east and south of the village of Fobbing, and originally separated Corringham Marsh from Fobbing Marsh. To the east was Shell Haven House. Sources differ on when Shell Haven first became associated with the oil industry; the first edition Ordnance Surveymap of the early 1800s shows Oil Mill Farm a mile or so up Shell Haven Creek. Shell Haven was for over 80 years the site of a large Shell oil refinery, but there seems to be no evidence for the company taking its name from the site.
In the 1850s a branch line was constructed from the
London Tilbury and Southend Railway(LT&SR) to a new port immediately to the west of Shell Haven, to be known as Thames Haven (sometimes written Thameshaven). The name of Shell Haven would probably have been eclipsed, but for the failure of Thames Haven to prosper, and the later arrival of the Shell oil company.
In 1895 the ammunition firm
Kynochs purchased Borley Farm, to the east of Shell Haven Creek, in order to build an explosives factory. This opened in 1897, with a small estate called Kynochtown. Kynochs also built the Corringham Light Railway(CLR), with a passenger branch from the works to Corringham and a goods branch to the LT&SR at Thames Haven. The Kynoch works closed in 1919. The site and CLR were taken over by coal merchants Cory Brothers Ltd of Cardiff to build an oil storage depot, with Kynochtown being renamed Coryton. The oil depot eventually became Coryton Refinery(run from 1950 until recently by Mobiland its antecedents), which remains in production, between Shell Haven Creek and Hole Haven to the east.
Shell Oil first arrived in the form of the Asiatic Petroleum Company Ltd, a sales company formed by Royal Dutch Petroleum and the British company Shell Transport and Trading Company, prior to their merger as Royal Dutch Shell. A licence was obtained in 1912 to store
petroleumat Shell Haven. Refinery operations began on a 40 hectare (100 acre) site in 1916 with a distillationplant which produced fuel oilfor the Admiralty. In 1919 this unit was converted to manufacture road surfacing bitumen. In 1925, a new plant was erected for the manufacture of lubricating oils; the first high viscosity oils were produced in 1937.
During World War 2 the refineries and oil storage tanks at Thames Haven, Shell Haven and Coryton became a sitting target for air raids, notably in September 1940 during the
Battle of Britain.
In 1946 a plant producing high grade paraffin wax for candles, paper, etc. was commissioned. In 1947 expansion began on a 400 hectare (1,000 acre) site west of the original refinery, with the construction of a distillation unit designed for Middle East crude oil; this came on-stream in 1950. Crude was pumped into 100,000-ton capacity tanks before being distilled to produce
butane, methane, petrol, kerosene, gas oiland bitumen.
Subsequently various units were added to produce valuable hydrocarbons from the distillation residue. In 1956 a
catalytic reforming'Platformer' was brought into service and in the same year, a petroleum chemicals unit to manufacture alkylbenzenes, the basis of household detergents. A second crude distillation unit was commissioned in 1959, and a second catalytic reformer in 1967. A kerosene hydrotreaterwas commissioned in 1972 and in 1977 a third reformer. In 1979 a hydrocrackingunit was added to increase the proportion of light distillates. A new bitumen plant started production in 1981.
In 1992, a major capital investment was completed, adding a 'Naphtha Minus' complex which contained an
isomerisationunit, benzenerecovery and gas turbinepower generation. A new Control Centre was added. By then the plant had a capacity of 4.6 million tonnes per annum, and covered 800 hectares (2,000 acres), with a 27km (17 mile) perimeter and its own generating plant, emergency and other services. It had five jetties, handling tankers of up to 300,000 tons capacity. The refinery delivered products by road and ship and UK oil pipeline network.
The Shell refinery closed in 1999; the neighbouring Coryton Refinery remains in operation.
In 2006 the site was purchased by
DP World, one of the largest marine terminal operators in the world, as part of the company’s purchase of P&O. In May 2007, DP World received outline planning consent for a new major new deepwater port on the site, known as London Gateway. In addition to the new port, the development will include one of Europe’s largest logistics parks, providing access to London, the South East and the rest of the UK.
In May 2008, the
Department for Transportissued a ‘Harbour Empowerment Order’ for London Gateway, which provided official and statutory powers for the new port and established London Gateway as a legally recognised authority. DP Worldis now set to invest over £1.5bn to develop the project over the next 10 to 15 years.
* [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/maps/map_lib_page.do Vision of Britain - Old OS Maps]
* [http://www.thurrock.gov.uk/heritage/content.php?page=factfiles_details&id=49 Thurrock council -Thurrock Heritage - Factfiles 49 - Corringham Light railway]
* [http://www.shell.com/home/content/aboutshell-en/who_we_are/our_history/the_beginnings/the_beginnings_history_of_shell_22112006.html About Shell - The Shell history - the beginnings]
* [http://www.lococarriage.org.uk/shell.htm An account of the visit to the Shell Haven Oil Refinery 1990]
* [http://www.energyinst.org.uk/education/refineries/shellhaven.htm Institute of Petroleum Interactive Guide to UK Refineries - Shell Haven (Shell)]
* [http://www.planning-inspectorate.gov.uk/gateway/ London Gateway Planning Inquiry]
* [http://portal.pohub.com/pls/pogprtl/docs/PAGE/DP_WORLD_WEBSITE/DP_WORLD_MEDIA_CENTRE/MEDIA_CENTRE_NEWS_RELEASES/47.DP%20WORLD%20LONDON%20GATEWAY%2030MAY2007%20FINAL.PDF P&O London Gateway decision press release]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Shell in situ conversion process — Shell ICP Process type chemical Industrial sector(s) chemical industry, oil industry Feedstock oil shale Product(s) shale oil Leading companies … Wikipedia
Shell Oil Company — This article is about the U.S. oil company. For the multinational parent company, see Royal Dutch Shell. Shell Oil Company Industry Oil, energy Headquarters Houston, Texas, US … Wikipedia
Shell to Sea — Members of An Garda Síochána and Shell To Sea campaigners scuffle over ownership of a road (June 2007) Shell to Sea (in Irish, Shell chun Sáile) is a campaign based in Cill Chomáin parish, Erris, County Mayo, Ireland which opposes the proposed… … Wikipedia
Shell (corporation) — A shell corporation is defined in Barron s Finance Investment Handbook as a company that is incorporated, but has no significant assets or operations. Shell corporations are not in themselves illegal and they may have legitimate business purposes … Wikipedia
Shell gorget — A shell gorget is a Native American art form of polished, carved shell pendants worn around the neck. The gorgets are frequently engraved, and are sometimes highlighted with pigments, or fenestrated (pierced with openings). Shell gorgets were… … Wikipedia
Shell corporation — For the oil company, see Royal Dutch Shell. Not to be confused with Shelf corporation. A shell corporation is a company which serves as a vehicle for business transactions without itself having any significant assets or operations. Shell… … Wikipedia
shell company — 1) A non trading company, with or without a stock exchange listing, used as a vehicle for various company manoeuvres or kept dormant for future use in some other capacity. 2) A company that has ceased to trade and is sold to new owners for a… … Accounting dictionary
shell company — 1) A non trading company, with or without a stock exchange listing, used as a vehicle for various company manoeuvres or kept dormant for future use in some other capacity. 2) A company that has ceased to trade and is sold to new owners for a… … Big dictionary of business and management
Royal Dutch Shell — plc Type Public limited company Traded as LSE: … Wikipedia
One Shell Square — General information Type Commercial offices Location 701 Poydras Street … Wikipedia