- Yonghe Temple
The Yonghe Temple (zh-cp|c=雍和宮|p=Yōnghégōng; and Tibetan styles.
Building work on the Yonghegong Temple started in
1694during the Qing Dynasty. It originally served as an official residence for court eunuchs. It was then converted into the court of the Prince Yong (Yin Zhen), a son of the Kangxi Emperorand himself the future Yongzheng Emperor. After Yongzheng's ascension to the throne in 1722, half of the building was converted into a lamasery, a monastery for monks of Tibetan Buddhism. The other half remained an imperial palace.
After Yongzheng's death in
1735, his coffin was placed in the temple. The Qianlong Emperor, Yongzheng's successor, gave the temple imperial status signified by having its turquoise tiles replaced with yellow tiles which were reserved for the emperor. Subsequently, the monastery became a residence for large numbers of Tibetan Buddhist monks from Mongoliaand Tibet, and so the Yonghe Lamasery became the national centre of Lama administration.
The temple is said to have survived the
Cultural Revolutiondue to the intervention of Prime Minister Zhou Enlai. It was reopened to the public in 1981.
Architecture and artworks
The Yonghe Temple is arranged along a north-south central axis, which has a length of 480m. The main gate is at the southern end of this axis. Along the axis, there are five main halls which are separated by courtyards: the "Hall of the Heavenly Kings" ("Tian Wang Dian" or "Devaraja Hall"), the "Hall of Harmony and Peace" ("Yonghegong"), the "Hall of Everlasting Protection" ("Yongyoudian"), the "Hall of the Wheel of the Law" ("Falundian"), and the "Pavilion of Ten Thousand Happinesses" ("Wanfuge"). The "Hall of the Heavenly Kings" is the southernmost of the main halls, it served originally as the main entrance to the monastery. In the center of the hall stands a statue of the
Maitreya Buddha, along the walls statues of the four Heavenly Kingsare arranged.
The "Hall of Harmony and Peace" is the main building of the temple. It houses three
bronzestatues of the Buddhas of the Three Ages, the statue of the Gautama Buddha(Buddha of the Present) is in the center, it is flanked by the statue of Kasyapa Matanga(Buddha of the Past, right) and the Maitreya Buddha(Buddha of the Future, left). Along the sides of the hall, the statues of the 18 Arhats are placed. A mural in the hall shows the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara.
The "Hall of Everlasting Protection" was Emperor Yongzheng's living quarters as a prince and the place where his coffin was placed after his death. Today, a statue of the "Bhaisajya-guru" (healing Buddha) stands in this hall.
The "Hall of the Wheel of the Law" functions as a place for reading scriptures and conducting religious ceremonies. It contains a large statue of
Je Tsongkhapa, founder of the Geluk School. The hall also contains the Five-Hundred- Arhat-Hill, a carving made of red sandalwoodwith statues of the arhats made from five different metals (gold, silver, copper, iron, and tin).
The "Pavilion of Ten Thousand Happinesses" contains an 18 m tall statue of the
Maitreya Buddhacarved from a single piece of White Sandalwood. The statue is one of three artworks in the Temple which were included in the Guinness Book of Recordsin 1993.
The Yonghe Temple is located in the Dongcheng District of
Beijing, near the northeastern corner of the Second Ring Road. The postal address is: "12 Yonghegong Dajie, Beixinqiao, Dongcheng District, Beijing".
*Lessing, Ferdinand, and Gösta Montell. "Yung-Ho-Kung, an Iconography of the Lamaist Cathedral in Peking: With Notes on Lamaist Mythology and Cult." Stockholm: 1942.
* [http://www.beijingtrip.com/attractions/lamatemple.htm Lama Temple, Beijing]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=39.943392,116.414389&spn=0.003829,0.007318&t=k&hl=en Satellite photo of the Yonghe Temple] , centered on the "Hall of Everlasting Protection"
"Lonely Planet Beijing" 10th Edition (Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet Publications, 2007), 134.
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