- History of Chennai
Chennai (சென்னை in Tamil), formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of
Tamil Naduand is India's fourth largest city, and is the knowledge hub of India. It is located on the Coromandel Coastof the Bay of Bengal. With an estimated population of 7.60 million (2006), the 369-year-old city is the 36th largest metropolitan areain the world.
Chennai boasts of a long
historyfrom ancient South Indian empires through colonialismto its evolution in the 20th century as a services and manufacturing hub.
Chennai, originally known as Madras Patnam, was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the Pennar river of Cuddalore. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century A.D. by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Cholafamily at Kanchipuram. It is believed that Ilam Tiraiyan must have subdued the Kurumbas, the original inhabitants of the region and established his rule over Tondaimandalam. Chennai is a city which has grown by merging numerous villages which are really ancient. The temples of Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, Thirvallikeni (Triplicane), Thirumyilai (Mylapore) have existed for more than 1000 years. Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur and Thirumyilai are mentioned in the Thevarams of the Moovar(of the Nayanmars).
It is thought that the apostle St. Thomas had immigrated to India in 52 A.D. to preach the teachings of
Jesus, and he preached from on top of a hillock, now called the St. Thomas Mountin the southwest part of the city. He was later said to be assassinated around the year 70 A.D. There is now a small museum and a Catholic church near a cave where St. Thomas was supposed to have lived. The surrounding area was called 'Chennamalai'.
Ilam Tiraiyan, the region was ruled by the CholaPrince Ilam Killi. The Chola occupation of Tondaimandalam was put to an end by the Andhra Satavahanaincursions from the north under their King Pulumayi II. They appointed chieftains to look after the Kanchipuram region. Bappaswami, who is considered as the first Pallava to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century A.D. The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, then became independent rulers of Kancheepuram and its surrounding areas.
Pallavasheld sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century A.D. to the closing years of the 9th century, except for the interval of some decades when the region was under the Kalabhras. The Pallavas were defeated by the Cholas under Aditya Iby about 879 A.D. and the region was brought under the Chola rule. The Pandyasunder Jatavarman Sundara Pandyanrose to power and the region was brought under the Pandyarule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in 1264 A.D. Pandya's rule over this region lasted a little over half a century followed by the Bahmini kingdom with the extension of Delhi Sultanateunder Khiljidynasty especially under the rule of Alauddin Khilji. During 1361, Kumara Kampana II, the son of Vijayanagar Emperor, Bukka Iconquered and established Vijayanagar rule in Tondaimandalam.
The Vijayanagar rulers appointed chieftains known as
Nayakswho ruled over the different regions of the province almost independently. Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, an influential chieftain under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Rayalubased in Chandragiri- Vellore Fort, who was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city, gave the grant of a piece of land lying between the river Cooumalmost at the point it enters the sea and another river known as the Egmore river to the English in 1639. On this piece of waste land was founded the Fort St. Georgeexactly for business considerations. In honour of Damerla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Venkatadri Nayakudu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome, the settlement which had grown up around Fort St. George was named after him as Chennapattanam.
The older area called the Madraspatnam lay to the north of it. Later on, the intervening space between the older northern site of Madraspatnam came to be quickly built with houses of the new settlers (as the two expanded) and that the two villages became virtually one town. While the official centre of the settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras Patnam to the combined town. Golkonda forces under General
Mir Jumlaconquered Madras in 1646 and brought Chennai and its immediate surroundings under his control. After the fall of Golkonda in 1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors of Delhi. Firmanswere issued by the Mughal Emperor granting the rights of English East India company in Chennai. In the later part of the seventeenth century, Chennai steadily progressed during the period of the East India Company and under many Governors. During the regime of Governor Elihu Yale(1687-92), the most important event was the formation of the institution of a Mayorand the Corporationfor the city of Chennai. In 1693, a "perwanna" was received from the local Nawab granting the towns Tondiarpet, Purasawalkam and Egmore to the company. Thomas Pittbecame the Governor of Chennai in 1698 and governed for eleven years. This period witnessed remarkable development of trade and increase in wealth.
The present parts of Chennai like Poonamalee (ancient Tamil name - "Poo Iruntha alli"), Triplicane (ancient Tamil name - "Thiru alli keni") are mentioned in Tamil "bhakti" literature of the sixth - ninth centuries.
Early European settlers
Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading centre. When the Portuguese arrived in 1522, they built a port and named it São Tomé, after the
Christianapostle St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached there between the years 52 and 70. The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicatjust north of the city in 1612.
Arrival of the British
By 1612, the Dutch established themselves in Pulicat to the north. In the seventeenth century when the
British East India Companydecided to build a factory on the east coast they selected Armagon(Dugarazpatnam), a village around 35 miles North of Pulicat, as the site in 1626. The calico cloth from the local area, which was in high demand, was of poor quality and not suitable for export to Europe. The British soon realized that the Armagaon was not a good port and it was unsuitable for trade purposes. Francis Day, one of the officers of the company, who was then a Member of the Masulipatam Council and the Chief of the Armagon Factory, made a voyage of exploration in 1637 down the coast as far as Pondicherrywith a view to choose a site for a new settlement.
Permission from Vijayanagara Rulers [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/mp/2006/08/21/stories/2006082100560500.htm]
At that time the Coromandel Coast was ruled by the Rajah of
Chandragiri-Vellore, Peda Venkata Rayawho was a descendant of the famous Rajas of Vijayanagar Empire. Under the Rajah, local chiefs or governors known as Nayaks, ruled over the different districts.
Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, local governor of the Vijayanagar Empire and Nayak of
Wandiwashruled the coastal part of the region, from Pulicat to the Portuguese settlement of San Thome. He had his head-quarters at Wandiwash and his brother Ayyappa Nayakudu resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, and looked after the affairs of the coast. Beri Thimmappadubash ( Interpreter) of Francis Day was a close friend of Damarla Ayyappa Nayakudu. Beri Thimmappa Chetti migrated in the early 17th century to Chennai from Palacole, near Machilipatnamin Andhra Pradesh. Ayyappa Nayakudu persuaded his brother to lease out the sandy strip to Francis Day and promised him trade benefits, army protection, and Persian horses in return. Francis Day wrote to his Headquarters at Masulipatamfor permission to inspect the proposed site at "Madraspatnam" and examine the possibilities of trade there. "Madraspatnam" seemed favourable during the inspection and the calicoes woven at "Madraspatnam" were much cheaper than those at Armagon (Durgarazpatam). On 22 August 1639, Francis Day secured the Grant by the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Wandiwash giving over to the British East India Company a three-mile long strip of land, a fishing village called "Madraspatnam", copies of which were endorsed by Andrew Cogan, the Chief of the Masulipatam Factory, and are even now preserved. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered them to build a fort and castle on an approximate 5 square kilometre sand strip.
The English Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with Francis Day. They requested Francis Day and the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu to wait until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam (in Java) could be obtained for their action. The main difficulty, among the English those days, was lack of money. In February 1640, Francis Day and Andrew Cogan accompanied by a few factors and writers, a garrison of about 25 European soldiers and a few other European artificers, besides a Hindu powder-maker by name Naga Battan, proceeded to Madras and started the English factory. They reached Madraspatnam on February 20, 1640; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place.
Francis Day, his dubash (Interpreter) Beri Thimmanna Chetti and their superior Andrew Cogan can be considered as the founders of Madras (now Chennai). They began construction of the Fort St George on 23 April 1640 and houses for their residence. This area came to be known as 'White Town'. When Indians came to live near it, this gave rise to another settlement. The Company called the new place 'Black Town', as the Indians here met its needs of cloth and indigo.
The grant signed between Damarla Venkatadri and the British had to be authenticated or confirmed from the Raja of Chandragiri - Venkatapathy Rayulu. The Raja , Venkatapathy Rayulu was succeeded by his nephew Sri Rangarayulu in 1642. Sir Francis Day was succeeded by Thomas Ivy. The grant expired. So, Thomas Ivy sent Factor Greenhill on a mission to Chandragiri to meet the new Raja and get the grant renewed. A new grant was issued in 1642 copies of which are still available. It is dated October - November 1645. This new grant signed in 1645 empowered the English to administer justice and gave them an additional piece of land known as the Narimedu (Jackal-ground) which lay to the west of the village of Madraspatnam. All the 3 grants are said to be engraved on gold plates that do not exist now.
Fort St Georgebecame the nucleus around which the city grew. The Fort still stands today, and a part of it is used to house the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assemblyand the Office of the Chief Minister. Elihu Yale, after whom Yale Universityis named, was British governor of Madras for five years. Part of the fortune that he amassed in Madras as part of the colonial administration became the financial foundation for Yale University.
1750s to 1947
In 1746, Fort St George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, who used to be the
Governorof Mauritius. The French are then described to have plundered the village of Chepaukand demolished Blacktown, the locality across from the port where all the dockyard labourers used to live [http://www.chennaicorporation.com/madras_history.htm] .
The British regained control in 1749 through the
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. They then strengthened and expanded Fort St George over the next thirty years to bear subsequent attacks, the strongest of which came from the French (1759, under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally), and Hyder Ali, the Sultanof Mysore(1767). The 1783 version of Fort St George is what still stands today.
The British were in complete control of the city, after a decade's feud with the French, they expanded the city by encompassing the neighbouring villages of
Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of "Chennapatnam", as it was called by locals then.
In the latter half of the 18th century, Madras became an important English naval base, and the administrative centre of the growing British dominions in southern India. The British fought with various
European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi(Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi( Tranquebar). The British eventually dominated, driving the French, the Dutch and the Danes away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to four tiny coastal enclaves. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysoreunder Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency, also called Madras Province.
The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the eighteenth century. In 1788, Thomas Parry arrived in Madras as a free merchant and he set up one of the oldest mercantile companies in the city and one of the oldest in the country (
EID Parry). John Binnycame to Madras in 1797 and he established the textile company Binny & Coin 1814. Spencer'sstarted as a small business in 1864 and went on to become the biggest department stores in Asia at the time. The original building which housed Spencer & Co. was burnt down in a fire in 1983 and the present structure houses one of the largest shopping malls in India, Spencer Plaza. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbothams, Hoe & Coand P. Orr & Sons.
In 1906, the city experienced a financial crisis with the failure of its leading merchant bank,
Arbuthnot & Co. The crisis also imperiled Parry & Co and Binney & Co, but both found rescuers. The lawyer V. Krishnaswamy Iyermade a name for himself representing claimants on the failed bank. The next year he organized a group of Chettiarmerchants to found Indian Bank, which still has its corporate headquarters in the city.
Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. The
Madras Chamber of Commercewas founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). The Madras Trades Associationwas established in 1856 and The Madras Stock Exchangein 1920.
After India became independent, the city became the administrative and legislative capital of
Madras Statewhich was renamed as Tamil Nadu "'in 1968.
During the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic lines, in 1953, Telugu speakers wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra Pradesh and coined the slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours) before Tirupati was included in Andhra PradeshFact|date=December 2007. The dispute arose as the city had come to be inhabited by both Tamil and Telugu speaking people. Earlier,
Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in early 1920s had suggested that the Cooum Riverbe the boundary between the Tamil and Telugu administrative areasFact|date=December 2007. In 1953, the political and administrative dominance of Tamils, both at the Union and State levels ensured that Madras was not transferred to the new state of Andhra
Today, though a cosmopolitan city, the majority of residents in Chennai are native Tamilians. There are also a sizeable native Telugu,
Anglo Indianand migrant Malayaleecommunities in the city. As the city is an important administrative and commercial centre, many communities such as the Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati and Marwaricommunities and people from Uttar Pradeshand Biharmigrated to the city and have contributed to its cosmopolitan nature. Today, Chennai also has a growing expatriate population especially from the United States, Europe and East Asiawho work in the industries and IT centres.From 1965 to 1967, the city was an important base for the Tamil agitation against the perceived imposition of Hindi, and witnessed sporadic rioting. Madras witnessed further political violence due to the civil war in Sri Lanka, with 33 people killed by a bomb planted by the Tamil Eelam Armyat the airport in 1984, and assassination of thirteen members of the EPRLFand two Indian civilians by the rival LTTE in 1991,ref|ltte.ref|airport1984 In the same year, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhiwas assassinated in Sriperumbudur, a small town close to Chennai, whilst campaigning in Tamil Nadu, by Thenmuli RajaratnamA.K.A Dhanu. Dhanu is widely believed to be have been an LTTE member. In 1996, the Governmentof Tamil Nadu renamed the city from "Madras" to "Chennai" by DMK Government. The 2004 tsunamilashed the shores of Chennai killing many and permanently altering the coastline. The DMKpolitical party swept the municipal elections of October 2006.
Modern Chennai is a large commercial and industrial centre, and is known for its
cultural heritageand temple architecture. Chennai is the automobilecapital of India, with around forty percentinote|Hindu.com|Hindu-1 of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. Chennai is also referred as the Detroitof South Asia. It is a major manufacturing centre. Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world.
The name "Madras" is derived from "Madraspatnam", the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.
The region was often called by different names as "madrapupatnam", "madras kuppam", "madraspatnam", and "madirazpatnam" as adopted by locals. Another small town, "Chennapatnam", lay to the south of it. This place was named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Wandiwash in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu.He was the local governor for the last Raja of Chandragiri, Sri Ranga Raya VI of Vijayanagar Empire. The first Grant of Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu makes mention of the village of Madraspatnam. In all records of the times, a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing round the Fort. Thus it is probable that the village of Madraspatnam existed under that name, prior to the English settlement of 1639-40 and the site of Chennapatnam was that of modern Fort St. George. The original village of Madraspatnam lay to the north of the site of the Fort and within a few years of the founding of Fort St. George the new town which grew up round the Fort was commonly known to the Indians as Chennapatnam, either in deference to the wishes of Damarla Venkatadri or because the site originally bore that name. The intervening space between the northern Madraspatnam and the Southern Chennapatnam came to be built over rapidly so that the two villages became virtually one town. The English preferred to call the two united towns by the name of Madraspatnam with which they had become familiar with while the Indians chose to give it the name of Chennapatnam. In course of time the exact original locations of Madraspatnam and Chennapatnam came to be confused. Madras was regarded as the site of the Fort and Chennapatnam as the Indian town to the north.
The city was renamed Chennai in August 1996.
[ [http://hamsa.org The Ishwar Sharan Archive ] ]
* [http://indiahistoryspeaks.blogspot.com/2007/12/british-and-tamil-jab-they-meet-fort-st.html History of Fort St George and Black Town - Madras]
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