Decurio


Decurio

Decurio was an official title in Ancient Rome, used in various connections:

  1. A member of the senatorial order in the Italian towns under the administration of Rome, and later in provincial towns organized on the Italian model (see Cuai.~ 4). The number of decuriones varied in different towns, but was usually 100. The qualifications for the office were fixed in each town by a special law for that community (lex municipalis). Cicero (in Verr. 2. 49,120) alludes to an age limit (originally thirty years, until lowered by Augustus to twenty-five),to a property qualification (cf. Pliny, Ep. i. 19. 2), and to certain conditions of rank. The method of appointment varied in different towns and at different periods. In the early municipal constitution ex-magistrates passed automatically into the senate of their town; but at a later date this Order was reversed, and membership of the senate became a qualification for the magistracy. Cicero (l.c.) speaks of the senate in the Sicilian towns as appointed by a vote of the township. But in most towns it was the duty of the chief magistrate to draw up a list (album) of the senators every five years. The decuriones held office for life. They were convened by the magistrate, who presided as in the Roman senate. Their powers were extensive. In all matters the magistrates were obliged to act according to their direction, and in some towns they heard cases of appeal against judicial sentences passed by the magistrate. By the time of the municipal law of Julius Caesar (45 BC) special privileges were conferred on the decuriones, including the right to appeal to Rome for trial in criminal cases. Under the principate their status underwent a marked decline, The office was no longer coveted, and documents of the 3rd and 4th centuries show that means were devised to compel members of, the towns to undertake it. By the time of the jurists it had become hereditary and compulsory. This change was largely due to the heavy financial burdens which the Roman government laid on the municipal senates.
  2. The leader of a decuria, a subdivision of the curia.
  3. An officer in the Roman cavalry, originally commanding a troop of ten men (decuria) during the early republican era. In the late republic and during the empire a decurio commanded a turma of 32 men in the auxiliary cavalry. It is the equivalent of the ancient Greek dekarchos, a cavalry officer.
  4. Decurio was also a name given to certain priests intended, as it should seem, for some particular sacrifices, or other religious ceremonies; or for the sacrifices of private families and houses, as Burkhard Gotthelf Struve (1671-1738) conjectures, who from that source derives their name. Whatever the origin of the name, we have an inscription in Gruter's work, which confirms their function: ANCHIALVS. CVB. AED. Q. TER. IN. AEDE. DECVRIO. ADLECTVS. EX. CONSENSV. DECVRIONVM. FAMILIAE. VOLVNTATE., which describes a decurio in the house of a private person, Q. Terentius.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^  This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain.
  • Carl Georg Bruns, Fontes juris Romani, c. 3, No. 18, C. 4, Nos. 27, 29 30 (leges m iicipales)
  • Johann Caspar Orelli, Inscr. Latinae, No. 3~72I (Album of Canusium)
  • Godefroy, Paratiti. ad cod. Theodosianam, xii. I (vol. iv. pp. 352 et seq., ed. Ritter);
  • J. Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, i. pp. 183 et seq. (Leipzig, 1881)
  • P. Willems, Droit public romain, pp. 535 et seq. (Paris, 1884)
  • Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopdie, IV. ii. pp. 2319 foll. (Stuttgart, 1901)
  • W. Liebenam, Stadtverwaltung im römischen Kaiserreichen (Leipzig, 1900).
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  •  This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain.

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  • Decurio — („Zehnschaftsführer“, von lat. decem = zehn), in altgriechischen Quellen als Dekarch bezeichnet, war im römischen Reich ein militärischer Dienstgrad mit zeitweise unterschiedlicher Bedeutung und auch ein ziviles Amt. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Decurio — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Un Decurio era un oficial de caballería de las unidades montadas auxiliares del ejército romano, al mando de una turma o escuadrón de 30 jinetes. Estela de Flavius Bassus, jinete del Ala Noricorum, que indica que… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Decurio — (röm. Ant.), 1) Vorsteher einer Decurie, s. Decuria; 2) in Municipalstädten u. Colonien so v.w. Senator …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Decurio — Decurio, bei den alten Römern das Haupt des zehnten Theiles einer Curie, Decurie, welche laut Niebuhr aus 10 Geschlechtern, gentes bestand, dann Befehlshaber der 10 Soldaten, welche jede Decurie stellte. Der Name ging allmälig auf die Häupter u.… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Decurio — Decurio,   römischer Amtstitel, Dekurio …   Universal-Lexikon

  • decurio — ▪ ancient Roman official plural  decuriones         in ancient Rome, the head of a group of 10. The title had two applications, one civil, the other military. In the first usage decurio was applied to a member of the local council or senate of a… …   Universalium

  • decurió — de|cu|ri|ó Mot Agut Nom masculí …   Diccionari Català-Català

  • decurio — de·cù·rio s.m. LE var. → decurione …   Dizionario italiano

  • DECURIO — decurionum …   Abbreviations in Latin Inscriptions

  • decurio — /dakyuriyow/ A decurion. In the provincial administration of the Roman empire, the decurions were the chief men or official personages of the large towns. Taken as a body, the decurions of a city were charged with the entire control and… …   Black's law dictionary


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