Elinvar


Elinvar

Elinvar is a nickel steel alloy with a modulus of elasticity which does not change much with temperature changes. The name is a contraction of the French Elasticité invariable. It was invented around the 1920s by Charles Édouard Guillaume, a Swiss physicist who also invented Invar, another alloy of nickel and iron, which has very low thermal expansion. Guillaume won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Physics for these discoveries, which indicates how important these alloys were for scientific instruments.

The largest use of Elinvar was in balance springs for mechanical watches and chronometers. A major cause of inaccuracy in watches and clocks was that ordinary steels used in springs lost elasticity slightly as the temperature increased, so the balance wheel would oscillate more slowly back and forth, and the clock would lose time. Chronometers and precision watches required complex temperature-compensated balance wheels for accurate timekeeping. Springs made of Elinvar, and other low temperature coefficient alloys such as Nivarox that followed, were not affected by temperature, so they made the temperature-compensated balance wheel obsolete.

Elinvar consists of 59% iron, 36% nickel, and 5% chromium. It is almost nonmagnetic and corrosion resistant.


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  • elinvar — ELINVÁR s.n. Aliaj de oţel, crom şi nichel, cu elasticitate constantă la temperatura de lucru, folosit în construcţia unor instrumente de măsură de precizie. – Din el[asticitate] + invar[iabilă]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 12.06.2004. Sursa: DEX 98… …   Dicționar Român

  • Élinvar — ● Élinvar nom masculin (de élastique et invariable) Nom déposé d aciers alliés contenant 40 à 42 % de nickel et possédant un module élastique quasi constant entre − 50 et + 100 °C, ce qui permet leur emploi dans la fabrication des ressorts… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Élinvar — L’élinvar est un alliage d acier au nickel (36% de nickel, 12% de chrome)[1] découvert par le physicien suisse Charles Édouard Guillaume vers 1920, et caractérisé par une très faible variation de son module d élasticité avec la température, d où… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • elinvar — elinvaras statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis 44–49% Fe, 33–43% Ni, 5–16% Cr, ir kt. metalų priedų lydinys. atitikmenys: angl. elinvar rus. элинвар …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • Elinvar — noun Elinvar is a trademark for a kind of steel used for watch springs because its elasticity is constant over a wide range of temperatures • Syn: ↑chrome nickel steel • Usage Domain: ↑trademark • Hypernyms: ↑alloy steel …   Useful english dictionary

  • Elinvar — /el in vahr /, Trademark. an alloy of iron, nickel, chromium, and other constituents, resistant to rust and magnetization and having a low rate of thermal expansion. * * * …   Universalium

  • Elinvar — Смотри Элинвар …   Энциклопедический словарь по металлургии

  • elinvar — el·in·var …   English syllables

  • Элинвар — [Elinvar] общее название группы сплавов на Fe Ni основе (около 36 % Ni и 8 % Cr, остальное Fe), упругие свойства которых мало зависят от температуры. Основные причины аномалии: уменьшение сил связи в кристаллической решетке при переходе ее в… …   Энциклопедический словарь по металлургии

  • Physiknobelpreis 1920: Charles Édouard Guillaume —   Der Franzose erhielt den Nobelpreis für die Entdeckung der Anomalien bei Nickelstahllegierungen und für seine Präzisionsmessungen.    Biografie   Charles Édouard Guillaume, * Fleurier (Kanton Neuchâtel) 15. 2. 1861, ✝ Sèvres (Frankreich) 13. 6 …   Universal-Lexikon