- Jibanananda Das
Jibanananda Das (
Bangla: জীবনানন্দ দাশ) ( 17 February, 1899- 22 October, 1954) is the most popular Bengali poet after Rabindranath Tagoreand Kazi Nazrul Islam. He is considered one of the precursors who introduced modernist poetryto Bengali Literature, at a period when it was influenced by Rabindranath Tagore's Romantic poetry[ [http://www.mukto-mona.com/Articles/faizul_latif/jibanananda.htm Jibananda Das-er Adhunikota] ] .
Jibanananda and Bengali poetry ["Beyonf Land and Time", ed.
Faizul Latif Chowdhuryand Golam Mustafa, 2008, Somoy Prokashon, Dhaka]
During the later half of the twentieth century,
Jibanananda Dasemerged as the most popular poet of modern Bengali literature. Popularity apart, Jibanananda Das had distinguished himself as an extraordinary poet presenting a paradigm hitherto unknown. It is a fact that his unfamiliar poetic diction, choice of words and thematic preferences took time to reach the heart of the readers. Nevertheless, today it can be said without exaggeration that the poetry of Jibanananda has become the defining essence of modernismin twentieth century Bengali poetry.
As of 2007, Bengali is the mother tongue of more than 300 million people living mainly in Bangladesh and India. Bengali poetry of the modern age flourished on the elaborate foundation laid by
Michael Madhusudan Dutt(1824-1873) and Rabindranath Tagore(1861-1941). Tagore, a literary giant, without a parallel during his time, ruled over the domain of Bengali poetry and literature for more than half a century bestowing inescapable influence on contemporary poets. Bengali literaturecaught attention of the international literary world when Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prizefor literature in 1913, for " Gitanjali", an anthology of poems rendered into English by the poet himself with the title " Song Offering". Since then Bengali poetry has traveled a long way. It has evolved around its own tradition; it has responded to the poetry movements around the world; it has assumed various dimensions in different tones, colours and essence. In Bengal, efforts to come out of the Tagorian worldview and stylistics started in the early days of twentieth century. Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam[1899-1976] popularized himself on a wide scale with patriotic theme and musical tone and tenor. However, a number of new generation poets consciously attempted to align Bengali poetry with the essence of modernism emerging around the world, starting towards the end of the nineteenth century. Much of these can be attributed to the trends in contemporary Europe and America. Five poets who are particularly acclaimed for their contribution in creating a post-Tagorian poetic paradigm and infusing modernism in Bengali poetry are Sudhindranath Dutta [1901-1960] , Buddhadeb Bose[1908-1974] , Amiya Chakravarty[1901-1986] , Jibanananda Das[1899-1954] and Bishnu Dey[1909-1982] . The contour of modernism in twentieth century Bengali poetry was drawn by these five pioneers and some of their contemporaries.
However, not all of them have survived the test of time. Of them, poet Jibanananda Das was little understood during his lifetime. In fact, he received scanty attention and was considered incomprehensible. Readers including his contemporary literary critics also alleged about his style and diction. On occasions, he faced merciless criticism from leading literary personalities of his time. Even
Rabindranath Tagorepassed unkind remarks on his diction although he praised his poetic capability. Nevertheless, destiny reserved a crown for him.
Surely, his early poems bear the influence of
Kazi Nazrul Islamand some other poets like Satyendranath Dutta. However, before long, he thoroughly overcame all influences and created a new poetic diction. Buddhadeb Bosewas among the few who first recognized his extraordinary style and thematic novelty. However, as his style and diction matured, his message appeared to be obscured. Readers including critics started to complain about legibility and question sensibility.
It is only after his unfortunate and accidental death in 1954 that a readership started to emerge who not only was comfortable with Jibanananda's style and diction but also enjoyed his poetry. Questions about the obscurity of his poetic message were no longer more raised. By the time his birth centenary was celebrated in 1999, Jibanananda Das was certainly the most popular and the most well-read poet of
Bengali literature. Even when the last quarter of the twentieth century ushered in the post-modern era, Jibanananda Das continued to be relevant to the new taste and fervour. This has been possible because his poetry underwent many cycles of change, and later poems contain elements that precisely respond to post-modern characteristics.
Poetics ["Beyond Land and Time", ed.
Faizul Latif Chowdhuryand Golam Mustafa, 2008, Somoy Prokashon, Dhaka]
Born in 1899, Jibanananda Das started writing and publishing in the 1920s. During his lifetime he published only 269 poems in different journals and magazines of which 162 were collected in 7 anthologies, from "Jhara Palak" to "Bela Obela Kalbela" [ Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1995), "I have seen the Bengal's face - Poems from Jibanananda Das", Creative Workshop, Chittagong (-A collection of forty poems by Jibanananda Das rendered into English by different translators). ] . However, since his expiry in 1954, many of his unpublished poems have been discovered and published, thanks to the dedicated efforts of his brother Asokananda Das, his nephew Dr. Bhumendra Guha, and two researchers, namely,
Abdul Mannan Syedfrom Bangladeshand Deviprasad Bandopadhyafrom West Bengalof India. By 2007, the total number of published and unpubsliehdd poems stood at more than 640. In addition, a huge number of novels and short-stories were discovered and published about the same time.
Clinton B. Seelyhas termed Jibanananda Das (JD) "Bengal's most cherished poet since Rabindranath". [Seely, Clinton (1990), "A Poet Apart : A literary biography of the Bengali Poet Jibanananda Das", University of Delaware Press, Newark.] On the other hand, to many, reading the poetry of JD is like stumbling upon a labyrinth of mind similar to the kind one imagines Camus's 'absurd' man toils through. Indeed JD's poetry is sometimes an outcome of very profound feeling that is painted with imagery of a type not readily understandable. Sometimes, the connection between the sequential lines is not obvious. In fact, JD broke the traditional circular structure of poetry (intro-middle-end) and the pattern of logical sequence of words, lines and stanzas. Consequently, the thematic connotation is often hidden under a rhythmic narrative that requires careful reading between the lines. The following excerpt will bear the point out :
Lepers open the hydrant and lap some water.
Or may be that hydrant was already broken.
Now at midnight they descend upon the city in droves.
Scattering sloshing petrol. Though ever careful,
Someone seems to have taken a serious spill in the water.
Three rickshaws trot off, fading into the last gaslight,
I turn off, leave Phear Lane, defiantly
Walk for miles, stop beside a wall
On Bentinck Street, at Territti Bazar,
There in the air dry as roasted peanuts.
("Night" - a poem on night in Calcutta city, translated by
Clinton B. Seely)
Variously branded at different times, and popularly known as a modernist of the Yeatsian-Poundian-Eliotesque school, JD has been termed the "truest poet" by
Annadashankar Roy. As a true poet, JD conceived a poem and moulded it up in the most natural way. When a theme occurred to him, he shaped it up with such words, metaphors and imagery that distinguished him from all others. JD's poetry is to be felt rather than merely read or heard. Writing about JD's poetry Joe Winterremarked :
It is a natural process, though perhaps the rarest one. Jibanananda's style reminds us of this, seeming to come unbidden. It is full of sentences that scarcely pause for breath ; of word-combinations that seem altogether unlikely but work ; of switches in register, from sophisticated usage to a village-dialect word, that jar and in the same instant settle in the mind. Full of friction, in short, that almost becomes a part of the consciousness ticking. [* Winter, Joe : 'Jibanananda Das – Naked Lonely Hand' (Selected poems : translated from Bengali), 2003, Anvil Press Poetry Ltd., London, UK.]
A few lines are quoted below in support of Winter's remarks:
Nevertheless, the owl stays wide awake ;
The rotten still frog begs two more moments
in the hope of another dawn in conceivable warmth.
We feel in the deep tracelessness of flocking darkness
the unforgiving enmity of the mosquito-net all around ;
The mosquito loves the stream of life
awake in its monastery of darkness.
["One day eight years ago", translated by Faizul Latif Chowdhury]
Or elsewhere :
... how the wheel of justice is set in motion
by a smidgen of wind -
or if someone dies and someone else gives him a bottle
of medicine, free - then who has the profit? -
over all of this the four have a mighty word-battle.
For the land they will go to now is called the soaring river
where a wretched bone-picker and his bone
come and discover
their faces in water - till looking at faces is over.
("Idle Moment" translated by
It should be pointed out that Jibanananda successfully integrated Bengali poetry with the slightly older Euro-centric international modernist movement of early twentieth century. In this regard he possibly owes as much to his exotic exposure as to his innate poetic talent. Although hardly appreciated during his life time, his modernism, evoking almost all the suggested elements of the phenomenon, remains untranscended till date, despite the emergence of many notable poets during the last fifty years. His success as a modern Bengali poet may be attributed to the facts that JD in his poetry not only discovered the tract of the slowly evolving twentieth century modern mind, sensitive and reactive, full of anxiety and tension, he invented his own diction, rhythm and vocabulary with unmistakably indigenous rooting, and he maintained a self-styled lyricism and imagism mixed with an extra-ordinary existentialist sensuousness, perfectly suited to the modern temperament in the Indian context, whereby he also averted fatal dehumanization that could alienate him from the people. He was at once a "classicist" and a "romantic" and created an appealing world hitherto unknown :
For thousands of years I roamed the paths of this earth,
From waters round Ceylon in dead of night
to Malayan seas.
Much have I wandered. I was there
in the gray world of
And Bimbisara, pressed on through darkness
to the city of
I am a weary heart surrounded by life's frothy ocean.
To me she gave a moment's peace -
Banalata Sen from
While reading JD, one often encounters references to olden time and places, events and personalities. Sense of time and history is an unmistakable element that has shaped JD's poetic world to a great extent. However, he lost sight of nothing surrounding him. Unlike many of his peers who blindly imitated the renowned western poets in a bid to create a new poetic domain and generated spurious poetry, JD remained anchored in his own soil and time and successfully assimilated all experiences, real and virtual, and produced hundreds of unforgettable lines. His intellectual vision was thoroughly embedded in Bengal's nature and beauty :
Amidst a vast meadow the last time when I met her
I said: 'Come again a time like this
if one day you so wish
twenty five years later.'
This been said, I came back home.
After that, many a time, the moon and the stars,
from field to field have died, the owls and the rats
searching grains in paddy fields on a moonlit night
fluttered and crept! - shut eyed
many times left and right
several souls! - awake kept I
all alone - the stars on the sky
faster still, time speeds by.
Yet it seems
Twenty-five years will forever last.
("After Twenty-five Years" translated by Luna Rushdi)
Thematically, in sum, JD is amazed by the continued existence of humankind in the backdrop of eternal flux of time, wherein individual presence is insignificant and meteoric albeit inescapable. He feels : we are closed in, fouled by the numbness of this concentration cell (Meditations). To him the world is weird and olden, and as a race, the mankind has been a persistent "wanderer of this world" ("Banalata Sen") who, according to him, has existed too long to know anything more ("Before death", "Walking alone"), or experience anything fresh. The justification of further mechanical existence like Mahin's horses ("The Horses") is apparently absent. So (he) had slept by the Dhanshiri river on a cold December night, and had never thought of waking again (Darkness). As an individual, tired of life and yearning for sleep ("One day eight years ago"), JD is certain that peace can be found nowhere and it is useless to move to a distant land since there is no way of freedom from sorrows fixed by life ("Land, Time and Offspring"). Nevertheless, he suggests: "O sailor, you press on, keep pace with the sun!" ("Sailor"). [Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1995), "I have seen the Bengal's face - Poems from Jibanananda Das", Creative Workshop, Chittagong (-A collection of forty poems by Jibanananda Das rendered into English by different translators]
Why did Jibanananda task himself to forge a new poetic speech while others in his time preferred to tread the usual path? The answer is simple. In his endeavours to shape a world of his own, he was gradual and steady. He was an inward looking person and was not in a hurry.
I do not want to go anywhere so fast.
Whatever my life wants I have time to reach
[Of 1934 - a poem on Motor Car, translated by Golam Mustafa] .
Notwithstanding indigenous anchorage and very own world-view, stylistics and diction, Jibanananda Das will appeal to poetry lovers and modern men of intellect and emotion all around the world of today and of tomorrow.
A huge volume of literary evaluation of the poetry of Jibanananda Das has been produced since his untimely death in 1954. However, English language readers will immensely benefit from the 10-page Introduction of "Naked Lonely Hand", an anthology of poet's fifty poems into English, written by Joe Winter [ Winter, Joe, "Jibanananda Das - Naked Lonely Hand" ( 2003), Anvil Press Poetry, London] . Winter has been able to successfully catch the essence of the poet who appeared to be subtle, mysterious and bizarre even to native readers and critics of his time.
Biographical Account [Seely, Clinton (1990), "A Poet Apart : A literary biography of the Bengali Poet Jibanananda Das", University of Delaware Press, Newark]
Jibanananda Das (JD) was born in 1899 in the small district town of
Barisal, located in the south of Bangladesh, a part of East Bengal of the undivided Indiaat that time. . His ancestors came from the Bikrampurregion of Dhakadistrict, from a now-extinct village called Gaupara on the banks of the river Padma.harvnb|Das, P.|2003|p=1] Jibanananda's grandfather Sarbananda Dasgupta was the first to settle permanently in Barisal. He was an early exponent of the reformist Brahmo Samajmovement in Barisal, and was highly regarded in town for his philanthropy. He erased the "-gupta" suffix from the family name as a symbol of Vedic Brahminexcess, thus rendering the surname to "Das".harvnb|Das, P.|2003|p=2] Jibanananda's father Satyananda Das (1863-1942) was a schoolmaster, essayist, magazine publisher, and founder-editor of " Brôhmobadi", a journal of the Brahmo Samaj dedicated to the exploration of various social issues.harvnb|Das, P.|2003|p=6]
Jibanananda's mother Kusumkumari Das was a poet and the writer of a famous poem called "Adôrsho Chhele" ("The Ideal Boy") whose refrain is well-known to
Bengalisto this day: "Amader deshey hobey shei chhele kobey / Kothae na boro hoye kajey boro hobey." ("The child who achieves not in words but in deeds, when will this land know such a one?")
Jibanananda was the eldest son of his parents, and was called by the
nicknameMilu. A younger brother Ashokananda Das was born in 1908 and a sister called Shuchorita in 1915. Milu fell violently ill in his childhood, and his parents feared for his life. Kusumkumari took her ailing child and travelled to health resorts all over India - in Lucknow, Agraand Giridih. They were accompanied on these journeys by their uncle Chandranath.
In January 1908, Milu, by now eight years old, was admitted to the fifth grade in Brojomohon School. The delay was due to his father's opposition to admitting children into school at too early an age. Milu's childhood education was therefore sustained mostly at home, under his mother's tutelage.
His school life passed by relatively uneventfully. In 1915, he successfully completed his
Matriculationexamination from Brojomohon, obtaining a first division in the process. He repeated the feat two years later when he passed the Intermediate exams from Brajamohan College. Evidently an accomplished student, he now left his rural Barisal to go to university in Calcutta, the teeming city at the heart of the British Raj.
Life in Calcutta : First phase
Jibanananda enrolled in
Presidency College, Kolkata, then as now one of the most prestigious seats of learning in India. He studied English Literature and graduated with a BA (Honours) degree in 1919. That same year, his first poem appeared in print in the Boishakhissue of "Brahmobadi" journal. Fittingly, the poem was called "Borsho-abahon" ("Arrival of the New Year"). This poem was published anonymously, with only the honorific Sriin the byline. However, the annual index in the year-end issue of the magazine revealed his full name: "Sri Jibanananda Das Gupta, BA".
In 1921, he completed the MA degree in English from
Calcutta University, obtaining a second class. He was also studying law. At this time, he lived in the Hardinge student quarters next to the university. Just before his exams, he fell ill with bacillary dysenterythat affected his preparation for the examinaiton.
The following year, he started his teaching career. He joined the English department of Calcutta's City College as a tutor. By this time, he had left Hardinge and moved to boardings in Harrison Road. He gave up his law studies. It is thought that he also lived in a house in Bechu Chatterjee Street for some time with his brother Ashokanananda who had come up from Barisal for his MSc studies.
Travels and travails
His literary career was starting to take off. When Deshbondhu Chittaranjan Das died in June 1925, Jibanananda wrote a poem called "Deshbandhu'r Prayan'e" ("On the Death of the Friend of the Nation") which was published in "Bangabani" magazine. This poem would later take its place in the collection called "
Jhara Palok" (1927). On reading it, the poet Kalidas Roysaid that he had thought the poem the work of a mature, accomplished poet hiding behind a pseudonym. Jibanananda's earliest printed prosework was also published in 1925. This was an obituary entitled "Kalimohan Das'er Sraddha-bashorey", which appeared in serialized form in "Brahmobadi" magazine. His poetry began to be widely published in various literary journals and little magazines in Calcutta, Dhaka and elsewhere. These included " Kallol", perhaps the most famous literary magazine of the era, "Kalikalam" ("Pen and Ink"), "Progoti" ("Progress") (co-edited by Buddhadeb Bose) and others. At this time, he occasionally used the surname Dasgupta as opposed to Das.
In 1927, "Jhara Palok" ("Fallen Feathers"), his first collection of poems, came out. A few months later, Jibanananda managed to get himself fired from his job at City College. The college had been struck by student unrest surrounding a religious festival, and enrolment had suffered as a result. Still in his late 20s, Jibanananda was the youngest member of the faculty and therefore the most dispensable . In the literary circle of Calcutta, he also came under serial attack the critic
Sajanikanta Dasbegan to write aggressive critiques of his poetry in the review pages of "Shanibarer Chithi" ("The Saturday Letter") magazine.
With nothing to keep him in Calcutta, Jibanananda left for the small town of
Bagerhatin the far south, there to continue his teaching career at Prafulla Chandra College. But he only lasted there for about three months and quickly returned to the big city. He was now in dire financial straits. In order to make ends meet, he gave private tuition to students, and kept applying for full-time positions in academia. In December 1929, he moved to Delhito take up a teaching post at Ramjosh College. But again this lasted no more than a few months. Back in Barisal, his family had been making arrangements for his marriage. Once Jibanananda got to Barisal, he failed to go back to Delhi and consequently lost the job.
In May 1930, he married Labanya, a girl whose ancestors came from
Khulna. At the subsequent reception in Dhaka's Ram Mohan Library, leading literary lights of the day such as Ajit Kumar Duttaand Buddhadeb Bose were assembled. A daughter called Manjusree was born to the couple in February of the following year.
Around this time, he wrote one of his most controversial poems. "Camp'e" ("At the Camp") was printed in
Sudhindranath Dutta's "Parichay" magazine and immediately caused a firestorm in literary circles. The poem's ostensible subject is a deer hunt by moonlight. Many accused Jibanananda of promoting indecency and incestthrough this poem.Fact|date=May 2008 More and more, he turned now, in secrecy, to the short storyformat.
In 1934, he wrote the series of poems that would form the basis of the collection called "
Rupasi Bangla". These poems were not discovered during his lifetime and "Rupasi Bangla" was only published in 1957, three years after his death.
Back in Barisal
In 1935, Jibanananda, by now familiar with professional disappointment and poverty, returned to his "
alma mater" Brajamohan College. He joined as a lecturer in the English department. In Calcutta, Buddhadeb Bose, Premendra Mitraand Samar Senwere starting a brand new poetry magazine called " Kobita". Jibanananda's work featured in the very first issue of the magazine, a poem called "Mrittu'r" Aagey ("Before Death"). Upon reading the magazine, Tagorewrote a lengthy letter to Bose and especially commended the Das poem: "Jibanananda Das' vivid, colourful poem has given me great pleasure." It was in the second issue of "Kobita" ( Poush1342 issue, Dec 1934/Jan 1935) that Jibanananda published his now-legendary " Banalata Sen". Today, this 18-line poem is among the most famous poems in the language.
The following year, his second volume of poetry "Dhusar Pandulipi" was published. Jibanananda was by now well settled in Barisal. A son Samarananda was born in November 1936. His impact in the world of
Bengali literaturecontinued to increase. In 1938, Tagore compiled a poetry anthologyentitled "Bangla Kabya Parichay" ("Introduction to Bengali Poetry") and included an abridged version of "Mrityu'r Aagey", the same poem that had moved him three years ago. Another important anthology came out in 1939, edited by Abu Sayeed Ayuband Hirendranath Mukhopadhyay; Jibanananda was represented with four poems: "Pakhira", "Shakun", "Banalata Sen", and "Nagna Nirjan Haat".
In 1942, the same year that his father died, his third volume of poetry "
Banalata Sen" was published under the aegis of Kobita Bhavanand Buddhadeb Bose. A ground-breaking modernist poet in his own right, Bose was a steadfast champion of Jibanananda's poetry, providing him with numerous platforms for publication. 1944 saw the publication of " Maha Prithibi". The Second World Warhad a profound impact on Jibanananda's poetic vision. The following year, Jibanananda provided his own translations of several of his poems for an English anthology to be published under the title " Modern Bengali Poems". Oddly enough, the editor Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya considered these translations to be sub-standard, and instead commissioned Martin Kirkmanto translate four of Jibanananda's poems for the book.
Life in Calcutta : Final phase
The aftermath of the war saw heightened demands for
Indian independence. Muslim politicians led by Jinnahwanted an independent homeland for the Muslims of the subcontinent. Bengal was uniquely vulnerable to partition: its western half was majority-Hindu, its eastern half majority-Muslim. Yet adherents of both religions spoke the same language, came from the same ethnic stock, and lived in close proximity to each other in town and village. Jibanananda had emphasized the need for communal harmony at an early stage. In his very first book "Jhora Palok", he had included a poem called "Hindu Musalman". In it he proclaimed:
However, events in real life belied his beliefs. In the summer of 1946, he travelled to Calcutta from Barisal on three months' paid leave. He stayed at his brother Ashokananda's place through the bloody riots that swept the city. Just before partition in August 1947, Jibanananda quit his job at Brajamohan College and said goodbye to his beloved Barisal. He and his family were among the X million refugees who took part in the largest cross-border exchange of peoples in history. For a while he worked for a magazine called "Swaraj" as its Sunday editor. But he left the job after a few months.
In 1948, he completed two of his novels, "
Mallyaban" and " Shutirtho", neither of which were discovered during his life. Shaat'ti Tarar Timir was published in December 1948. The same month, his mother Kusumkumari Das passed away in Calcutta.
By now, he was well-established in the Calcutta literary world. He was appointed to the editorial board of yet another new literary magazine "Dondo" ("Conflict"). However, in a reprise of his early career, he was sacked from his job at Kharagpur College in February 1951. In 1952, Signet Press published "
Banalata Sen". The book received widespread acclaim and won the Book of the Year award from the All-Bengal Tagore Literary Conference. Later that year, the poet found another job at Borisha College(today known as Borisha Bibekanondo College). This job too he lost within a few months. He applied afresh to Diamond Harbour Fakirchand College, but eventually declined it, owing to travel difficulties. Instead he was obliged to take up a post at Howrah Girl's College(now known as Vijaykrishna College). As the head of the English department, he was entitled to a 50-taka monthly bonus on top of his salary.
By the last year of his life, Jibanananda was acclaimed as one of the best poets of the post-Tagore era. He was constantly in demand at literary conferences, poetry readings, radio recitals etc. In May 1954, he published a volume titled 'Best Poems' ("
Sreshttho Kobita"}. His "Best Poems" won the Indian Sahitya AkademiAward in 1955.
On October 14, 1954, he was unmindfully crossing a road near Calcutta's
Deshapriya Parkwhen he was hit by a tram. Jibanananda was returning home after his routine evening walk. At that time, he used to reside in a rented apartment on the Lansdowne Road.Seriously injured, he was taken to Shambhunath Pundit Hospital. Poet-writer Sajanikanta Daswho had been one of his fiercest critics was tireless in his efforts to secure the best treatment for the poet. He even persuaded Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy(then chief minister of West Bengal) to visit him in hospital. Nonetheless, the injury was too fatal to redress. Jibanananda died in hospital on October 22, 1954 after eight days of struggle with death, close to midnight. He was then 55 and left behind his wife, Labanyaprabha Das, a son and a daughter, and the ever-growing band of readers.
His body was cremated the following day at Keoratola crematorium. [Das, Prabhatkumar (2003), "Jibanananda Das" (2nd edition), Poshchim-bongo Bangla Akademi, Calcutta.] Following popular belief, it has been alleged in some biographical accounts that his accident was actually an attempt at suicide. ["আধুনিক বাঙলা কবিতা" (Modern Bengali Poetry), ed.
Humayun Azad, ISBN 984-901-205-1.] . However, none of the Jibanananda biographers have indicated as such.
The literary circle deeply mourned his death. Almost all the newspapers published obituary which contained sincere appreciation of the poetry of Jibanananda. On 1 November 1954, "The Times of India" wrote :
The premature death after an accident of Mr. Jibanananda Das removes from the field of Bengali literature a poet, who, though never in the limelight of publicity and prosperity, made a significant contribution to modern Bengali poetry by his prose-poems and free-verse. ... A poet of nature with a serious awareness of the life around him Jibanananda Das was known not so much for the social content of his poetry as for his bold imagination and the concreteness of his image. To a literary world dazzled by Tagore’s glory, Das showed how to remain true to the poet’s vocation without basking in its reflection.”In his obituary in the
Shanibarer Chithi, Sajanikanta Dasquoted from the poet :
When one day I’ll leave this body once for all −Everyday Jibanananda returns to thousand of his readers and touches them with his unforgettable lines.
Shall I never return to this world any more?
Let me come back
On a winter night
To the bedside of any dying acquaintance
With a cold pale lump of orange in hand.
During his life time Jibanananda remained solely a poet who occasionally wrote literary articles, mostly on solicitation. It is after his death that a huge number of novels and short-stories have been discovered. Thematically, Jibanananda's storylines are largely autobiographical. His own time is constitutes the perspective. While in poetry he subdued his own life, he allowed it to be ushered into his ficiton. Structurally they are based more on dialogues than description by the author. However, his prose shows a unique style of compound sentences, use of non-colloquial words and atypical pattern of punctuation. His essays evidence a heavy prose style, which although complex, is capable of expressing complicated analytical statements. As a result his prose was very compact, containing profound message in a relatively short space.
* "Jhôra Palok" ("Fallen Feathers"), 1927.
* "Dhushor Pandulipi" ("Grey Manuscript"), 1936.
* "Bônolôta Sen", 1942
* "Môhaprithibi" ("Great Universe"), 1944 :
* "Shaat-ti Tarar Timir", ("Darkness of Seven Stars"), 1948.
* "Shreshtho Kobita", ("Best Poems"),1954 : Navana, Calcutta, .
* "Rupôshi Bangla" ("Bengal, the Beautiful"), written in 1934, published posthumously in 1957.
* "Bela Obela Kalbela" ("Times, Bad Times, End Times"), 1961, published posthumously but the manuscript was prepared during life time.
* "Sudorshona"("The beautiful"), published posthumously in 1973: Sahitya Sadan, Calcutta.
* "Alo Prithibi" ("The World of Light"), published posthumously in 1981 :Granthalaya Private Ltd., Calcutta.
* "Manobihangam" ("The Bird that is my Heart"), published posthumously in 1979 : Bengal Publishers Pivate Ltd. Calcutta.
* "Oprkashitô Ekanno" ("Unpublished Fifty-one"), Published posthumously in 1999, Mawla Brothers, Dhaka.
* "Malyabaan" (novel), New Script, Calcutta, 1973 (posthumuously published).
* "Nirupam Yatra"
* "Pretinir * "Sutirtha"
* "Bashmatir Upakhyan"
* "Kobitaar Kôtha" (tr. "On Poetry"), Signet Press, Calcutta, 1362 (Bngali year).
Major Collected Texts
* Bandopdhaya, Deviprasad : Kabya Songroho − Jibanananda Das (tr. Collection of Poetry of Jibanananda Das), 1993, Bharbi, 13/1 Bankim Chatujje Street, Kolkata-73.
* Bandopdhaya, Deviprasad : Kabya Songroho − Jibanananda Das (tr. Collection of Poetry of Jibanananda Das), 1999, Gatidhara, 38/2-KA Bangla Bazaar, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh.
* Bandopdhaya, Deviprasad : Jibanananda Das Uttorparba (1954 - 1965), 2000, Pustak Bipani, Calcutta.
* Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1990), "Jibanananda Das'er Prôbôndha Sômôgrô", (tr: "Complete non-ficitonal prose works of Jibanananda Das"), First edition : Desh Prokashon, Dhaka.
* Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1995), "Jibanananda Das'er Prôbôndha Sômôgrô", (tr: "Complete non-ficitonal prose works of Jibanananda Das"), Second edition : Mawla Brothers, Dhaka.
* Chowdhury, F. L. (ed) : Oprokashito 51 (tr. Unpublished fifty one poems of Jibanananda Das), 1999, Mawla Brothers, Dhaka.
* Shahriar, Abu Hasan : Jibanananda Das-er Gronthito-Ogronthito Kabita Samagra, 2004, Agaami Prokashoni, Dhaka.
Jibanananda in English Translation
Translating Jibanananda Das (JD) poses a real challenge to any translator. It not only requires translation of words and phrases, it demands 'translation' of colour and music, of imagination and images. Translations are a works of interpretation and reconstruction. When it comes to JD, both are quite difficult.
However people have shown enormous enthusiasm in translating JD. Translation of JD commenced as the poet himself rendered some of his poetry into English at the request of poet
Buddhadeb Bosefor the Kavita. That was 1952. His translations include "Banalata Sen", "Meditations", "Darkness", "Cat" and "Sailor" among others, many of which are now lost. Since then many JD lovers have taken interest in translating JD's poetry into English. These have been published, home and abroad, in different anthologies and magazines.
Obviously different translators have approached their task from different perspectives. Some intended to merely transliterate the poem while others wanted to maintain the characteristic tone of Jibanananda as much as possible. As indicated above, the latter is not an easy task. In this connection, it is interesting to quote
Chidananda Dasguptawho informed of his experience in translating JD :
Effort has of course been made to see that the original's obliqueness or deliberate suppression of logical and syntactical links are not removed altogether. Sometimes Jibanananda's very complicated and apparently arbitrary syntax has been smoothed out to a clear flow. On occasion, a word or even a line has been dropped, and its intention incorporated somewhere just before or after. Names of trees, plants, places or other elements incomprehensible in English have often been reduced or eliminated for fear that they should become an unpleasant burden on the poem when read in translation.]
Small wonder that Chidananda Dasgupta took quite a bit of liberty in his project of translating JD.
Major books containing poems of Jibanananda in English translation, as of 2008, are given below:
* Ahmed, Mushtaque : 'Gleanings from Jibanananda Das', 2002, Cox’s Bazaar Shaitya Academy, Cox’s Bazaar, Bangladesh.
* Alam, Fakrul : 'Jibanananda Das - Selected poems with an Introduction, Chronology, and Glossary', 1999, University Press Limited, Dhaka.
* Banerji, Anupam : 'Poems : Bengal the Beautiful and Banalata Sen by Jivanananda Das', (Translated and Illustrated by Anupam Banerji), 1999, North Waterloo Academic Press, 482 Lexington Crescent, Waterloo, Ontario, N2K 2J8, 519-742-2247.
* Chaudhuri, Sukanta (ed): 'A Certain Sense – Poems by Jibanananda Das', Translated by Various Hands, 1998, Sahitya Akademi, Kolkatta.
* Chowdhury, F. L. (ed) : 'I have seen the Bengal's face – Poems from Jibanananda Das' (An anthology of poems from Jibanananda Das translated in English), 1995, Creative Workshop, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
* Chowdhury, F. L. and G. Mustafa (ed) : 'Beyond Land and Time' (An anthology of one hundred selected poems of Jibanananda Das, translated into English), 2008, Somoy Prokashan, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
* Dashgupta, Chidananda : 'Selected Poems - Jibanananda Das', 2006, Penguin Books, New Delhi.
* Gangopadhyay, Satya : Poems of Jibanananda Das, 1999, Chhatagali, Chinsurah, West Bengal, India.
* Seely, Clinton B. : 'A Poet Apart' (A comprehensive literary biography of Jibanananda Das), 1990, Associated University Press Ltd, USA.
* Seely, Clinton B. : 'Scent of Sun' (An anthology of poems of Jibanananda Das in English translation), 2008, — upcoming.
* Winter, Joe : 'Jibanananda Das – Naked Lonely Hand' (Selected poems : translated from Bengali), 2003, Anvil Press Poetry Ltd., London, UK.
* Winter, Joe : 'Bengal the Beautiful', 2006, Anvil Press Poetry Ltd., Neptune House, 70 Royal Hill, London SE10 8RF, UK.
* Bhattacharya, Bitoshoke (2001), "Jibanananda", Banishilpo Publishers, Kolkata.
* Banerjee, Deviprarad (1986), "Jibanananda Das - Bikaash Protishthaar Itirbitta" (tr: "A chronicle of development and achievements of Jibanananda Das"), Bharat Book Agency, Calcutta.
* Seely, Clinton B. : 'A Poet Apart' (A comprehensive literary biography of Jibanananda Das), 1990, Associated University Press Ltd, USA
* Ray, Gopal (1971), "Jibanananda", Sahitya Sadan, Calcutta.
* Das, Prabhatkumar (2003), "Jibanananda Das" (2nd edition), Poshchim-bongo Bangla Akademi, Calcutta.
* Bose, Ambuj (1965), "Ekti Nakshetra Ashe" (tr. "A star arrives"), Mausumi, Calcutta.
* Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1994), "Jibanananda Das'er "Aat bochor aager ekdin", Dibbyo Prokash, Dhaka.
* Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1995), "Jibanananda Das'er "Godhuli-shondhi'r Nritto", Dibbyo Prokash, Dhaka.
* Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1999), "Jibanananda Das'er "Mrityur Aage", Dibbyo Prokash, Dhaka.
* Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1999), "Jibanananda Bibechona", Anya Prokash, Dhaka.
* Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (2000), "Proshôngo Jibanananda", Dibbyo Prokash, Dhaka.
* Chowdhury, Pranab (editor) (2001), "Jibanananda Niye Probôndho" (tr: "Essays on Jibanananda"), Jatiyo Grontho Prokashon, Dhaka
* Das, Prabhatkumar (1999), "Jibanananda Das", Poshchim-bongo Bangla Akademi, Kolkata.
* Dutta, Birendra (2005), "Jibanananda: Kobi Gôlpokar" (tr: "Jibanananda: Poet and Short Story Writer"), Pustok Biponi, Kolkata .
* Gupta, Dr. Kshetra (2000), "Jibanananda: Kobitar Shorir", Shahitto Prokash, Kolkata.
* Mukhopadhyay, Kamal (editor) (1999), "Jibanananda Onnikhon", Shilindhro Prokashon, Kolkata
* Roychoudhury,Samir (editor) (2001), Postmodern Bangla Poetry, Haowa#49 Publishers, Kolkata.
* Rudro, Subrata (1985), "Probôndhokar Jibanananda" (tr: "Jibanananda the Essayist"), Nath Publishing, Kolkata
* Roychoudhury,Malay (2002), "Postmodern Jibanananda",Grafitti Publishers, Kolkata.
* Shahriar, Abu Hasan (editor) (2003), "Jibanananda Das: Mullayon o Patthodhhar" (tr: Jibanananda Das: Assessment and Critical Readings"), Shahitto Bikash, Dhaka
* Syed, Abdul Mannan (editor) and Hasnat, Abul (editor) (2001), "Jibanananda Das: Jônmo-shôtobarshik Sharok-grontho", Ôboshôr Prokashona Shôngstha, Dhaka.
* [http://www.geocities.com/poetjibananandadas/ Website on Jibanananda Das]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2j59asLgbG4 Recitation of Bodh (Sensation) by Shambhu Mitra]
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