- Human geography
Human geography is a branch of
geographythat focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earth's surface.
human, political, cultural, social, and economic aspects of social sciences. While the major focus of human geography is not the physical landscape of the Earth (see physical geography), it is not possible to discuss human geography without going into the physical landscape on which human activities are being played out, and environmental geographyis emerging as an important link between the two. Human geography is methodologically diverse using both qualitative methodsand quantitative methods, including case studies, survey research, statistical analysis, and model building among others.Anything that is hand made is classed as human geography for example:house,shops,shools etc.
Fields of human geography
The main fields of study in human geography focus around the core fields of:
Cultural geographyis the study of cultural products and norms and their variation across and relations to spaces and places. It focuses on describing and analyzing the ways language, religion, economy, government, and other cultural phenomena vary or remain constant from one place to another and on explaining how humans function spatially [Jordan, Terry, Mona Domosh and Lester Rowntree (eds.); 1994; The Human Mosaic: A thematic introduction to cultural geography. HarperCollins: New York]
Children's geographies, Sexuality and space, Animal Geographies, Language geography& Religion geography
Development geographyis the study of the Earth's geographywith reference to the standard of livingand quality of lifeof its human inhabitants.
Economic geographyis the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the Earth. The subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researcher's methodological approach.
Health geographyis the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.
Historical geographyis the study of the human, physical, fictional, theoretical, and "real" geographies of the past. Historical geography studies a wide variety of issues and topics. A common theme is the study of the geographies of the past and how a place or region changes through time. Many historical geographers study geographical patterns through time, including how people have interacted with their environment, and created the cultural landscape.
Political geographyis concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.
Electoral geography, Geopolitics, Strategic geography& Military geography
Population geographyis the study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places. Population geography involves demography in a geographical perspective. It focuses on the characteristics of population distributions that change in a spatial context.
Urban geographyis the study of urban areas. That is the study of areas which have a high concentration of buildings and infrastructure. These are areas where the majority of economicactivities are in the secondary sectorand tertiary sectors. They probably have a high population density.
Tourism geographyis the study of traveland tourismas an industry, as a human activity, and especially as a place-based experience.
** Subfields include
Within each of the subfields various philosophical approach can be used in research therefore an urban geographer could be a Feminist or Marxist geographer etc. Such approaches are:
List of notable human geographers
Carl Ritter(1779 – 1859) - Considered to be one of the founding fathers of modern geography and first chair in geography at the University of Berlin. Also noted for his use of organic analogy in his works.
Paul Vidal de la Blache(1845 - 1918) - Founder of the French School of Geopoliticsand possiblism.
Halford John Mackinder(1861 – 1947) - Author of The Geographical Pivot of History, co-founder of London School of Economicsalong with the Geographical Association.
Carl O. Sauer(1889 – 1975) - Critic of Environmental determinismand proponent of Cultural ecology.
Walter Christaller(1893 – 1969) - Economic geographer and developer of Central Place Theory.
Richard Hartshorne(1899 – 1992) - Scholar in the history and philosophy of geography.
Torsten Hägerstrand(1916 - 2004) - Critic of the quantitative revolutionand regional scienceand a noted figure in critical geography.
Waldo R. Tobler(born 1930) - Developer of the First law of geography.
* David Harvey (born 1935) - world's most cited academic geographer and winner of the
Lauréat Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud. Also noted for his work in critical geographyand on a critique of global capitalism.
Edward Soja(born 1941) - Noted for his work on regional development, planning and governance along with coining the terms Synekismand Postmetropolis.
Allen J Scott(born 1938) Winner of Vautrin Lud Prize in 2003. Numerous books and papers on economic and urban geography. Known for his work on regional development, new industrial spaces, agglomeration theory, global city-regions, and the cultural economy.
* Doreen Massey (born 1944) - Key scholar in the space and places of
globalisationand its pluralities, winner of the Vautrin Lud Prize.
Nigel Thrift(born 1949) - Developer of Non-representational theory.
Derek Gregory(born 1951) - Famous for writing on Israel, United States and UK actions in the Middle East after 9/11. Influenced by Edward Saidand has controbuted to work on Imagined geographies.
* Gillian Rose (born 1962) - Most famous for her critique: "Feminism & Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge" (1993) which was one of the first moves towards a development of
Human geography journals
As with all social sciences, human geographers publish research and other written work in a variety of academic journals. Whilst human geography is interdisciplinary, there are a number of journals with a human geography focus. These include:columns |colwidth=28em
Environment and Planning"
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers"
*"Progress in Human Geography"
*cite book|last=Cloke|first=Paul J.| coauthors = et al |title=Introducing Human Geographies |publisher=Hodder Arnold, London |date=2005
*cite book|last=Daniels|first=Peter | coauthors = et al |title=An Introduction to Human Geography |publisher=Prentice-Hall, London |date=2004
*cite book|last=Johnston|first=R.J.|title=The Dictionary of Human Geography |publisher=Blackwell Publishers, London |date=2000
*cite book|last=Flowerdew|first=Robin| coauthors = Martin, David |title=Methods in Human Geography: A Guide for Students Doing a Research Project |publisher=Prentice-Hall, London |date=1997
*cite book|last=Johnston|first=R.J|title=Geographies of Global Change: Remapping the World |publisher=Blackwell Publishers, London |date=2002
*cite book|last=Cloke|first=Paul J.| coauthors = et al |title=Envisioning Human Geographies |publisher=Hodder Arnold, London |date=2004
*cite book|last=Blij |first=Harm J.De| coauthors = et al |title=Geography: Realms, Regions and Concepts |publisher=John Wiley and Sons, London |date=2001
*cite book|last=Crang|first=Mike| coauthors = Thrift, Nigel |title=Thinking Space |publisher=Routledge , London |date=2000
*cite book|last=Gregory, Martin & Smith, Eds.|first=Derik, Ron & Graham |title=Human Geography: Society, Space and Social Science|publisher=Macmillan, London |date=1994
* Moseley, W.G., D. Lanegran and K. Pandit (eds). (2007). The Introductory Reader in Human Geography: Contemporary Debates and Classic Writings. Malden, MA: Blackwell Press. ISBN 978-1-4051-4922-8.
*cite book|last=Soja|first=Edward|title=Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory|publisher=Verso, London |date=1989
*cite book|last=Harvey|first=David|title=Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference|publisher=Blackwell Publishers, Inc., Malden, Mass. |date=1995
AP Human Geography
* [http://www.commoncensus.org CommonCensus Map Project] - Drawing a human-geographic map of the United States based on votes from its website
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