Mandala Airlines

Mandala Airlines
Mandala Airlines
Founded April 17, 1969
Ceased operations January 13, 2011
Hubs Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
Secondary hubs Juanda International Airport
Focus cities
Airport lounge Mandala Priority
Alliance TransNusa
Fleet size 8 (25 orders)
Destinations 20 (17 Domestic,3 International)
Parent company

33-37 Jalan Raya Tomang
Grogol Petamburan
West Jakarta

Key people Diono Nurjadin (President Director)

Mandala Airlines was a low-cost airline headquartered in the Mandala Airlines Building in West Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia.[2][3] Mandala operated scheduled services to 3 international and 17 domestic destinations, used a fleet of narrow body Airbuses. Its main operational base was Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Jakarta.[4] The airline had positioned itself as a provider of safe and reliable service combined with a competitive pricing scheme.[5] Due to debt problems, Mandala Airlines temporarily stopped flying all of their fleet on January 13, 2011. The company was reported to have asked the commercial court to delay debt recovery action against the airline.[6] The official application for postponement of debt payments to the Commercial Court has been filed for Rp.800 billion to about 271 creditors.[7] At end of February 2011, the creditors had finally accepted the airline's debt settlement proposal to convert debt to equity. It was approved by 70.58 percent of total creditors from the total debt of Rp.2.4 trillion.[8] After struggle with the funds, on September 24, 2011 the acquisition transaction was finally closed. Mandala would be back in the air 90 days after it, but certainly should got a new Air Operator Certificate first during it.[9]



PT Mandala Airlines was founded on April 17, 1969. The founders were Col. Sofjar, Maj. Gen. Raden Soerjo, Adil Aljol, Maj. (Air Force) Soegandi Partosoegondo, Kasbi Indradjanoe and Darwin Ramli. The airline was owned by PT Dharma Kencana Sakti, which in turn was the commercial arm of Yayasan Dharma Putra Kostrad, a foundation linked to Kostrad, the strategic reserve command of the Indonesian army. The airline was named after Operation Mandala, the military operations to incorporate West Papua into Indonesia. The name also refers to mandala, a Sanskrit term for a diagram symbolizing the universe, which is used as the logo of the corporation.

In its early years Mandala Airlines operated flights between Jakarta and destinations in eastern Indonesia, such as Ambon, Gorontalo, Kendari, Makassar and Manado. In 1972 Mandala took over Seulawah Air Service (another military-owned airline), which flew to cities in western Indonesia, such as Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, Medan, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru and Pontianak, giving the airline a national coverage.

Under military management, Mandala Airlines kept a relatively quiet existence as a second-tier airline. In 1992, it retired the last of its aged turboprop fleet and replaced them with leased second hand jet aircraft. In 2001, it suffered a financial scandal,[10] in which no less than IDR 135.5 billion (about USD 13.5 million) was stolen from the company funds by a senior Kostrad officer.[11]

Despite being awarded as Indonesia's "Most Potential Brand in Airlines Service" in 2002,[12] Mandala found it hard to compete with other recently-emerged Indonesian airlines. In 2005, Mandala experienced a high profile accident in Medan. At about the same time, political developments in Indonesia forced the military to divest itself of its businesses, resulting in Mandala Airlines being offered for sale. After the Indonesian government refused to take over Mandala Airlines,[13] Cardig International acquired the airline for IDR 300 billion (USD 34 million) in April 2006.[14] Indigo Partners acquired 49% of Cardig's shares in October 2006.

An Airbus A319-100 in the current livery

Within one year of its acquisition, Mandala Airlines transformed its image into a modern airline satisfying international standards of safety.[12] It adopted the low-cost carrier model, in order to compete with other low-cost airlines in Indonesia.[15] Mandala Airlines created a special niche among Indonesia's low-cost carriers by creating an image as a safe airline, taking advantage of the relatively young age of its fleet.

Mandala has now completed the IOSA (IATA Operational Safety Audit) of the International Air Transport Association (IATA),[5] and other manufacturer audits. It contracted maintenance of its aircraft to Singapore Airlines Engineering Company (SIAEC).[16] Its safety improvements were recognized by the European Union as Mandala was among four Indonesian airlines (the others were Garuda Indonesia, Airfast Indonesia and Premiair) officially struck from the EU airline ban list on July 14, 2009.[17] Mandala is listed in Category 1 by the Indonesian Civil Aviation Authority for airline safety quality.[18]

In January 2009, Mandala Airlines completed the phasing out of its older Boeing aircraft, replacing them with newer Airbuses. On April 20, 2009, Mandala moved its Jakarta operations to the new Terminal 3 of the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport.[19] In April 2010, Mandala Airlines announced international services to Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore. These services started on June 25, 2010.[20]

Shortly after services between Jakarta and Macau started on 21 July 2010, the airline announced that all flights between 22 to 29 August 2010 had been cancelled. Concerns were raised by some passengers that the company did not provide adequate information about the abrupt cancellations.[21]

On May 2011, Singapore-based Tiger Airways Holdings and Saratoga Investama, an Indonesian strategic investment company owned by Sandiaga Uno, announced their plans in a filing to the Singapore Stock Exchange on Thursday. Tiger Airways will acquire a 33 percent stake, while the Saratoga Group will buy 51 percent of Mandala.[22] Mandala Airlines will focus on Low Cost Carrier (LCC) market because one of the shareholders, Tiger Airways also run an LCC operation.[23]

Corporate identity

This version of the logo was used from 1969 to 2008

The airline's logo is a golden eight-pointed mandala reflecting the eight characters of humanity and the eight elements in Javanese tradition, with a five-petaled lotus in its centre reflecting Indonesia's five-principled state ideology, Pancasila. A new logo was unveiled on September 1, 2008, emphasizing the new image of the corporation. The new logo, designed by Veronica Halim & Eddy Purwanto of Nuage Branding, keeps the mandala and lotus theme of the original, but has a more streamlined design.

The current livery of Mandala Airlines is a "Eurowhite" scheme, consisting of a white fuselage with a blue 'mandala' title. The company logo is applied on the tail and the outboard sides of engine nacelles. Mandala's previous livery was also a "eurowhite" scheme with a different typeface for the 'Mandala' title, a blue tail and the original logo. The airline's earliest scheme was a bare-metal lower and white upper fuselage with a blue cheatline across the cabin windows and a red 'MANDALA' title.

Other recent liveries used by Mandala Airlines include a gold and blue wavy scheme with a large billboard 'Mandala' title introduced in early 2008, a mainly-white scheme with gold and blue hockey stick stripes on the fuselage and a blue tail, and an all-white scheme.


Shortly before they ceased operations, Mandala Airlines announced that they were considering a direct flight from Jakarta to Ho Chi Minh City.


Mandala Airlines shortly served three international destinations before they ceased operations:[20]


Mandala Airlines served seventeen domestic destinations:[24]



Bali and Nusa Tenggara


In-flight service

Mandala Airlines is a single class service airline. It had a buy on board service offering food and beverages for purchase by passengers, but no in-flight entertainment. Seats were reserved and allocated during check-in. Free in-flight magazines and newspapers were provided during flight.

Mandala Airlines had a baggage allowance of 20 kg (44 lb) per passenger, with an extra 5 kg (11 lb) for priority passengers. Priority passengers also benefit from better seat locations (at the front of the aircraft), free lounge access and free food and beverages (both in lounges and during flight).[25]


In line with current airline practice, Mandala Airlines utilized an electronic ticketing and an e-payment system. The airline had a 24-hour call center and a website for customers to book and pay for tickets electronically. Tickets for TransNusa destinations can be booked from the website, but flights involving the different airlines need separate bookings for each leg.



A colorful Boeing 737-200 in a one-off scheme dating from early 2006

Since January 2009, Mandala Airlines is a single class aircraft operator, having a fleet of the Airbus A320 family consisting of A319-100 and A320-200 types. Its fleet is the youngest among Indonesian airlines, averaging 5.8 years of age (as of May 2010), with the oldest dating from 1993.[26]

Aircraft Number in service Capacity (single class) Orders
Airbus A319-100 2 144 0
Airbus A320-200 6 180 25
Total 8[27]

Mandala's historic fleet includes the following types:

Incidents and accidents

A Boeing 737-200 similar to the one pictured here crashed in Medan with 100 out of 117 people on board killed in 2005

During its 40 years of operation, Mandala Airlines has experienced two significant accidents and several minor incidents. However, it has had no incidents since 2007, when it began to retire older aircraft and introduce newer ones.

  • On February 1, 1975, a Vickers Viscount overran the runway during landing at Taipei Songshan Airport, Taiwan and ended up in a paddy field.[28] Another Viscount overran the runway of Manado Airport on January 7, 1976. The aircraft was landing in intermittent slight rain, touching down 520 meters (1706 feet) down the runway, crossed a ditch and 3 drains before coming to rest 180 meters (591 feet) past the end of the runway. There were no fatalities in both incidents.[29]
  • On October 18, 1977, a Hawker Siddeley HS 748 crashed in Manila, Philippines during a certification flight. Two of three crew members were killed.[30]
  • On May 1, 1981, a Vickers Viscount ran off the runway at Semarang, causing the right main gear and nose gear to collapse.[31] Another Viscount belly-landed at Yogyakarta on January 13, 1985. In both cases there were no fatalities but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.[32]
  • On November 30, 1985, a Lockheed L-188 Electra had its main gear wheels separated when approaching for landing at Padang. The wheels fell through the roof of a watch repair shop. The aircraft was diverted to Medan for a wheels-up landing. All propellers broke off and the aircraft burst into flames after coming to rest. All 45 passengers and crew members survived, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.[33]
  • On July 24, 1992, Mandala Airlines Flight 660, a Vickers Viscount flying from Makassar to Ambon, crashed into Inahau Hill (located at Liliboy village, about 15 km (9 mi) west of the intended destination) while on an instrument approach in a heavy rainstorm. All 70 passengers and crew members were killed. At the time, it was Indonesia's third worst aviation accident.[34]
  • On September 5, 2005, Mandala Airlines Flight 091, a Boeing 737-200 departing for Jakarta, crashed seconds after taking off from Medan. Out of 117 passengers and crew members, 100 died. One passenger died later from injuries sustained during the crash in a hospital. As the aircraft crashed into a heavily populated residential area, 49 persons on the ground were also killed, and at least 26 were injured.[35] This accident is the second worst aviation accident in Indonesia, and also the world's worst accident involving a Boeing 737-200.
  • On October 3, 2006, a Boeing 737-200 arriving from Balikpapan skidded 50 meters off the runway during landing at Tarakan. There were no injuries. Visibility was below 400 meters at the time due to heavy haze.[36] Months later, on December 18, another Boeing 737-200 skidded off the runway at Malang due to adverse weather. No injuries were reported to the 77 passengers on board.[37] Malang was the scene for another incident on November 1, 2007, when another Boeing 737-200 skidded when landing due to adverse weather. No serious injury occurred, but 5 persons were slightly injured out of 89 passengers and crew members.[38]

External links


  1. ^ detik Finance : Mandala Dapat Investor Baru, Konsumen Tunda Gugatan Hukum
  2. ^ "Choose a Career That Really Takes Off." Mandala Airlines. Retrieved on January 14, 2011. "Mandala Airlines Building, Jalan Tomang Raya Kav. 33-37, Jakarta 11440."
  3. ^ "Company Profile." Mandala Airlines. 7/7. Retrieved on September 16, 2010. "Head office Jl Tomang Raya Kav. 33-37 Jakarta 11440"
  4. ^ "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International: p. 47. 2007-04-10. 
  5. ^ a b Mandala Airlines Corporate Profile
  6. ^ Indonesia's Mandala Airlines suspends flight over debt problems
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Mandala aims to fly as soon as acquisition is finally closed". September 26, 2011. 
  10. ^ Marbun, R: "Democratization and Reform", p. 56. UNISCI Discussion Paper, No. 15 (October 2007).
  11. ^ Gaya Bisnis Militer di Tiga Kota
  12. ^ a b Mandala Airlines is awarded by the PR Society of Indonesia
  13. ^ Bisnis Militer: Pemerintah Batal Ambil Mandala
  14. ^ Indonesia's Cardig buys ailing Mandala Airlines
  15. ^ Warwick Brady: Leading a transformation at Indonesia's Mandala
  16. ^ Mandala appointed SIAEC for its aircraft maintenance
  17. ^ Extract from Commission Regulation of 14 July 2009 amending Regulation 474/2006 establishing the Community list of air carriers which are subject to an operating ban within the Community
  18. ^ Penilaian Kinerja Maskapai Penerbangan Periode X (Juni 2009)
  19. ^ Mandala is moving to Terminal 3
  20. ^ a b Mandala Airlines Buka Empat Rute Internasional
  21. ^ 曼達拉航空取消一周航班 - Exmoo! - 在澳門.看世界
  22. ^ New Investors Could Return Mandala to Indonesia’s Skies | The Jakarta Globe
  23. ^ Mandala to focus on low cost carrier market: Expert | The Jakarta Post
  24. ^ "Mandala Network", Mandala Magazine, April–June 2009, pp. 88-89
  25. ^ Mandala Priority Privileges
  26. ^ Fleet age Mandala Airlines
  27. ^ CH-Aviation - Airline News, Fleet Lists & More
  28. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVM Taipei-Sung Shan Airport (TSA)
  29. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVK Manado-Samratulangi Airport (MDC)
  30. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Hawker Siddeley HS-748-232 Srs. 2 PK-RHS Manila
  31. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 832 Viscount PK-RVN Semarang-Achmad Yani Airport (SRG)
  32. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVT Yogyakarta-Adisutjipto Airport (JOG)
  33. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-188C Electra PK-RLG Medan-Polonia Airport (MES)
  34. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 816 Viscount PK-RVU Ambon-Pattimura Airport (AMQ)
  35. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-230 PK-RIM Medan-Polonia Airport (MES)
  36. ^ Jet skids off runway amid thick haze in Indonesia
  37. ^ Mandala B737 skidded off runway
  38. ^ Mandala Airlines B 737 Overshoots Runway – 5 Injured

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