Field Artillery Branch (United States)


Field Artillery Branch (United States)

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= Field Artillery Branch


caption=Branch insignia of the U.S. Army Field Artillery, representing two crossed field guns
dates= Created November 17, 1775
country= United States
allegiance=
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type= Combat arms
role=
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garrison= Fort Sill, Oklahoma
garrison_label= Home station
nickname= King of Battle
patron=
motto=
colors= Scarlet
colors_label= Branch color
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equipment=
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anniversaries=
decorations=
battle_honours=
commander1=
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notable_commanders=
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The Field Artillery Branch was founded on November 17, 1775 by the Continental Congress, which unanimously elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery". The regiment formally entered service on January 1. 1776. Although Field Artillery and Air Defense Artillery are separate branches, both inherit the traditions of the Artillery branch.

Mission statement

"The mission of Field Artillery is to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy by cannon, rocket, and missile fire and to help integrate all fire support assets into combined arms operations."

History

The Field Artillery is one of the Army's combat arms, traditionally one of the three major officer branches (with Infantry and Armor). It refers to those units that use artillery weapons systems to deliver surface-to-surface long range indirect fire. Indirect fire means that the projectile does not follow the line of sight to the target. Mortars are not field artillery weapons; they are organic to infantry units and are manned by infantry personnel.

The term field artillery is to distinguish from the Air Defense Artillery, and historically, from the Coast Artillery (or Coastal Defense Artillery), a branch which existed from 1901-1950. In 1950, the two branches were unified and called simply Artillery, until air defense was made into a separate branch in 1968. The insignia of the Field Artillery branch is a pair of crossed field guns (19th century style cannons) in gold, and dates back to 1834.

The officially stated mission of the Field Artillery is to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy by cannon, rocket, and missile fire and to help integrate all fire support assets into combined arms operations.

The home of the Field Artillery and the Field Artillery School are at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Field artillery is called the "King of Battle". Conflicts in the 20th century saw artillery become exponentially more effective as indirect fire methods were introduced immediately prior to WWI. During World War I and World War II, field artillery was the single highest casualty-producing weapons system on any battlefield.

Members of the Field Artillery are referred to as "Red Legs" because during the American Civil War they were distinguished by scarlet stripes down the legs of their uniform pants. The use of colors to distinguish branches of the United States Army dates to 1833. Branch colors are found on the shoulder straps of officers wearing the blue dress uniform and on branch of service scarves authorized for wear with a variety of uniforms. [Army Regulation 670-1]

Publications

The professional journal of the Field Artillery is published at Fort Sill. Known as the "Field Artillery Journal" in 1911, it went through many name changes through "Field Artillery" in 1987. The journal merged with "Air Defense Artillery" in 2007 to become "Fires". [cite web |url=http://sill-www.army.mil/firesbulletin/ |title=Fires |publisher=United States Field Artillery |accessdate=2008-03-09]

Weapons

Current

The U.S. Army employs three main types of field artillery weapons systems. The three towed howitzer weapon systems in use are the M102 (105 mm), used primarily by honor guards, the M119A1/A2 (105 mm) and the M198 (155 mm) howitzers. Currently in development is the M777 155 mm towed howitzer. The self-propelled M109A6 Paladin is a 155 mm self-propelled howitzer. The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) is the Field Artillery's heaviest and longest-ranged weapons system, a self-propelled rocket launcher using either 270 mm unguided rockets or the guided Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) Block I missile. The United States Marine Corps currently uses only the M198 howitzer, and plans to transition to the M777 when it is fielded.

Historical

During the Cold War, the Field Artillery was responsible for all mobile ballistic missiles weapons systems, including the Lance and Pershing II ballistic missiles.

References

ee also

* Field Artillery in the American Civil War
* Field artillery General discussion
* List of artillery
* Field Artillery (magazine)


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