Adai Khan


Adai Khan

Chinese_Emperor


birth=1390
death=1438¹
family_name= Clan Name (Obogh)
Borjigin
Khalkha Mongolian: Боржигин
Chinese: 孛兒只斤

begin_era=1425
end_era=1438²
posthumous_name_full="None Given"
begin_reign=1425
end_reign=1438
dynasty=Northern Yuan (北元)
given_name=Adai
Chinese: 阿台
temple_name="None"
posthumous_name_short="None"
era_name="None"
notes=General note: "Dates given here are in the Julian calendar.
They are not in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

Adai Khan (1390 - 1438), was the Mongol Khan of the Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia. The origin of Adai Khan’s family lineage traced back to Kadan and Jöchi Khasar due to the interfamily marriages within the Borjigin clan. It’s also claimed that Adai is the son of Guilichi. Adai’s was a member of eastern Mongol clans originated in the region of Nen River to the east of Greater Khingan Range. During his rule, Adai was able to consolidate and expand his power, eventually unifying both the central and eastern Mongol territories in 1425. However, his conquest of western Mongol territory was checked by Oirats and both sided continued the war for unification for decades. Riding on the success of unifying central and eastern Mongol territories, Adai proclaimed himself as the Great Khan with support of central and eastern Mongol clans in 1425, the same year his rivalry khan in the west, Oyiradai Khan was killed. Although Adai Khan’s authority did not reach western Mongols who did not recognize him as the Great Khan, western Mongol clans did not have a khan of their own so Adai Khan remained as the sole Mongol Khan for the next eight years at least in name. It was not until in 1433, when western Mongol clans headed by Oirats finally crowned Tayisung Khan (Toghtoa Bukha or Toγtoγa Buqa) as their next new khan, which resulted in half a decade of the simultaneous existence of two khans supported by opposing Mongol clans.

Even before his proclamation as the Great Khan, Adai almost succeed in unifying western Mongol territory by defeating Oirats. Alarmed by the possible resurgence of another Genghis Khan’s era, the Ming Dynasty provided support to Oirats and their allies of western Mongol clans, successfully turning the tide by first recovering and then launching counteroffensives against eastern and central Mongol clans. After two decisive campaign in 1422 and 1423, Adai Khan lost all of the territory gained in the past and when in 1430, the third decisive Oirats victory wiped out his major strength, after which he could no longer mount any effective offensives and was forced to be on the defensive. Both side attempted to utilize the stalemate to prepare for the next stage but Adai Khan could not recover from the previous loss suffered earlier. Oirats soon launched another round of offensive and in the fourth decisive Oirats victory in 1434 in which Adai Khan’s major advisors were killed, Adai Khan’s downfall was certain. Four years later in 1438, Adai Khan was killed when his territory was overran by other opposing Mongol clans led by Oirats.


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