- Adai Khan
family_name= Clan Name (Obogh)
Khalkha Mongolian: Боржигин
dynasty=Northern Yuan (北元)
notes=General note: "Dates given here are in the
They are not in the
proleptic Gregorian calendar.
Adai Khan (1390 - 1438), was the
MongolKhan of the Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia. The origin of Adai Khan’s family lineage traced back to Kadanand Jöchi Khasardue to the interfamily marriages within the Borjigin clan. It’s also claimed that Adai is the son of Guilichi. Adai’s was a member of eastern Mongol clans originated in the region of Nen Riverto the east of Greater KhinganRange. During his rule, Adai was able to consolidate and expand his power, eventually unifying both the central and eastern Mongol territories in 1425. However, his conquest of western Mongol territory was checked by Oiratsand both sided continued the war for unification for decades. Riding on the success of unifying central and eastern Mongol territories, Adai proclaimed himself as the Great Khan with support of central and eastern Mongol clans in 1425, the same year his rivalry khan in the west, Oyiradai Khanwas killed. Although Adai Khan’s authority did not reach western Mongols who did not recognize him as the Great Khan, western Mongol clans did not have a khan of their own so Adai Khan remained as the sole Mongol Khan for the next eight years at least in name. It was not until in 1433, when western Mongol clans headed by Oiratsfinally crowned Tayisung Khan (Toghtoa Bukha or Toγtoγa Buqa) as their next new khan, which resulted in half a decade of the simultaneous existence of two khans supported by opposing Mongol clans.
Even before his proclamation as the Great Khan, Adai almost succeed in unifying western Mongol territory by defeating
Oirats. Alarmed by the possible resurgence of another Genghis Khan’s era, the Ming Dynastyprovided support to Oiratsand their allies of western Mongol clans, successfully turning the tide by first recovering and then launching counteroffensives against eastern and central Mongolclans. After two decisive campaign in 1422 and 1423, Adai Khanlost all of the territory gained in the past and when in 1430, the third decisive Oiratsvictory wiped out his major strength, after which he could no longer mount any effective offensives and was forced to be on the defensive. Both side attempted to utilize the stalemate to prepare for the next stage but Adai Khan could not recover from the previous loss suffered earlier. Oiratssoon launched another round of offensive and in the fourth decisive Oiratsvictory in 1434 in which Adai Khan’s major advisors were killed, Adai Khan’s downfall was certain. Four years later in 1438, Adai Khan was killed when his territory was overran by other opposing Mongol clans led by Oirats.
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