List of rulers of Baden

List of rulers of Baden

Baden was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and later one of the German states along the frontier with France primarily consisting of territory along the right bank of the Rhine opposite Alsace and the Palatinate.

The territory evolved out of the Breisgau, an early medieval county in the Duchy of Swabia. A continuous sequence of counts is known since 962; the counts belong to the House of Zähringen. In 1061, the counts first acquired the additional title of margraves of Verona. Even though they lost the March of Verona soon thereafter, they kept the title of margrave. In 1112, the title of Margrave of Baden was first used.

For most of the early modern period, the Baden lands were divided into two parts, one ruled by the Catholic Margraves of Baden-Baden, and the other by the Protestant Margraves of Baden-Durlach. In 1771, the main Baden-Baden line became extinct, and all of the Baden lands came under the rule of Baden-Durlach.

During the Napoleonic era, in the imperial reorganisation of 1803, Baden gained a great deal of additional territory, and its rulers were made one of the few prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. However, this pre-eminent dignity lasted only for three years, until the end of the Empire in August of 1806, eight months after the crushing Battle of Austerlitz. Consequently, in that year, the Margraves took on the title of Grand Duke of Baden, and gained additional territory. The Grand Duchy, within approximately the borders of 1806, continued to exist until the fall of the German monarchies in 1918, when it became a republic.


Counts in Breisgau

  • Berthold I before 962–982
  • Berthold II 982–1005/06
  • Berthold III 1005/06–1024
  • Berthold I 1024–1073

Margraves of Verona and Counts in the Breisgau

  • Berthold I 1061–1073
  • Hermann I 1073

Margraves of Baden

  • Hermann II 1073–1130
  • Hermann III 1130–1160
  • Hermann IV 1160–1190

Baden divided, 1190–1771

Margraves of Baden-Baden, 1190–1335

  • Hermann V 1190–1243
  • Hermann VI 1243–1250
  • Frederick I and Rudolf I 1250–1268
  • Rudolf I 1268–1288
  • Hesso, Rudolf II, Herman VII, and Rudolf III 1288–1291
  • Hesso, Rudolf II, and Rudolf III 1291–1295
  • Hesso and Rudolf III 1295–1297
  • Rudolf III and Rudolf Hesso 1297–1310
  • Rudolf Hesso 1310–1320

Margraves of Baden-Hachberg, 1190–1418

  • Henry I 1190–1231
  • Henry II 1231–1290
  • Henry III 1290–1330
  • Henry IV 1330–1369
  • Otto I 1369–1386
  • John and Hesso 1386–1409
  • Hesso 1409–1410
  • Otto II 1410–1418

Margraves of Baden-Sausenberg, 1290–1503

  • Rudolf I 1290–1313
  • Henry, Rudolf II, and Otto 1313–1318
  • Rudolf II and Otto 1318–1352
  • Otto and Rudolf III 1352–1384
  • Rudolf III 1384–1428
  • William 1428–1441
  • Hugo and Rudolf IV 1441–1444
  • Rudolf IV 1444–1487
  • Philip 1487–1503

Margraves of Baden-Eberstein, 1291–1353

  • Frederick II 1291–1333
  • Herman IX 1333–1353

Margraves of Baden-Pforzheim, 1291–1361

  • Rudolf IV and Herman VIII 1291–1300
  • Rudolf IV 1300–1348
  • Rudolf V 1348–1361

Margraves of Baden-Baden, 1348–1588

  • Frederick III 1348–1353
  • Rudolf VI 1353–1372
  • Bernard I 1372–1431, at first jointly with
  • Rudolf VII 1372–1391
  • Jacob 1431–1453
  • Charles I 1453–1475, at first jointly with
  • Bernard II 1453–1458
  • Christopher I 1475–1515
  • Bernard III 1515–1536
  • Philibert 1536–1569
  • Philip II 1569–1588

Margraves of Baden-Durlach, 1515–1771

Margrave of Baden-Sponheim, 1515–1533

  • Philip I 1515–1533

Margraves of Baden-Rodemachern, 1536–1596

Margrave of Baden-Rodenheim, 1575–1620

  • Philip III 1575–1620

Margraves of Baden-Hachberg, 1577–1591

  • Jacob III 1577–1590
  • Ernest Jacob 1590–1591

Margrave of Baden-Sausenberg, 1577–1604

Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern, 1622–1666

  • Hermann Fortunatus 1622–1664
  • Charles William 1664–1666

Margraves of Baden-Baden, 1622–1771

  • William 1622–1677
  • Louis William 1677–1707
  • Louis George Simpert 1707–1761
  • Augustus George Simpert 1761–1771

Margrave of Baden, 1771–1803

Elector of Baden, 1803–1806

Grand Dukes of Baden, 1806–1918

Heads of the Grand Ducal House of Baden since 1918

State Presidents of the Republic of Baden, 1918–1945

  1. Anton Geiß (SPD) 1918–1920
  2. Gustav Trunk (Zentrum) 1920–1921
  3. Hermann Hummel (DDP) 1921–1922
  4. Adam Remmele (SPD) 1922–1923
  5. Heinrich Köhler (Zentrum), 1923–1924
  6. Willy Hellpach (DDP) 1924–1925
  7. Gustav Trunk (Zentrum) 1925–1926
  8. Heinrich Köhler (Zentrum) 1926–1927
  9. Gustav Trunk (Zentrum) 1927
  10. Adam Remmele (SPD) 1927–1928
  11. Josef Schmitt (Zentrum) 1928–1930
  12. Josef Wittemann (Zentrum) 1930–1931
  13. Josef Schmitt (Zentrum) 1931–1933
  14. Robert Wagner (NSDAP) 1933
  15. Walter Köhler (NSDAP) 1933–1945

State President of Baden (South Baden), 1945–1952

  1. various presidents in rotation 1945–1946
  2. Leo Wohleb (BCSV, then CDU) 1946–1952


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