I Corps (ACW)

I Corps (ACW)

I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of three different corps-sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The units served in the following armies:

*Army of the Ohio/Army of the Cumberland, Alexander M. McCook, September 29, 1862 – November 5, 1862
*Army of the Mississippi, George W. Morgan, January 4, 1863 – January 12, 1863
*Army of the Potomac and Army of Virginia (see below)

The first two were units of very limited life; the third was one of the most distinguished and veteran corps in the entire Union Army, commanded by very distinguished officers.


The I Corps was activated March 13, 1862, when President Abraham Lincoln ordered the creation of a four-corps army, then under the command of Major General George B. McClellan. The first commander of this corps was Major General Irvin McDowell and it contained three divisions. It was held in defense of Washington while the rest of the Army of the Potomac advanced to the Peninsula Campaign.

It was then consolidated into the Army of Virginia under Major General John Pope, and fought in the Second Battle of Bull Run, as the Third Corps, Army of Virginia. Afterwards, its name was restored. It rejoined the Army of the Potomac and crossed the Potomac River into Maryland to fight in the Battle of Antietam, under Major General Joseph Hooker. There, the division of Pennsylvania Reserves, under Brigadier General George G. Meade, took heavy casualties through its hard fighting, and was withdrawn to replenish.

The corps moved southward to fight General Robert E. Lee's army at the Battle of Fredericksburg, commanded by Major General John F. Reynolds, arguably the best Union corps commander in the Eastern Theater. He superbly led the corps through this battle, then through the Battle of Chancellorsville, where the I Corps was left in reserve.

In its last major battle, the Battle of Gettysburg, General Reynolds was killed just as the first troops arrived on the field, and command was inherited by Major General Abner Doubleday. Although putting up a ferocious fight, the I Corps was overwhelmed by the Confederate Third Corps (A.P. Hill) and Robert E. Rodes's division of Richard S. Ewell's Second Corps. It was forced to retreat through the town of Gettysburg, taking up defensive positions on Cemetery Hill. The next day (July 2, 1863), the command was given to Major General John Newton, a division commander from the VI Corps. This was a controversial move that deeply offended the more senior Doubleday. Newton led it through the remainder of the battle, including the defense against Pickett's Charge, and through the Mine Run Campaign that fall.

On March 24, 1864, the Civil War career of the I Corps came to an end as it was disbanded and its depleted units were reorganized into two divisions, which were transferred into the V Corps of the Army of the Potomac.

Command history

* As III Corps, Army of Virginia


*Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J.: "Civil War High Commands", Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3
*Fox, William F.: "Regimental Losses in the American Civil War", Albany Publishing, 1889 ( [http://www.civilwarhome.com/1stcorps.htm online text of I Corps section] )

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • XX Corps (ACW) — Two corps of the Union Army were called XX Corps during the American Civil War. Though both served in the Union Army of the Cumberland, they were distinct units and should be recognized as such. McCook s Corps The first XX Corps, under the… …   Wikipedia

  • XII Corps (ACW) — The XII Corps (Twelfth Army Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War.The corps was formed by U.S. War Department General Order of March 13, 1862, under which the corps organization of the Army of the Potomac was first… …   Wikipedia

  • IX Corps (ACW) — IX Corps (Ninth Army Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi.Corps historyFormation, Second Bull… …   Wikipedia

  • V Corps (ACW) — Infobox Military Unit unit name= V Corps caption= V Corps badge dates= 1862 ndash;1865 country= United States branch= United States Army command structure=Army of the Potomac battles=Peninsula Campaign Second Battle of Bull Run Battle of Antietam …   Wikipedia

  • II Corps (ACW) — There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Army Corps) during the American Civil War.* Army of the Cumberland, II Corps commanded by Thomas L. Crittenden (October 24, 1862 ndash; November 5, 1862) * Army of the… …   Wikipedia

  • III Corps (ACW) — There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Army Corps) during the American Civil War.Three were short lived: *Army of Virginia: **Irvin McDowell (June 26, 1862 ndash; September 5, 1862); **James B. Ricketts… …   Wikipedia

  • VI Corps (ACW) — The VI Corps (Sixth Army Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War.FormationThe corps was organized as the Sixth Provisional Corps on May 18, 1862, by uniting Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin s Division, which had just… …   Wikipedia

  • XI Corps (ACW) — The XI Corps (Eleventh Army Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863.Formation and the Valley CampaignOn June 26,… …   Wikipedia

  • XVIII Corps (ACW) — XVIII Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. Origins and makeup The XVIII Corps was created on December 24, 1862, and initially composed of five divisions stationed in North Carolina, making it one of the largest in… …   Wikipedia

  • XXII Corps (ACW) — Infobox Military Unit unit name = XXII Corps caption = Badge of the 3rd Division of the XXII Corps [http://www.members.tripod.com/ howardlanham/linkgr3/link151.html|The 1st Division badge consisted of an identical badge in red, 2nd Division in… …   Wikipedia

  • IV Corps (ACW) — There were two corps of the Union Army called IV Corps during the American Civil War. They were separate units, one serving with the Army of the Potomac and the Department of Virginia in the Eastern Theater, 1862 ndash;63, the other with the Army …   Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»