Tuva Republic Республика Тыва (Russian)
Тыва Республика (Tuvan)
— Republic —
Coat of arms
Anthem: Men - Tyva Men Coordinates: Coordinates: Political status Country Russia Federal district Siberian Economic region East Siberian Established October 13, 1944 Capital Kyzyl Government (as of August 2010) - Chairman of the Government Sholban Kara-ool - Legislature Great Khural Statistics Area (as of the 2002 Census) - Total 170,500 km2 (65,830.4 sq mi) Area rank 21st Population (2010 Census) - Total 307,925 - Rank 77th - Density 1.81 /km2 (4.7 /sq mi) - Urban 53.1% - Rural 46.9% Population (2002 Census) - Total 305,510 - Rank 77th - Density 1.79 /km2 (4.6 /sq mi) - Urban 51.5% - Rural 48.5% Time zone(s) KRAST (UTC+08:00) ISO 3166-2 RU-TY License plates 17 Official languages Russian; Tuvan http://gov.tuva.ru/
The Tyva Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, tr. Respublika Tyva, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva]; Tuvan: Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), or Tuva (Russian: Тува́), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It lies in the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders with the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia in Russia and with Mongolia to the south. Its capital is the city of Kyzyl. Population: 307,925 (2010 Census preliminary results).
Forests, mountains, and steppe make up a large part of the geography.
A majority of the people are Tuvans who speak the Tuvan language, but Russian is also spoken extensively. Tuva is governed by the Great Khural which elects a chairman for a four-year term. The current chairman is Sholban Kara-ool.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Governance
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Religion
- 8 Sports
- 9 Education
- 10 Demographics
- 11 Miscellaneous
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 Sources and external links
The republic is situated in the far south of Siberia. Its capital city of Kyzyl is located near the geographic "center of Asia". The eastern part of the republic is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland.
- Highest point: Mount Mongun-Tayga, 3,970 meters (13,020 ft)
- Maximum N->S distance: 450 kilometers (280 mi)
- Maximum E->W distance: over 700 kilometers (430 mi)
- Area: 170,427 square kilometers (65,802 sq mi)
There are over 8,000 rivers in the republic. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River, the fifth longest river in the world. Most of the republic's rivers are Yenisei tributaries. There are also numerous mineral springs in the area.
Major rivers include:
- Bolshoy Yenisei River (also called Ulug-Khem)
- Kantegir River
- Khemchik River
- Maly Yenisei River (also called Ka-Khem or Kaa-Khem)
- Upper Yenisei River (also called Biy-Khem or Bii-Khem)
There are numerous lakes on the republic's territory, many of which are glacial and salt lakes. Major lakes include:
- Todzha Lake, a.k.a. Azas Lake (100 km²)—the largest in the republic
- Uvs Lake - shared with Mongolia and a World Heritage Site
- Kadysh Lake
- Many-Khol Lake
The area of the republic is a mountain basin, ca. 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the republic's territory. Mount Mongun-Tayga 'Silver Mountain' (3,970 m) is the highest point in Siberia and is named from its glacier.
Major natural mineral resources of Tuva include coal, iron ore, gold, and cobalt. Asbestos was formerly important. Wildlife is varied: wolves and bears, snow leopards, ground squirrels, flying foxes, eagles, and fish - some very large.
- Average January temperature: −32 °C (−26 °F)
- Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
- Average annual precipitation: 150 millimeters (5.9 in) (plains) to 1,000 millimeters (39 in) (mountains)
- Much of the territory is affected by permafrost
The historic region of Tannu Uriankhai, of which Tuva is a part, was controlled by the Mongols from 1207 to 1757, when it was brought under Manchu rule (Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China) until 1911.
During the 1911 revolution in China, tsarist Russia formed a separatist movement among the Tuvans. Tuva became nominally independent as the Urjanchai Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Kray under Tsar Nicholas II on 17 April 1914. A Tuvan capital was established, called Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск; literally, "Town of White Tsar"). Meanwhile, in 1911, Mongolia became independent, though under Russian protection.
Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 which ended the imperial autocracy, most of Tuva was occupied from 5 July 1918 to 15 July 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak's "White" Russian troops. Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named governor of the territory. In the autumn of 1918 the southwestern part was occupied by Chinese troops and the southern part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav. From July 1919 to February 1920 the communist Red Army controlled Tuva, but from 19 February 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China (governor was Yan Shichao [traditional, Wade-Giles transliteration: Yan Shi-chao]).
On August 14, 1921 the Bolsheviks (supported by Russia) established a Tuvan People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl, meaning "Red"). Tuva was de jure an independent state between the World Wars.
The Soviet Union annexed Tuva outright in 1944, with the approval of Tuva's Little Khural (parliament). The exact circumstances surrounding Tannu-Tuva's incorporation into the USSR in 1944 remain obscure. Salchak Toka, the leader of Tuvan communists, was given the title of First Secretary of the Tuvan Communist Party, and became the de-facto ruler of Tuva until his death in 1973. Tuva was made the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast and then became the Tuva ASSR on October 10, 1961. The Soviet Union kept Tuva closed to the outside world for nearly fifty years.
In February 1990, the Tuvan Democratic Movement was founded by Kaadyr-ool Bicheldei, a philologist at Kyzyl University. The party aimed to provide jobs and housing (both were in short supply), and also to improve the status of Tuvan language and culture. Later on in the year there was a wave of attacks against Tuva's sizeable Russian community, resulting in 88 deaths. Russian troops eventually were called in. Many Russians moved out of the republic during this period. To this day, Tuva remains remote and difficult to access.
Tuva was a signatory to the March 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation. A new constitution for the republic was drawn up on October 22, 1993. This created a 32-member parliament (Supreme Khural) and a Grand Khural, which is responsible for foreign policy and any possible changes to the constitution, and ensures that Tuvan law is given precedence. The constitution also allowed for a referendum if Tuva ever sought independence. This constitution was passed by 53.9% (or 62.2%, according to source) of Tuvans in a referendum on December 12, 1993.
At the same time, the official name was changed from Tuva (Тува) to Tyva (Тыва). However, the Constitution of the Russian Federation is legally the primary law for every federal subject, therefore following the text and the spirit of the Federal Constitution any reference to "sovereignty" or "foreign policy" or any other attribute of an independent state in the Tyvan Constitution is illegal and practically meaningless.
The head of the government in Tuva is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tuva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term.
The present flag of Tuva — yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity — was adopted on September 17, 1992. See below under Religion.
The republic's Constitution was adopted on October 23, 1993.
On April 3, 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva.  Sholban's candidacy was approved by the Khural on April 9, 2007.
Tuva has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metal working industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the republic of Tuva is the poorest region of Russia.
Tuva has as yet no railway - although (in)famous postage stamps, designed in Moscow during the time of Tuvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there.
There are three roads leading to Tuva, a dirt track over the mountains from Khakassia to Ak Dovurak, and an asphalt road over the passes between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl: both of these are cut off by snowfall and avalanches from time to time in winter. The third road goes south, turning into a track before entering Mongolia. The only external bus and taxi services are between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl.
Kyzyl has both large public buses and private minibus services, and buses and taxis also connect Kyzyl with the larger settlements.
Passenger ferries ply the Greater Yenisei (Bii-Khem) between Kyzyl and Toora-Khem in Todzha (Upper Tuva) when there is neither too little nor too much water over the rapids.
There is a small airfield in Kyzyl with intermittent flights.
The Tuvan people are famous for Tuvan throat singing.
Sainkho Namtchylak is one of the few singers from Tuva to have an international following. She is also very involved with Tuvan culture. Every year she invites Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about the country, its culture and its music. In recent years Kongar-ool Ondar has become well-known in the West as well, in large part because of the film Genghis Blues featuring Ondar and American blues singer Paul Pena. Huun-Huur-Tu has been one of the most well known Tuvan music ensembles since the late 1990s, while the Alash ensemble came to prominence in the early 2000s.
The Tuvan language is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. When part of China, Tuva was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tuva seeking full independence following the collapse of the Chinese Empire.
The Tuvan people have a rich tradition of orally transmitted folklore, including many genres, ranging from very brief riddles and aphorisms, to tongue twisters, magical tales, hero tales, scary stories, and epics that would take many hours to recite. A few examples and excerpts of the epic genres, such as Boktu-Kirish, Bora-Sheelei have been published. This art form is now endangered as the traditional tale-tellers grow old and are not replaced by younger practitioners.
Three religions are widespread among the people of Tuva: Tibetan Buddhism, Orthodox Christianity and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, the fourteenth Dalai Lama visited Tuva for three days. On September 20, he blessed and consecrated the new yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had just been officially adopted three days previously.
The Tuvan people - along with the Yellow Uyghurs in China - are one of the only two Turkic groups who are mainly adherents to Tibetan Buddhism, combined with native Shamanism. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Tibetan Buddhism gained increasing popularity in Tuva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, as well as novices being trained as monks and lamas.
The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tuvan Institute of Humanities, both located in the capital Kyzyl.
- Population: 307,925 (2010 Census preliminary results)
- Population: 305,510 (2002 Census)
- Urban: 157,299 (51.5%)
- Rural: 148,211 (48.5%)
- Male: 144,961 (47.4%)
- Female: 160,549 (52.6%)
- Females per 1000 males: 1,108
- Average age: 25.5 years
- Urban: 26.4 years
- Rural: 24.5 years
- Male: 25.2 years
- Female: 27.6 years
- Number of households: 82,882 (with 299,510 people)
- Urban: 47,073 (with 152,542 people)
- Rural: 35,809 (with 146,968 people)
- Vital statistics
- Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate 1970 6,559 1,938 28.2 8.3 1975 6,950 2,306 27.5 9.1 1980 7,133 2,748 26.2 10.1 1985 8,110 2,624 28.3 9.1 1990 8,116 2,664 26.3 8.6 1991 7,271 2,873 23.9 9.5 1992 6,545 3,006 21.6 9.9 1993 6,130 3,480 20.3 11.5 1994 6,076 4,086 20.1 13.5 1995 6,172 4,010 20.3 13.2 1996 5,705 4,110 18.7 13.5 1997 4,908 3,954 16.1 12.9 1998 5,267 3,631 17.2 11.9 1999 4,894 4,142 16.0 13.5 2000 4,871 4,170 15.9 13.6 2001 4,992 4,165 16.3 13.6 2002 5,727 4,576 18.8 15.0 2003 6,276 4,633 20.5 15.1 2004 6,127 4,090 20.0 13.3 2005 5,979 4,326 19.4 14.0 2006 5,950 3,802 19.3 12.3 2007 7,568 3,687 24.4 11.9 2008 7,874 3,526 25.2 11.3
- Average life expectancy: Tuva: 56.5 (average male and female, UNDP data); Russia: (UN data) Male 59 (world rank 166); Female 73 (127)
According to the 2002 Census, Tuvans, a Turkic people, make up 77.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (20.1%), Khakas (1,219, or 0.4%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census Tuvans 97,996 (57.0%) 135,306 (58.6%) 161,888 (60.5%) 198,448 (64.3%) 235,313 (77.0%) Russians 68,924 (40.1%) 88,385 (38.3%) 96,793 (36.2%) 98,831 (32.0%) 61,442 (20.1%) Khakas 1,726 (1.0%) 2,120 (0.9%) 2,193 (0.8%) 2,258 (0.7%) 1,219 (0.4%) Others 3,282 (1.9%) 5,053 (2.2%) 6,725 (2.5%) 9,020 (2.9%) 7,526 (2.5%)
As can be seen above, during the period 1959-2002 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tuvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and has now begun to shrink.
Official languages are Tuvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic). Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and in general Tuvans use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old believers in the republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before the Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian old believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper in to the Taiga in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.
Tuvans are closely related ethnically and linguistically to the Khakas to their north and the Altai to their west, but closer culturally to the Mongolians to their south and the related Buryats to their east, with whom they share their Buddhism.
- In the 1920s and 1930s, postage stamps from Tuva were issued. Many philatelists, including the physicist Richard Feynman, have been fascinated with Tuva because of these stamps. The stamps were issued mainly during the brief period of Tuvan independence, and had many philatelists in a furor, as they did not conform to philatelic standards. Feynman's efforts to reach Tuva are chronicled in the book Tuva or Bust! and the video The Quest For Tannu Tuva: Richard Feynman - The Last Journey of a Genius (1988) which can be viewed online through Google Video.
- Tuva was featured prominently in the award-winning documentary Genghis Blues.
- United Nations Human Development Index: Russian Federation - Republic of Tyva, rank: 79/79 (the lowest).
- Tuvan stamps are mentioned in a line of Gregory Corso's poem Marriage.
- Tuvan Sergey Shoygu, Russia's Minister for Emergency Situations since 1994, is Russia's longest-serving minister, and a leader of Russia's governing party 'Unity'.
- Tuvans make wishes each morning, sprinkling milk on the ground, to the north, south, east and west, with a special wooden spoon with nine small hollows for the various milk products made.
- According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America.
- Some Tuvans, even near Kyzyl, still live in traditional yurts, round, demountable and portable dwellings with sectional lath trellis walls, decorated pole roofs and covered with white felt and canvas, with colourful cloth lining. There is a central smoke-hole above the hearth or stove. It is used to tell the time as the sunlight moves around inside the yurt. The interior is arranged with the man's side to the left, the woman's to the right of the door facing East, with the altar cupboard facing that.
- Tuvans, as traditional nomads, knew no fixed national borders, which has led to small numbers being in areas outside the present Republic's boundaries, including as follows.
- China - Xinjiang: 'Tuwa' by Lake Kanas, Altay Prefecture.
- Russia - Irkutsk Oblast: 'Tofa' adjacent to north-east Tyva; Buryatia: 'Soyot' of the Upper Oka river.
- Mongolia - northern: 'Tsaatan'; north-western: 'Dukha/Duva'; western: 'Tsengel'.
- Sayan Mountains in Tuva was featured in Bear Grylls Man vs Wild popular adventure TV show.
- ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
- ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- ^ Constitution, Article 10.3
- ^ Official website of the Government of the Tyva Republic. Sholban Valeryevich Kara-ool (Russian)
- ^ Constitution, Article 10.2
- ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
- ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- ^ Constitution, Article 5.1
- ^ "Top Attractions of Russia". http://www.mccme.ru/putevod/attr_en.html. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- ^ "Tuva and Sayan Mountains". Geographic Bureau — Siberia and Pacific. http://www.geographicbureau.com/Siberia/Tuva/sayan_mountains.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-26.
- ^ Reuters News, 16 Dec, 1993 ”Tuva republic approves own constitution” or BBC Monitoring Service, 15 Dec, 1993 “Figures from Ingushetia, Tyva, Yaroslavl and parts of Urals and Siberia”
- ^ Tuva on-line
- ^ Dalai Lama, Avant Art.
- ^ Fotuva.
- ^ The World Encyclopedia of Flags, ISBN 1840384158.
- ^ Kommersant.
- ^ World Heritage.
- ^ Tuvans keen to protect traditions, BBC
- ^ 
- ^ http://condor.depaul.edu/rrotenbe/aeer/v17n2/Fridman.pdf
- ^ www.rodonews.ru/news_1288530624.html
- ^ "Central Asian Origins of the Ancestor of First Americans", by I. Zakharov (Russian)
- DONAHOE, Brian 2002. "Hey, you! Get offa my taiga!": Comparing the sense of property rights among the Tofa and Tozhu-Tyva. Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology working papers, nº 38. Halle/Saale: Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. ISSN 1615-4568
- 6 мая 2001 г. «Конституция Республики Тыва», в ред. Конституционного закона №748 ВХ-2 от 7 июля 2008 г. (May 6, 2001 Constitution of the Tyva Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #748 VKh-2 of July 7, 2008. ).
- (Russian) Official website of Tuva
- (English) photos from Tuva by Stanislav Krupar http://www.krupar.com/index.php?file=www/en/gallery/gallery.html&cat=20
- WorldStatesmen- Russia
- Singing Stones -The Republic of Tuva
- (Russian) Website of Tuva
- (English) Friends of Tuva website
- (English) (Japanese) Friends of Tuva, Japan
- (English) Some Tuvan stamps issued in 1920s/1930s
- (English) Genghis Blues, official movie site
- (English) Animated slideshow presentations of Tuva
- (English) (Russian) (Japanese) (Esperanto)
- (English) TyvaWiki:Main Page
- (English) The Tuva Trader; Tuva and Richard Feynman media, products and information
- (English) Buga-shadara A traditional Tuvan boardgame
- Audio of the Tuvan national anthem recorded by the Tuvan National Orchestra. The orchestral arrangement was composed by Ayana Samiyaevna Mongush.
Turkic-speaking regionsFederal subjects of Russia shown in italics.1 Includes the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia Type Territory Currently administered by Claimants Land: Aksai Chin People's Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China1, India Baekdu/Changbai Mountain North Korea, People's Republic of China North Korea, South Korea, People's Republic of China, Republic of China Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky (Eastern part)1 People's Republic of China, Russia Republic of China1 Indo-Bangladesh enclaves2 Bangladesh, India Bangladesh, India Kachin State Burma, Burma, Republic of China1 Kashmir2 India, Pakistan India, Pakistan Korean Peninsula and its adjacent islands South Korea, North Korea South Korea, North Korea Mainland China People's Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China North Borneo (Sabah)1 Malaysia Malaysia, Philippines Outer Mongolia1 Mongolia Republic of China, Mongolia Pamir Mountains2 Afghanistan, Tajikistan Afghanistan, Republic of China1, Tajikistan Sixty-Four Villages East of the River1 Russia Republic of China1, Russia South Tibet India People's Republic of China, Republic of China1, India Tannu Uriankhai (now Tuva Republic of Russia)1 Russia Republic of China1, Russia Trans-Karakoram Tract People's Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China1, India Islands and waters: Diaoyutai / Senkaku Islands Japan People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Japan Kinmen Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China Kori Creek1 India, Pakistan India, Pakistan Liancourt Rocks South Korea South Korea, North Korea1, Japan Macclesfield Bank People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Philippines Matsu Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China Paracel Islands People's Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Vietnam Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks, and South Ledge Singapore Malaysia, Singapore Pratas Islands Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China Scarborough Shoal Philippines People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Philippines Socotra Rock South Korea South Korea, People's Republic of China1 Southern Kuril Islands Russia Russia, Japan Spratly Islands2 People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam Brunei, People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam Taiwan and Penghu1 Republic of China People's Republic of China, Republic of China Notes: 1Inactive dispute.
2Divided among multiple claimants.
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