Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis


Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis

Infobox Scientist
name = Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis
box_width =


image_width =150px
caption = Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis
birth_date = 21 May 1792
birth_place = Paris
death_date = 19 September 1843
death_place =
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = France
ethnicity =
field = Mathematics, Physics
work_institutions = École Polytechnique
alma_mater =
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = Coriolis Effect
author_abbrev_bot =
author_abbrev_zoo =
influences =
influenced =
prizes =
religion =
footnotes =

Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis or Gustave Coriolis (21 May 1792 – 19 September 1843) was a French mathematician, mechanical engineer and scientist. He is best known for his work on the Coriolis Effect. Coriolis was the first to coin the term "work" for the product of force and distance. [cite book | last = Jammer | first = Max | title = Concepts of Force | publisher = Dover Publications, Inc. | year = 1957 | id = ISBN 0-486-40689-X]

Biography

Coriolis was born in Paris. In 1816 he became a tutor at the École Polytechnique. Here he did experiments on friction and hydraulics.

In 1829 Coriolis published a textbook, "Calcul de l'Effet des Machines" ("Calculation of the Effect of Machines"), which presented mechanics in a way that could readily be applied by industry. In this period the correct expression for kinetic energy, frac{1}{2}mv^2, and its relation to mechanical work became established.

During the following years Coriolis worked to extend the notion of kinetic energy and work to rotating systems. The first of his papers, "Sur le principe des forces vives dans les mouvements relatifs des machines" (On the principle of kinetic energy in the relative motion in machines), was read to the Académie des Sciences (Coriolis 1832). Three years later came the paper that would make his name famous, "Sur les équations du mouvement relatif des systèmes de corps" (On the equations of relative motion of a system of bodies) (Coriolis 1835). Coriolis's papers do not deal with the atmosphere or even the rotation of the earth, but with the transfer of energy in rotating systems like waterwheels.

In 1835 he published a mathematical work on collisions of spheres: "Théorie Mathématique des Effets du Jeu de Billard", considered a classic on the subject.cite book |title=Byrne's Advanced Technique in Pool and Billiards |author=Robert Byrne |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=tA_v24zx7J8C&pg=PT64&dq=%22Gaspard-Gustave+Coriolis%22&lr=&as_brr=0&sig=U-RrDhROKbiC4x2Ddw-lJDUcuYQ
isbn=0156149710 |year=1990 |page=p. 49 |publisher=Harcourt Trade
] cite book |title=Théorie mathématique des effets du jeu de billard ; suivi des deux celebres memoires publiés en 1832 et 1835 dans le "Journal de l'École Polytechnique":Sur le principe des forces vives dans les mouvements relatifs des machines & Sur les équations du mouvement relatif des systèmes de corps |isbn=2876470810 |author=G Coriolis |publisher=Éditions Jacques Gabay |year=1990|url=http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k29318f.notice |edition=Originally published by Carilian-Goeury, 1835 ]

Coriolis's name began to appear in the meteorological literature at the end of the 19th century, although the term "Coriolis force" was not used until the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the name Coriolis has become strongly associated with meteorology, but all major discoveries about the general circulation and the relation between the pressure and wind fields were made without knowledge about Gaspard Gustave Coriolis.

Coriolis became also professor at École centrale Paris. He died at the age of 51 in Paris.hi

References

Further reading

* Persson, A., 1998 "How do we understand the Coriolis Force?" Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 79, 1373-1385.
[http://www.aos.princeton.edu/WWWPUBLIC/gkv/history/Persson98.pdf 374 KB PDF document of the above article]

External links

*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis — Naissance 21 mai 1792 Paris (France) Décès 19 septembre  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gaspard-gustave coriolis — Gaspard Gustave Coriolis, né à Paris le 21 mai 1792 et mort à Paris le 19 septembre 1843, est un mathématicien et ingénieur français. Il a donné son nom à la force de Co …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis — Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis. Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis (* 21. Mai 1792 in Paris; † 19. September 1843 ebenda, Aussprache: [ˈkôr ē ō lĭs]) war ein französischer Mathematiker und Physiker. Coriolis besuchte die …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gaspard de Coriolis — Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis. Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis (* 21. Mai 1792 in Paris; † 19. September 1843 ebenda, Aussprache: [ˈkôr ē ō lĭs]) war ein französischer Mathematiker und Physiker. Coriolis besuchte die …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gaspard de Coriolis — n. Gustave Gaspard Coriolis (1792 1843), French physicist and mathematician, discoverer of the Coriolis effect …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Gustave Coriolis — Gaspard Gustave Coriolis Gaspard Gustave Coriolis Gaspard Gustave Coriolis, né à Paris le 21 mai 1792 et mort à Paris le 19 septembre 1843, est un mathématicien et ingénieur français. Il a donné son nom à la force de Co …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis — Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis. Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis (* 21. Mai 1792 in Paris; † 19. September 1843 ebenda) war ein französischer Mathematiker und Physiker. Coriolis besuchte die École polytechnique. Nach dem Tod seines Vaters 1816 benötigte… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis —     Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis     French mathematician, born at Paris, in 1792; died in the same city, 1843. He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1808, and later continued his studies… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Coriolis, Gaspard-Gustave de — • French mathematician (1792 1843) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis — Gaspard Gustave Coriolis Gaspard Gustave Coriolis Gaspard Gustave Coriolis, né à Paris le 21 mai 1792 et mort à Paris le 19 septembre 1843, est un mathématicien et ingénieur français. Il a donné son nom à la force de Co …   Wikipédia en Français