Hasan Gangu

Hasan Gangu

Abu'l Muzaffar Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah (r. August 3, 1347 - 1358), whose original name was Hasan Gangu or Hansan Kanku and also bore the title of Zafar Khan was the founder of the Bahmani sultanate.Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai:Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p.248] [Bhattacharya, Sachchidananada. "A Dictionary of Indian History" (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1972) p. 100] .

Ancestry and early life

Early historians, Tabataba and Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad believe that Hasan was descended from the Persian king Bahman, son of Isfandiyar. But Firishta emphatically asserts that this genealogy was fabricated after Hasan's accession to the throne by the flatterers and poets though he has seen the same genealogy in the royal library at Ahmadnagar. He believes that his origin was too obscure to admit or being traced. He thinks that Hasan was an Afghan by birth. He was servant of an astrologer Brahmin named Gangu of Delhi and was blessed by him.Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai:Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p.248] [Bhattacharya, Sachchidananada. "A Dictionary of Indian History" (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1972) p. 100] Gangu began his career as a general serving under the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq. He received the title of "Zafar Khan" after becoming a governor. In 1347 he was made commander of an army in Daulatabad. On August 3, 1347 Nasir-ud-Din Ismail Shah (Ismail Mukh, whom the rebel "amir"s of the Deccan placed on the throne of Daulatabad in 1345) abdicated in his favour and he set up the Bahmani Kingdom with its headquarters at Ahsanabad (Gulbarga). [Mahajan, V.D. (1991). "History of Medieval India", Part I, New Delhi:S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, pp.279-80] [Bhattacharya. "Indian History". p. 928]

The reign

On establishing an independent kingdom Gangu took the title of "Abu'l-Muzaffar Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah". [Bhattacharya. "Indian History". p. 928] . The name Bahmani Kingdom was derived after the Brahmin caste of Gangu (who had blessed Hasan). Another theory was that the name Bahman came from Hasan's claim of descent from the Iranian hero Bahman, which also lead to the dynasty and kingdom having the name Bahmani. [Bhattacharya. "Indian History". p. 100] He gave Ismail Mukh a "jagir" near Jamkhandi and later conferred to him the highest title of his kingdom, "Amir-ul-Umara". But Narayana, a local Hindu chieftain still succeeded in turning Ismail against Bahman Shah for a short period before he poisoned Ismail.Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai:Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.249-50]

Bahman Shah led his first campaign against Warangal in 1350 and forced its ruler Kapaya Nayaka to cede to him the fortress of Kaulas. His kingdom was divided into four provinces and he appointed a governor for each province.Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). "The Delhi Sultanate", Mumbai:Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.249-50] During his reign Hasan fought many wars with Vijayanagar. By the time of his death the kingdom streched from north to south from the Wainganga River to Krishna and east to west from Bhongir to Daulatabad. [Bhattacharya. "Indian History". p. 929]

He was succeeded by his son Muhammad Shah I after his death in 1358. [Bhattacharya. "Indian History". p. 929]

References


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