- The Invisible Man (film)
The Invisible Man
Directed by James Whale Produced by Carl Laemmle Jr. Screenplay by R. C. Sherriff
Based on The Invisible Man by
Starring Claude Rains
Music by Heinz Roemheld Cinematography Arthur Edeson Editing by Ted J. Kent Distributed by Universal Pictures Release date(s) November 13, 1933 Running time 71 minutes Country United States Language English
The Invisible Man is a 1933 science fiction film based on H. G. Wells' science fiction novel The Invisible Man, published in 1897, as adapted by R. C. Sherriff, Philip Wylie and Preston Sturges, whose work was considered unsatisfactory and who was taken off the project. The film was directed by James Whale and stars Claude Rains, in his first American screen appearance, and Gloria Stuart. It is considered one of the great Universal Horror films of the 1930s, and spawned a number of sequels, plus many spinoffs using the idea of an "invisible man" that were largely unrelated to Wells' original story.
Rains portrayed the Invisible Man (Dr. Jack Griffin) mostly only as a disembodied voice. Rains is only shown clearly for a brief time at the end of the film, spending most of his on-screen time covered by bandages.
The film opens with a mysterious stranger, his face swathed in bandages and his eyes obscured by dark goggles, taking a room at an inn at the English village of Iping (in Sussex). Never leaving his quarters, the stranger demands that the staff leave him completely alone. However, when the innkeeper (Forrester Harvey) and his semi-hysterical wife (Una O'Connor) tell him to leave after he makes a huge mess in the parlor and drives away the other patrons, he throws the innkeeper down the stairs. He is confronted by a policeman and a few town patron which he responds to by removing the bandages and goggles where it's revealed he is invisible. He takes off the rest of his clothes, rendering himself completely invisible, and tries to strangle the police officer.
The invisible stranger is revealed as Dr. Jack Griffin (Claude Rains), a scientist who has discovered the secret of invisibility while conducting a series of tests with a strange drug called "monocane". Monocane has rendered Griffin's entire body undetectable to the human eye; alas, it also has the side-effect of driving Griffin insane. Griffin's mentor, Dr. Cranley (Henry Travers) has investigated and discovered a single note about monocane (Griffin has burnt all his other papers to cover his tracks) in a now empty cupboard in Griffin's empty laboratory, and realizes that Griffin has recently used it. On the evening of his escape from the inn, Griffin turns up in the living room of another scientist friend of his and Cranley's, Dr. Kemp (William Harrigan) and imprisons him in his own house. He forces Kemp to be his partner in a world dominating plot, and together they go back to the inn where Griffin stayed and retrieve his notebooks on the invisibility process. While there he picks up a wooden stool and cracks a police officer over the head, killing him.
Kemp calls Cranley, asking for help, and then secretly calls the police. Flora comes to him and they talk for only a minute, until the police show up. Their conversation reveals that the two are completely devoted to each other, and she is as infatuated with him as he is to her. In Flora's presence, Griffin becomes more placid, and calls her "darling". He rants about power, but when he realizes Kemp betrayed him to the police through the window, his first reaction is getting Flora to flee, and out of danger. She begs to let her stay, but he insists she has nothing to do but leave. After promising Kemp that at 10:00 PM the next night he will murder him, Griffin escapes again and goes on a spree of terror, running down the streets killing, robbing, and reciting nursery rhymes in a malicious voice. He also derails a train and throws two men off a cliff who volunteered to the police in helping catch him. The police offer a monetary award for anyone who can think of a way to catch the Invisible Man.
They disguise Kemp as a police officer and lead him away from his house to protect him, but Griffin has been following them all along. He forces Kemp into the front seat of his car with his hands tied and releases the emergency brake. The car rolls down a steep hill, over a cliff, and explodes.
Finally, Griffin seeks shelter from the dreadful winter in a barn. The owner of the barn hears the sleeping Griffin stirring and sees the hay in which Griffin is sleeping inexplicably moving. The farmer goes to the police and tells them that "there's breathing" in his barn. The police surround and set fire to the barn. When Griffin comes out, the police sight his footprints in the snow and open fire, mortally wounding him. Griffin is taken to hospital where, on his deathbed, he admits to Flora that he has tampered with a type of science that was meant to be left alone. The effects of the monocane wear off the moment he dies, and he becomes visible once again.
- Claude Rains as Dr. Jack Griffin – The Invisible Man
- Gloria Stuart as Flora Cranley
- William Harrigan as Dr. Arthur Kemp
- Henry Travers as Dr. Cranley
- Una O'Connor as Jenny Hall
- Forrester Harvey as Herbert Hall
- Holmes Herbert as Chief of Police
- E.E. Clive as Constable Jaffers
- Duddley Digges as Chief Detective
- Harry Stubbs as Inspector Bird
- Donald Stuart as Inspector Lane
- Merle Tottenham as Millie
- Cast notes
- Several notable character actors appear in minor roles, including Dwight Frye as a reporter, Walter Brennan as a man whose bicycle is stolen, and John Carradine, acting at that time under the name Peter Richmond, as a Cockney informer.
Claude Rains was not the studio's first choice to play the lead role in The Invisible Man. Boris Karloff was originally supposed to play the part, but withdrew after producer Carl Laemmle Jr. tried too many times to cut Karloff's contractual salary. To replace Karloff, Chester Morris, Paul Lukas and Colin Clive were considered for the part. It was James Whale, who was assigned to direct the film to replace Cyril Gardner, who wanted the "intellectual voice" of Claude Rains to play "Griffin" – Rains was his first and only choice, although he did temporarily agree to Clive as a tactic in creating a demand for Rains. Problems in developing the script held up the project for some time: in June 1932 the film was called off temporarily.
The Invisible Man was in production from June to August 1933 at Universal studios in Los Angeles. Filming was interrupted near the end by a fire, started by a smudge pot kicked into some hay, which damaged an exterior set.
The film is known for its clever and groundbreaking visual effects by John P. Fulton, John J. Mescall and Frank D. Williams whose work is often credited for the success of the film. When the Invisible Man had no clothes on, the effect was achieved through the use of wires, but when he had some of his clothes on or was taking his clothes off, the effect was achieved by shooting Claude Rains in a completely black velvet suit against a black velvet background and then combining this shot with another shot of the location the scene took place in using a matte process. Claude Rains was claustrophobic and it was hard to breathe through the suit. Consequently, the work was especially difficult for him, and a double, who was somewhat shorter than Rains, was sometimes used.
The effect of Rains seeming to disappear was created by making a head and body cast of the actor, from which a mask was made. The mask was then photographed against a specially prepared background, and the film was treated in the laboratory to complete the effect.
Reaction, awards and honors
The Invisible Man was named by the New York Times as one of the Ten Best Films of 1933, but H. G. Wells, the author of the book the film was based on, said of the film, at a dinner in its honor, that "while he liked the picture he had one grave fault to find with it. It had taken his brilliant scientist and changed him into a lunatic, a liberty he could not condone." James Whale replied that the film was addressed to the "rationally minded motion picture audience," because "in the minds of rational people only a lunatic would want to make himself invisible anyway." Despite his misgivings, Wells did praise the performance of Una O'Connor as the shrieking Mrs. Hall.
Whale, who had previously directed Frankenstein as well as the first version of Waterloo Bridge, received a Special Recommendation from the 1934 Venice Film Festival in recognition of his work on The Invisible Man.
The career of Claude Rains took off after The Invisible Man, which was his first American film appearance. He went on to be nominated for Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor in 1939 (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington), 1942 (Casablanca), 1944 (Mr. Skeffington) and 1946 (Notorious).
American Film Institute Lists
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills - Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains:
- Invisible Man - Nominated Villain
- AFI's 10 Top 10 - Nominated Science Fiction Film
In 2004 Universal released six legacy collections that included some of their best horror films. The Invisible Man collection included:
- The Invisible Man (1933)
- The Invisible Man Returns (1940)
- The Invisible Woman (1940)
- Invisible Agent (1942)
- The Invisible Man's Revenge (1944)
as well as bonus features, including Now You See Him: The Invisible Man Revealed, a detailed look at the making of the classic horror film and its sequels by film historian Rudy Behlmer.
Sequels and remakes
- The Invisible Man Returns (1940) stars Vincent Price as a man accused of murder who uses the invisibility formula to clear his name. The film was well received by critics and audiences alike.
- The Invisible Woman (1940) used the concept to create a slickly made screwball comedy with Virginia Bruce and John Barrymore.
- Invisible Agent (1942) is a blatantly patriotic World War II adventure yarn with Jon Hall using invisibility to fight the Nazis.
- The Invisible Man's Revenge (1944) stars Jon Hall once again, but has no relation to Invisible Agent. Hall plays an escaped fugitive who is injected with the invisibility formula.
- In the post-War era, Universal's stable of once-frightening movie monsters now appeared in comedies that parodied the horror genre. The first, and most successful, was Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein (1948). Vincent Price makes a voice-only cameo appearance as the Invisible Man at the very end of the film. The comedy duo went on to make the highly popular Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man in 1951 which was a modified remake of The Invisible Man Returns.
- The Invisible Man (1958 TV series) (1958) is a British television series that ran for 26 episodes.
- The Invisible Man (1975 TV series) (1976) is a short-lived, 13-episode TV series on NBC that contemporized the story. David McCallum was the titular star.
- Gemini Man (1976) was the second attempt by the NBC network to turn the concept into an adventure series. It lasted only 11 episodes.
- The Invisible Man (TV serial) (1984) is a six-part television miniseries produced by the BBC in England that remained faithful to the original novel.
- Son of The Invisible Man is a spoof sequence from the comedy sketch anthology Amazon Women on the Moon (1987) which parodies the James Whale movie.
- The Invisible Kid (1988), and The Invisible Maniac (1990) are both juvenile comedies that failed to find an audience and were quickly forgotten.
- Memoirs of an Invisible Man (1992), directed by John Carpenter, is a special effects-laden horror film starring Chevy Chase. It was a critical and box office disappointment.
- The Invisible Man (2000 TV series) (2000–2002) was produced in the U.S. by the Sci Fi Channel and ran for 46 episodes.
- Hollow Man (2000) is a science fiction thriller film directed by Paul Verhoeven and starring Elisabeth Shue, Kevin Bacon, and Josh Brolin, and was inspired by Wells' story. A direct-to-video sequel, Hollow Man 2, was released in 2006.
- The Invisible Man (Cartoon Series), a French animated series.
- ^ a b c d e f Kjolseth, Pablo "The Invisible Man" (TCM article)
- ^ a b c d e f TCM Notes
- ^ a b The Invisible Man at the Internet Movie Database
- ^ IMDB Business data
- ^ IMDB Filming locations
- ^ TCM Overview
- ^ IMDB Release dates
- ^ IMDB Taglines
- ^ Now You See Him: The Invisible Man Revealed! director: David J. Skal. Universal Home Entertainment, 2000.
- ^ Allmovie Awards
- ^ Gatiss, Mark. James Whale: A Biography or the Would-Be Gentlemen, Cassell (1995) ISBN 0-304-32861-8
- ^ IMDB Awards
- The Invisible Man at the Internet Movie Database
- The Invisible Man at the TCM Movie Database
- The Invisible Man at AllRovi
- The Invisible Man at Rotten Tomatoes
Works by H. G. Wells Nonfiction
Crux Ansata · The Fate of Man · Floor Games · The Future in America: A Search After Realities · Little Wars · The New World Order · The Open Conspiracy · The Outline of History · Russia in the Shadows · The Science of Life · A Short History of the World · Travels of a Republican Radical in Search of Hot Water · World Brain
Ann Veronica · Bealby · Christina Alberta's Father · The Dream · The First Men in the Moon · The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth · The History of Mr Polly · The Invisible Man · The Island of Dr Moreau · Joan and Peter · Kipps · Love and Mr Lewisham · Marriage · Men Like Gods · A Modern Utopia · Mr. Britling Sees It Through · The New Machiavelli · The Passionate Friends · The Research Magnificent · The Sea Lady · The Secret Places of the Heart · The Shape of Things to Come · The Sleeper Awakes · The Soul of a Bishop · Star-Begotten · The Time Machine · Tono-Bungay · The Undying Fire · The War in the Air · The War of the Worlds · The Wheels of Chance · The Wife of Sir Isaac Harman · The Wonderful Visit · The World Set Free · In the Days of the Comet
"The Chronic Argonauts" · "The Country of the Blind" · "The Crystal Egg" · "A Deal in Ostriches" · "Empire of the Ants" · "The Land Ironclads" · "The Man Who Could Work Miracles" · "Mr. Ledbetter's Vacation" · "The New Accelerator" · "The Pearl of Love" · "The Queer Story of Brownlow's Newspaper" · "The Red Room" · "The Star" · "The Stolen Body" · "A Story of the Days to Come" · "A Story of the Stone Age" · "Triumphs of a Taxidermist" · "The Truth About Pyecraft" · "A Vision of Judgment"
Screenplays A Trip to the Moon (1902) · The First Men in the Moon (1919) · The Invisible Man (1933) · Island of Lost Souls (1933) · Things to Come (1936) · The Man Who Could Work Miracles (1937) · The History of Mr. Polly (1949) · The War of the Worlds (1953) · The Time Machine (1960) · First Men in the Moon (1964) · Half a Sixpence (1967) · The Food of the Gods (1976) · The Island of Dr. Moreau (1977) · Empire of the Ants (1977) · The Time Machine (1978) · H. G. Wells' The Shape of Things to Come (1979) · The War of the Worlds: Next Century (1983) · Food of the Gods II (1988) · The Island of Dr. Moreau (1996) · The Time Machine (2002) · War of the Worlds (2005) · H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005) · H.G. Wells' The War of the Worlds (2005) · H G Wells: War with the World (2006) · War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave (2008) · The First Men in the Moon (2010) · War of the Worlds – The True Story (2011) Films directed by James Whale 1930sJourney's End (1930) · Hell's Angels (1930) · Waterloo Bridge (1931) · Frankenstein (1931) · Impatient Maiden (1932) · The Old Dark House (1932) · The Kiss Before the Mirror (1933) · The Invisible Man (1933) · By Candlelight (1933) · One More River (1934) · Bride of Frankenstein (1935) · Remember Last Night? (1935) · Show Boat (1936) · The Road Back (1937) · The Great Garrick (1937) · Sinners in Paradise (1938) · Wives Under Suspicion (1938) · Port of Seven Seas (1938) · The Man in the Iron Mask (1939) 1940sGreen Hell (1940) · They Dare Not Love (1941) · Hello Out There (1950) Preston Sturges Broadway 1930s
The Big Pond (dialogue,1930) · La grande mare (dialogue,1930) · Fast and Loose (add'l dialogue,1930) · Strictly Dishonorable (prev. play,1931) · They Just Had to Get Married (uncredited,1932) · Child of Manhattan (prev. play,1933) · The Power and the Glory (writer & dialogue dir,1933) · The Invisible Man (uncredited writer,1933) · Twentieth Century (uncredited,1934) · Thirty-Day Princess (writer,1934) · We Live Again (adapter,1934) · Imitation of Life (uncredited writer,1934) · The Good Fairy (writer,1935) · Diamond Jim (writer,1935) · Next Time We Love (uncredited,1936) · Love Before Breakfast (uncredited,1936) · One Rainy Afternoon (lyrics,1936) · Hotel Haywire (writer,1937) · Easy Living (writer,1937) · College Swing (uncredited writer,1938) · Port of Seven Seas (writer,1938) · If I Were King (writer,1938) · Never Say Die (writer,1939)
Remember the Night (writer,1940) · Broadway Melody of 1940 (uncredited,1940) · The Great McGinty (writer & dir,1940) · Christmas in July (writer & dir,1940) · The Lady Eve (writer & dir,1941) · New York Town (uncredited,1941) · Sullivan's Travels (writer, dir & prod,1941) · Safeguarding Military Information (writer,1942) · I Married a Witch (unc. prod,1942) · The Palm Beach Story (writer & dir,1942) · Star Spangled Rhythm (actor,1942) · The Miracle of Morgan's Creek (writer, dir, prod, lyrics,1944) · Hail the Conquering Hero (writer, dir, prod, music, lyrics,1944) · The Great Moment (writer, dir & unc. prod,1944) · I'll Be Yours (writer,1947) · The Sin of Harold Diddlebock (writer, dir & unc. prod,1947) · Unfaithfully Yours (writer, dir & prod,1948) · The Beautiful Blonde from Bashful Bend (writer, dir & prod,1949)
1950s Broadway &
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