- Phonological awareness
Phonological awareness is the conscious sensitivity to the sound structure of language. It includes the ability to auditorily distinguish units of speech, such as a word's
syllables and a syllable's individual phonemes. The ability to segment and blend phonemes is critical for the development of decoding skills, reading fluency, and spelling. Phonological awareness is an important and reliable predictor of later reading ability and has, therefore, been the focus of much research. Phonological awareness is often confused with " phonics", but it is different. Phonics requires students to match letters or letter patterns with sounds (decoding) and to use this information to read words. Phonological awareness relates ONLY to speech sounds, not to alphabet letters or sound-spellings. Phonemic awarenessis a subset of phonological awareness.
"Phonological awareness" is demonstrated by awareness of sounds at three levels of sound structure:
syllables, onsets and rimes, and phonemes. For example, the word "football" in the General Americanaccent of English contains two syllables, /fʊt/ and /bɑl/.IPA notice The syllable /fʊt/ has an onset, /f/ and a rime, /ʊt/. The individual phonemes in /fʊt/ are /f/, /ʊ/, and /t/. Phonological awareness is further demonstrated by manipulating these sounds, such as by clapping the syllables in the word.
Phonological awareness is developed through a variety of activities that expose students to the sound structure of the language and teach them to manipulate it. Specific activities, like clapping the sounds in words and blending phonemes to say words, as well as less directed activities like songs and nursery rhymes are important developing this auditory skill. Research has also shown that students learn phonological awareness in the context of activities that do involve letters and sometimes even spelling. Although phonological awareness is technically only about sounds, research demonstrates the utility of doing phonological awareness practice in the context of reading activities.
* [http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Phonemic_awareness WikEd's Phonemic Awareness Page]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Phonological Awareness for Literacy — The Phonological Awareness for Literacy (PAL) Program (Burrows, Allison, Barnett, and Savina, 2007) is a commercial literacy therapy program for use by speech therapists designed to improve phonological awareness skills required for literacy in… … Wikipedia
Phonological development — Sound is at the beginning of language learning. Children have to learn to distinguish different sounds and to segment the speech stream they are exposed to into units – eventually meaningful units – in order to acquire words and sentences. So, if … Wikipedia
Phonological deficit — The phonological deficit hypothesis is a prevalent neurological explanation for the cause of reading difficulties and dyslexia. It stems from evidence that individuals with dyslexia tend to do poorly on tests which measure their ability to decode … Wikipedia
Phonemic awareness — is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word cat into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and… … Wikipedia
Print awareness — refers to a child s understanding of the nature and uses of print. A child s print awareness is closely associated with his or her word awareness or the ability to recognize words as distinct elements of oral and written communication. Both… … Wikipedia
Dyslexia — This article is about developmental dyslexia. For acquired dyslexia, see Alexia (acquired dyslexia). Dyslexia Classification and external resources ICD 10 R48.0 ICD 9 … Wikipedia
Marcia A. Invernizzi — Marcia Invernizzi is a professor, author, and researcher in the field of Reading Education. At the University of Virginia Curry School of Education, she conducts seminars and mentors masters and doctoral students in reading education. As founder… … Wikipedia
Orthographies and dyslexia — Main articles: Dyslexia and Dyslexia research The complexity of a language s orthography, or writing system, can be a significant contributing factor to the difficulties experienced by dyslexic readers. Current psycholinguistic models of… … Wikipedia
Learning to read — Part of a series on Reading … Wikipedia
Metalinguistics — is the branch of linguistics that studies language and its relationship to culture and society. It is the study of dialogue relationships between units of speech communication as manifestations and enactments of co existence. The neologism… … Wikipedia