Residual (entertainment industry)

Residual (entertainment industry)

A residual is a payment made to the creator of performance art (or the performer in the work) for subsequent showings or screenings of the (usually filmed) work. A typical use is in the payment of residuals for television reruns. The word is often used in the plural form.

Radio and television

The residual system started in U.S. network radio. Live radio programs with nationwide audiences were generally performed either two or three times to account for different times zones between the east and west coasts of the United States. The performers were paid for each performance.

Audio "transcription disc" technology became available in the late 1930s and was initially used to make recordings to send to radio stations that were not connected to the live network. As the sound quality of these recordings improved, the radio networks began using them for time delaying the west coast broadcast and eventually eliminated the need for multiple performances. The performers were kept on standby and paid for a second performance, in case there were technical problems with the recording. This established the precedent for residual payments from recorded performances. [cite web
title=In Hollywood, a Sacred Cow Lands on the Contract Table
publisher=The New York Times

A similar transition between live and recorded performances occurred on television in the early 1950s. Initially, most television broadcasts were either live or broadcasts of older films originally produced for the motion theaters. Kinoscope recordings were made of live east coast performances so they could be broadcast several hours later on the west coast. These recordings also made it possible to repeat broadcast these shows at a later time. In 1952, residual payments were extended to these television reruns.

Meanwhile, the Screen Actors Guild began a long battle to gain residual payments for movies that were shown on television. The Guild relinquished any claim for residuals from movies produced before 1948, but there was a long standing stalemate over residuals for newer movies. Finally in 1960, the Screen Actors Guild reached an agreement with the movie studios that paid residuals for movies produced after the date of the agreement. Movies produced before 1960 were not required to pay residuals.

The original residual agreements for television shows never anticipated the number of repeat broadcasts that some well-loved television series would eventually see in syndication. As a result, the residual payments were generally limited to about six broadcasts. This was changed in the mid-1970s, when contracts for new television shows extended residual payments without limit on the number of repeats.

Under the current system, the television production company retains 80% of the fees earned from reruns. The other 20% is paid to the various performers and off-camera crew.

ee also

* Royalties


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Residual — In general, a residual is what is left over.* Residual (mathematics) * Residual (American Rock Band) * Errors and residuals in statistics *Residual payment, in business, one of an ongoing stream of payments for the completion of past achievements …   Wikipedia

  • Business and Industry Review — ▪ 1999 Introduction Overview        Annual Average Rates of Growth of Manufacturing Output, 1980 97, Table Pattern of Output, 1994 97, Table Index Numbers of Production, Employment, and Productivity in Manufacturing Industries, Table (For Annual… …   Universalium

  • Get on the Mic — is the second section of Track #15 on the album Paul s Boutique by American hip hop group the Beastie Boys, released on July 25, 1989. * Produced and written by the Beastie Boys and the Dust Brothers. * Engineered by Mario Caldato and Allen… …   Wikipedia

  • 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike — Articles Effects on Television AMPTP  • WGAW  • WGAE …   Wikipedia

  • United Kingdom — a kingdom in NW Europe, consisting of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: formerly comprising Great Britain and Ireland 1801 1922. 58,610,182; 94,242 sq. mi. (244,100 sq. km). Cap.: London. Abbr.: U.K. Official name, United Kingdom of Great… …   Universalium

  • Chris Blackwell — Birth name Christopher Percy Gordon Blackwell[1] Born 22 June 1937 (1937 06 22) (age 74) London, England Genres …   Wikipedia

  • UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, country in N. America. This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction Colonial Era, 1654–1776 Early National Period, 1776–1820 German Jewish Period, 1820–1880 East European Jewish Period,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Dingbat (building) — A dingbat apartment building in Southern California. A dingbat is a type of formulaic apartment building that flourished in the Sun Belt region of the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, a vernacular variation of shoebox style stucco boxes .… …   Wikipedia

  • France — /frans, frahns/; Fr. /frddahonns/, n. 1. Anatole /ann nann tawl /, (Jacques Anatole Thibault), 1844 1924, French novelist and essayist: Nobel prize 1921. 2. a republic in W Europe. 58,470,421; 212,736 sq. mi. (550,985 sq. km). Cap.: Paris. 3.… …   Universalium

  • Australia — /aw strayl yeuh/, n. 1. a continent SE of Asia, between the Indian and the Pacific oceans. 18,438,824; 2,948,366 sq. mi. (7,636,270 sq. km). 2. Commonwealth of, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, consisting of the federated states and… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.