In Arabian folklore, a genie (also jinn, djinn, from Arabic جني "jinn") is a supernatural fiery creature who is said to possess free will. Genies are mentioned in the
Qur'an, wherein a whole chapter is named after them ( Al-Jinn). They can be both good and evil. In some cases, Evil genies are said to lead humans astray. In Islam, Satan, known in Arabic as Iblees, is the iconic genie that refused to bow down to Adam when ordered to by Allah.
Etymology and definitions
"Genie" is the mythical English translation of the
Arabicterm "jinn". The first recorded use of the word "Genie" in the English language was in 1655 as "geny", with the Latin meaning (see Genius (mythology)). The French translators of " The Book of One Thousand and One Nights" later used the word "génie" as a translation of "jinni" because it was similar to the Arabic word both in sound and in meaning; this meaning was also picked up in English and has since become dominant. The plural, according to Sir Richard Francis Burton, is "Jann." The French génie, in turn, came from the Latin"genius", which meant a sort of tutelary or guardian spirit thought to be assigned to each person at birth. The Latin word predates the Arabic word "jinni" in this context, and may have been introduced in the Arabian civilization through the NabataeansFact|date=May 2008. The root however, and its concept of being "hidden" or "concealed" still comes from the Semitic root "JNN" and from which the Arabic Jannah(garden or paradise) is derived. [ [http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/34_gan.html Ancient Hebrew Lexicon ] ] [ [http://19.org/index.php?id=91,417,0,0,1,0 :: 19.org Article :: | Arnold Yasin Mol | Jinn As Found In The Quran ] ]
Arabic lexicons, such as William Lane's lexicon provide [http://www.studyquran.org/LaneLexicon/Volume2/00000098.pdf] the rendered meaning of Jinn not only for spirits, but also for anything concealed through time, status and even physical darkness. A classical Arabic use of the term Jinn is as follows:
:And there is no concealment with vehement hatred as well as the averting look.
Jinn in pre-Islamic era
Amongst archaeologists dealing with ancient
Middle Easterncultures, any spirit lesser than Angels is often referred to as a “Djinn”, especially when describing stone carvings or other forms of art. This practice draws on the original meaning of the term genie as simply a spiritof any sort.
Inscriptions found in Northwestern Arabia seem to indicate the worship of Djinn, or at least their tributary status. For instance, an inscription from Beth Fasi'el near
Palmyrapays tribute to the "Ginnaye", the "good and rewarding gods" [Hoyland, R. G., Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam.] providing a sharp resemblance to the Latin Genius and Juno: The Guardian Spirits.
Types of Djinn include the "
ghul" (“night shade”, which can change shape), the "sila" (which cannot change shape), the " Ifrit" IPA2|iˈfɾɪt, and " Marid" IPA| [mʌˈɾɪd] . According to the information in "The Arabian Nights", Marid seem to be the strongest form of Djinn, followed by Ifrit, and then the rest of the Djinn forms.
In the Middle East it is believed that the Djinn were spirits of smokeless fire, although sometimes they associated them with succubi (
demonsin the forms of beautiful women). The feminine form of Djinn is “jinniyah” or “jinneyeh”.
Jinn in the Bible
In several verses in Old Arabic and Old Persian Bible translations, the words: Jinn(جن) Jaann(الجان) Majnoon(مجنون) and Iblees(ابلیس) are mentioned as translations of familiar spirit or אוב(obe) for Jaann and the devil or δαιμόνιον(dahee-mon'-ee-on) for Iblees.In
Cornelius Van Allen Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Bible these words are mentioned in Lev 19:31, Lev 20:6, 1Sa 28:3, 1Sa 28:9, 1Sa 28:7, 1Ch 10:13, Mat 4:1, Mat 12:22, Luk 4:5, Luk 8:12, Joh 8:44 and other verses as well. Also, in the book of Testament of Solomon, Solomon describes particular demons whom he enslaved to help build the temple, the questions he put to them about their deeds and how they could be thwarted, and their answers, which provide a kind of self-help manual against demonic activity.
Jinn in Islam
The Djinn are said to be creatures with
free will, made from 'smokeless fire' by Allah in the same way humans were made of earth. According to the Qur'an, Djinn have free will, and Ibleesused this freedom in front of Allah by refusing to bow to Adam when Allah told Iblees to do so. By refusing to obey Allah order he was thrown out of the Paradise and called “ Shaitan”. Djinn are frequently mentioned in the Qur'an, Sura72 of the Holy Qur'an (named Al-Jinn) is entirely about them. Another Sura (Al-Naas) mentions the Djinn in the last verse. It is also mentioned in the Qur'an that Muhammadwas sent as a prophet to both “humanity and the Djinn”.
In the world there are three main creations, Angels, Humans and Jinns (other than various animals):
Angels: Angels are made from light (Noor). In Islam they are slaves of God who have no free will. They do not commit any sin nor disobey God and they always worship him.
Humans: Humans are created from earth and are given free will to do good or bad in their lives. Because of their free will, they will be held accountable for their choices in this life on the Day of Judgement. Those who follow and obey God (Allah), will be rewarded with paradise/heaven.
Jinns: Similar to humanity, jinns have free will allowing them to follow any religion they choose to, such as Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, etc. The only difference is that they are made of smokeless fire and therefore are not visible to humans. There are more jinns than humans, in terms of population. Jinns have the power to fly and fit in to any space so they live in remote areas, mountains, seas, trees, and in the air, in their own communities. Similar to the humans, Jinns will also be judged on The Day of Judgement and will be sent to
Jannat(heaven) or Nar(hell) according to the life they lead.
Every person is assigned a special jinn to them, also called a qareen, the jinns that whisper into your soul and tell you to give into your evil desires. The Prophet Muhammad's jinn turned into a Muslim jinn, on the recitation of the Qur'an, as the jinn found it most beautiful.Fact|date=October 2008
Jinn in post-Islamic Arabic fiction
The evil "
Ifrit" are called “the seed of Iblees” in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights.
The Spirit of the Lamp in the story of Aladdin, a familiar djinn to the Western world (see next section), was such a jinni, having been bound to an oil lamp. Ways of summoning jinn were told in The Thousand and One Nights: by writing the name of God in Hebrew characters on a knife (whether the Hebrew name for God, Yahweh, or the Arabic Allah is used is not specified), and drawing a diagram, with strange symbols and incantations around it.
The jinn’s power of possession was also addressed in the fictional Nights. It is said that by taking seven hairs out of the tail of a cat that was all black except for a white spot on the end of its tail, and then burning the hairs in a small closed room with the
possessedfilling their nose with the scent, this would release them from the spell of the jinn inside them.Fact|date=February 2008.
Genies in Western culture
The Western interpretation of the genie is based on the story of
Aladdinin the Western version of " The Book of One Thousand and One Nights", which told of a genie that lived in an oil lampand would grant wishes to the owner of the lamp, as well as the genie in the tale of " The Fisherman and the Jinni"
Many western stories about genies tend to follow the same vein as the famous short story "
The Monkey's Paw" by W. W. Jacobs, with the overriding theme of “be careful what you wish for”. In these stories, wishes can have disastrous, horrific, and sometimes fatal consequences. Often, the genie causes harm to the loved ones or innocent people surrounding the wisher, making others pay for its master’s greed or ignorance. This also forms the basis of numerous three wishes jokes.
Exploiting loopholes or twisting interpretations of wishes is a classic trait amongst genies in Western fiction, with the genies either deliberately or unintentionally misinterpreting the wishes to grant the wisher exactly what they had asked for while in fact giving them the opposite of what they "wanted". For example, in “
The Man in the Bottle” episode of "The Twilight Zone", a poor shopkeeper who finds a genie and wishes to become a leader of a great nation is transformed into Adolf Hitlerat the very end of World War II. Often, these stories end with the genie’s master wishing to have never found the genie, all his previous wishes never to have happened, or a similar wish to cancel all the fouled wishes that had come before.
Examples of Genies in fiction and popular Culture
Jinnicky the Red Jinnis one of Ruth Plumly Thompson's most popular original Oz characters. His most notable appearances are in " Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz", " The Purple Prince of Oz" and " The Silver Princess in Oz".
* Mr. Beaver in "
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe" conjectures that the White Witchwas not human (as was her claim), but was in fact half giantess and half Jinn (A descendant of Lilith, Adam’s “first wife”.)
* Christopher Moore’s book "
Practical Demonkeeping" describes the pre-human origin of the Djinn and God’s favor for humans.
* The “Djinn in charge of All Deserts” gives the lazy camel his hump in the story "How the Camel Got His Hump" from
Rudyard Kipling’s " Just So Stories".
* Djinn feature prominently in Tim Powers' supernatural spy novel "
* Several references to djinn occur in the final short story, entitled “Ramadan”, of
Neil Gaiman’s sixth "The Sandman" collection, "". In Gaiman’s novel, " American Gods", an ifrit drives a taxicab in New York.
* In the "
Bartimaeus Trilogy" books by Jonathan Stroud, a djinni is a section of five major spirits, also including afrits (a form of Ifrit) as a creature of fire, marids, foliots, and imps. The trilogy focuses on a five-thousand year-old djinni named Bartimaeus and his unwilling alliance with a teenage boy.
Rachel Caine’s "Weather Warden" seriesthe Djinn appear frequently. The Wardens who control fire, weather and earth capture the Djinn in bottles, and use them to channel an smplify their powers. The two most powerful Djinn in the world are used in these series of books.
* "Dragon Rider", a novel by
Cornelia Funkefeatures a djinn named Asif. She stated he was colored dark blue. She also stated he had a thousand eyes, he was so large his shadow could darken an entire ravine, his pointed ears were larger than the wings of a dragon, he had a fat belly, and blue hairs thicker than saplings grow inside his nostrils. He is an example of a serious interpretation of a djinn. He lives in a gray car, materializes from blue smoke, has a thousand eyes, and is omnipotent.If you ask him a question, he will show you it in one of his thousand eyes. A human must ask, it must be seven words, and if Asif has the same question but before him, the questioner must serve him for their entire life. Funke did not state if you could escape him and no character did get to be a slave, but Asif did say to the dragon Firedrake that he made his skin itch so much that a thousand servants had to scratch it for him. The servants were not shown, but mentioned.
*In the popular book series "
Children of the Lamp", John and Phillipa Gaunt discover that they are members of the djinn tribe Marid. They are guided by their English uncle Nimrod on a series of exciting adventures.
*In the young adult’s book "
Castle in the Air" by Diana Wynne Jones, the sequel to " Howl's Moving Castle", there is a genie in a bottle and a pair of Djinn.
Jinn" a book by Matthew B.J. Delaney, the creature which is being hunted is a Jinn. Has been called "Saving Private Ryan meets Alien in Delaney's tense and involving first novel, a hybrid that transcends its several genres."
*Julian referred to himself, as well as Jenny's Grandfather, as Djinn (Julian is a play on that name) in the "Forbidden Game" trilogy by L.J. Smith.
*In the Necromancer Wars literary series, an evil djinn is captured by a wiccan coven and imprisoned in a bottle.
*There are several passing references to djinna in
Salman Rushdie's " The Satanic Verses".
*“The Djinn in the Nightingale's Eye” is a short story by noted British writer
A. S. Byattpublished in a short anthology of the same name.
*In the supernatural drama The Jinniyah by Maria Aragon, an Englishman during the reign of Henry the Eighth opens a gift decanter and gains unwanted immortality when he releases the female Jinn or Jinniyah inside.
*In the 1891 Short story
The Bottle Impby Robert Stevenson tells of a wish granting demon in a bottle, that grants your wishes in exchange for your soul and the only way to remove the curse and get your soul back is to sell it before you die, for less than what you paid for and it can only be resold with coins.
*In the "
Doctor Who" novel " The Stone Rose", the Tenth Doctorand Rose Tylerencounter an artificial life form called a GENIE- Genetically Engineered Neural Imagination Engines- in ancient Rome, capable of reshaping reality to grant wishes. The Doctor explained that these life forms, created in the future, were the actual inspiration for the genies of Earth tales when they travelled back into the past, but all but the original GENIE were erased from history when their creators realised that the power possessed by the GENIEs was tearing reality apart as people made more and more large-scale wishes
*In the novel
Proven Guiltyin the book series The Dresden Filesby Jim Butcher, Lucius Glau, Madrigal Raith's lawyer, is a jann- a scion of a djinn and a mortal.
*Djinn is the title of the 1981 novel by French author
* In the
animeand mangaseries " Dragon Ball Z", the character Mr. Popo is a djinn that protects Kami’s Lookout and the final and most powerful villain faced by the heroes was a stylistically-Arabic demon called Majin Boo. “Majin” is the Japanese word for “Magical Being” or “Genie.” Befitting the genie that he is, Boo is a spirit formed from smoke and clouds that utilizes horrific transmutation sorcery which transforms living beings into candy to sate his monstrous appetite, as well as possessing incredible power that quite literally rivalled that of the most powerful gods in the "Dragon Ball" universe.
*In the Image comic book series "
Amazing Joy Buzzards", El Campeonis a mexican wrestler genie that can be summoned by the rock group by use of a magical amulet and saying the magic words "GO EL CAMPEON GO!".
*In the Vertigo comic "Fables", a Djinn is released. In this comic, they are considered armong the most powerful creatures in existence.
*In the comic Jesi The Genie, a former milk goddess is cursed with becoming a genie, and then released during the time of the Arabian Nights by a young man. Jesi also appears in the webcomic "Gaijin Hi".
* "ClanDestine", a comic book series by Alan Davis and Mark Farmer and published by Marvel Comics, is about a family of British superheroes in the Marvel Universe, children of a human and a female djinn.
* Comic fiction author Tom Holt titled one of his novels "Djinn Rummy", combining the word Djinn with the popular card game Gin Rummy. The novel is in fact about a number of djinns in the human world, many of whom have corporate sponsoring. Djinns appear frequently in a number of Tom Holt’s books, though it is normally taken for granted that the reader knows some of the fictional background of these characters. (I.e. the books are somewhat chronological).
* The DC Comic’s characters
Johnny Thunderand Jakeem Thunderare masters of the djinn from the 5th dimension named Thunderbolt. Genies in the DCU are summoned by their masters by saying their name backwards. Thunderbolt's true name is Yz, which when said backwards sounds like "say you". Disgraced superhero Triumph was later manipulated by the evil djinn named Lkz, which when said backwards sounds like "so cool". After a conflict involving both the Justice League of Americaand the Justice Society of Americathe two genies were merged together changing the Thunderbolt's summoning word to "so cool". The 5th dimension is also home to Superman's enemy, Mister Mxyzptlk. In the pages of JSA it was revealed that imps, like Mxyzptlk and Bat-Mite, are seen as something akin to children. Thunderbolt's son, Shocko and Shocko's wife Peachy Pet are also djinn.
*Although not an actual genie, the wish-granting Id, created by the higher dimension beings known as the Cathexis from the JLA storyline "Divided We Fall" bore many similarities to genies, in that it granted wishes that gave the wisher exactly what was asked for without giving them exactly what was desired, occasionally responding simply to casual comments; the first sign of its presence occurred when it latched on to
Superman's comment about how he wished heroes with dual identities sometimes didn't have to deal with the pressures of such a role and thus split six of the Justice League between their civilian and superheroic identity
animeand mangaseries Magic Knight Rayearththe princesses from Chizeta, Tarta and Tatra have two djinn guardians.
* In the
animeand mangaAladdin and the Magic Lamp (Aladdin to Mahou no Lamp)from Toei Animationalladin have two djinn the Ring Servant and the Djinni of the lamp
* In the Lebanon-published book "Malaak" (2007, first of a series), an angel with the appearance of a young girl fights evil jinns, which only she can see as they really are, who are involved in maintaining an ever-going civil war in an alternate reality Lebanon
* In the comic book there is a character named Genie.
Movies and television
The 7th Voyage of Sinbad" (1958) features Baronni, a child Genie, who is freed and becomes Sinbad's cabin boy.
* The original "Twilight Zone" features two episodes with genies in them: "
The Man in the Bottle" and "I Dream of Genie".
* The sitcom "
I Dream of Jeannie", which began in 1965 and ran for five seasons, featured Barbara Edenas a 2,000 year-old beautiful blonde Persian genie completely infatuated with the American astronaut master who had found her bottle and set her free in modern America. It was spun off into the animated series Jeannie in 1973.
* The horror film "Wishmaster" features a hateful and evil Djinn as its villain. The film has spawned three sequels.
* In the 1996 film "
Kazaam", Shaquille O'Nealplayed a rapping genie who lived in a boombox.
* In the animated series "Martin Mystery", episodes called “Curse of the Djini” and “Return of the Djini” featured an evil djinn trapped in a skull that could read peoples' mind’s and make them say their wishes. If the djinn died then the wishes would be undone.
* In the episode "The Wish" of the UPN horror/comedy series "
Special Unit 2", Special Unit 2 encountered an evil genie-like link who needed to grant 3,000 wishes in order to gain free will. Unlike traditional djinn, this genie did not have supernatural powers other than the ability to transform between gas and solid states. As a result, the genie had to carry out wishes physically. So for example if someone wished for a million dollars the genie had to break into a bank and steal a million dollars for them. If someone wished for a relationship with a beautiful model the genie would have to kidnap the model. These wishes almost always ended in disaster for the genie's masters. After 3,000 wishes had been granted the genie would no longer have to live in bottles or grant wishes.
* The 1964 comedy "
The Brass Bottle" features a genie ( Burl Ives) who causes more problems than he solves for his master ( Tony Randall) and his fiance, Barbara Eden(who herself would enter the bottle the very next year in " I Dream of Jeannie".)
* The 2005 Japanese
tokusatsuTV series " Mahou Sentai Magiranger" introduced a genie character in the middle of the series named Smoky, the Magical Cat. He resided in a lamp, which also acted as a gun to assist his master (Hikaru/MagiShine) in battle. His American counterpart is that of Jenji in " Power Rangers Mystic Force".
* An episode of the TV series "
Charmed" called "I Dream of Phoebe" has the Charmed Ones confronting a trickster Genie that is trying to gain its freedom by granting three wishes; another, previous wish featured another genie whose wishes unintentionally caused disaster for the sisters despite his efforts to help when his lamp fell into the wrong hands before the sisters managed to undo his wishes.
*An episode of the CW paranormal drama "Supernatural" called “What Is And What Should Never Be” has Sam hunting a Djinn (which has Dean) which did not actually grant wishes. Instead, it would cause the victim to enter a dream state where their greatest wish was granted while the Djinn fed off their life.
*Some episodes of TV series "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" featured the introduction of vengeance demons, a race of demons who granted wishes for humans seeking revenge; like genies, these wishes commonly featured the exact wording of the wish being obeyed while not giving the wish-maker what they wanted, such as when
Cordelia Chase's wish that Buffy Summersnever came to Sunnydalecreated a world where vampires were in control, or when Dawn Summers's wish that nobody would leave her resulted in the guests to Buffy's 21st birthday party being unable to leave her house.
* In a Season 7 episode of "
The X-Files" called "Je Souhaite", Mulder and Scully find a man and his dim-bulbed, wheelchair-bound brother who chooses three wishes which backfire increasingly. The cause of which is an indifferent genie whose willingness to grant wishes belies a deeper motive.
* Desiree from the animated series "
Danny Phantom" is a genie-like ghost who grants any wishes she hears, gaining power from the wishes that she grants.
* In the film "
Long Time Dead" the characters do a ouija board, which brings out a vengeful spirit named Djinn.
* In "
Fairly Oddparents" there's a genie named Norm (voiced by Norm MacDonald) who, like traditional malevolent genies, grants the wish precisely without giving the wisher exactly what he wanted; although Timmy Turner- the series' main character- initially attempted to use Norm for three rule-free wishes in his first appearance, he subsequently realised his mistake and, having gained three more wishes by trapping Norm in another lamp, subsequently wished for a lawyer to help him draw up another wish to ensure that there would be no way for Norm to 'cheat' his way out of the wish.
* In the 1940 movie "The Thief of Baghdad", Abu the thief frees a genie from a bottle who promptly tries to kill him, but after Sabu tricks the genie back into the bottle, the genie gives him three wishes. Abu asks first for sausages, second to be taken to king Ahmad, and third, in a fit of anger in an argument, for Ahmad to go to Baghdad, after which the genie abandons Sabu. Fortunately, Abu destroys the All-Seeing Eye, which has freed good spirits that will help him defeat the evil Grand Vizier Jaffar.
* In the 1945 film "A Thousand And One Nights",
Evelyn Keyesplays a voluptuous redheaded genie named Babs who is the Slave of the Lamp of Nador. She falls head-over-heels for her new master, Aladdin, and reluctantly helps him win the heart of a busty blonde princess.
* In the episode "Justin's Little Sister" of
Wizards of Waverly Placeon Disney Channel, Alex calls upon a genie for wishes and in true fashion, the genie twists her wishes into their most extreme translations.
* Disney's TV series Aladdin features a genie named Eden who becomes the girlfriend of Aladdin's Genie.
Game Genie cheat cartridgeseries was so named for its ability to change aspects of games at will.
* In the videogames "
Golden Sun" and "", players encounter Djinn as small benevolent creatures who use their powers to aid the protagonists in battle. There are 18 Djinn for each element. Some are hostile and must be beaten in combat to earn them.
* The strategy game series, "
Heroes of Might and Magic", features Genies as playable characters and units. A Genie named Solmyris also a major protagonist in the series.
* In the 1980s video game "
Archon", the Djinn is the champion of the light side, opposite the Dragon who is champion of the dark side.
* In the video game "Primal", the world of Volca is inhabited by evil creatures called Djinns, led by King
Ibleesand Queen Malikel. Those Djinn live dormant in a volcano, awakening only when the volcano is about to erupt.
* In the video game "
Sonic and the Secret Rings", there are two djinn: Shahra the Ring Genie, a Genie of the Ring, who assists Sonic through the game and Erazor Djinn, the game’s main villain who is a Genie of the Lamp.
* In the video game series "
Final Fantasy", one of the summoned creatures is named Ifrit and offers fire elemental magic. Also, in " Final Fantasy III" the player must defeat a Djinn who has turned an entire town into ghosts.
Pokémon Jirachiis said to grant any wish once it is written on a tag and attached to its three star points on its head.
* Genies are a major plot element in "
King's Quest VI" as part of the Green Isles folklore.
Iblees, while not being the main villain of the story, is featured as a summoned entity by the game's antagonist in second of the " Quest for Glory" games. The protagonist (Hero) also has the opportunity to summon a lesser djinn who grants him three wishes near the game's end.
* In the Game Boy game the games main villain uses a Genie to attempt to defeat
Warioduring the final boss battle.
* In your Sims that have been created by yourself will get a Genie lamp by a
gypsy, it will only grant 3 wishes per sim, after you have finished your wishes, you cannot have more.
* In the Game Boy Advance game
Mega Man Battle Network 3 White Versionone of the Navis you must fight is Mist Man, whose appearance is that of a Genie.
* In the expansion Hordes of the Underdark for Neverwinter Nights, there is a djinn you can encounter which acts as a portable merchant.
* In the PC Online MMRPG, tibia in Darshia there are djinn selling and buying items
* In MMRPG
Guild Wars, good and bad djinns are encountered. Good djinns protect treasures and people, and also grant wishes. Multiple bad djinns are seen as enemies through games.
* In the N64 title, Diddy Kong Racing, an elephant genie named Taj can change your vehicle from Car, Plane or Hovercraft if you choose to do so.
* In the "
Dungeons & Dragons" series of roleplaying games, genies are powerful elemental spirits from the Inner Planes, each of the four classical elements having its own subspecies of genie: Djinn for air, Dao for earth, Efreet for fire, Marids for water, and a fifth type known as the Jann, who draw their existence from all four elements. A six type, the Qorrash, has been added later and is linked to the pseudo-element of cold [http://www.wizards.com/dnd/article.asp?x=fr/pg20020626a] .
* In the collectible card game "" there are [http://gatherer.wizards.com/?first=1&last=100&term=djinn&Field_Type=on&setfilter=Allsets&colorfilter=All&typefilter=All&output=summary&sort=name&x=69&y=21 more than two dozen djinn-related cards] , mostly larger-than-usual creatures with a drawback, and [http://gatherer.wizards.com/?first=1&last=100&term=efreet&Field_Type=on&setfilter=Allsets&colorfilter=All&typefilter=All&output=summary&sort=name&x=48&y=25 a dozen ifrit/efreet cards] .
Malaysia, all issues of the Economist dated December 19 2006 had the pages containing the article “Born of Fire” ripped out. The government's explanation was that “Muslims cannot believe in Jinns as this goes against Islam”. [http://www.seapabkk.org/newdesign/alertsdetail.php?No=569]
* The "Ars Arabica" supplement to the roleplaying game "
Ars Magica" classifies genies into several tribes: Jinn, Jann, Marid, Ifrit, Shaitan, and Ghul.cite book
last = Alloway
first = Gene
coauthors = Steve Castanien
title = Ars Arabica: Arabic Supplement to the Ars Magica Roleplaying System
format = PDF
url = http://aingusog.uw.hu/arsarabica.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-17
pages = pp. 20-22
year = 1993]
Classification of demons
Exorcismand Exorcism in Islam
International Association of Exorcists
* Mr. Popo
List of exorcists
* al-Ashqar, Dr. Umar Sulaiman (1998). "The World of the Jinn and Devils". Boulder, CO: Al-Basheer Company for Publications and Translations.
* Barnhart, Robert K. "The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology". 1995.
* “Genie”. "The Oxford English Dictionary". Second edition, 1989.
* [http://www.balashon.com/2007/02/genie.html Etymology of “genie”]
* [http://www.islaam.com/Article.aspx?id=75 Visions of the Jinn – a Muslim scholar’s experience with Jinn]
* [http://survivorsareus.com/index.cfm/Spiritual%5FWarfare%5FPrayer%5FRuqyah%5FII Satan is a jinn]
* [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/072.qmt.html Sura Al-Jinn from the Qur'an]
* [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503543420 Jinn Possession: Between Facts and Illusions] online Fatwa from
* [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503543990 The World of Jinn and Its Secrets] online Fatwa from
* [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1120469514869&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Cyber_Counselor/CyberCounselingE/CyberCounselingE A Jinn Paralyses Me At Night] – though such symptoms are now compatible with a recently discovered condition known as
* [http://www.survivorsareus.com/index.cfm/Islamic_Medicine All about possession and exorcisms]
* [http://www.quranichealing.com/bpi.asp?caid=69&cid=836 What are Jinns and Spirits ?]
* [http://www.islamiclifestyles.com/Jinn.htm Jinn and Forms of Jinn]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
GÉNIE — À l’éloge réitéré depuis l’Antiquité jusqu’à la fin du XVIIe siècle du génie comme «divine ardeur», «fureur démoniaque», «sublime folie», «inspiration surhumaine», fait place au début du XVIIIe une description positive du genius , de ses causes… … Encyclopédie Universelle
génie — GÉNIE, suffixe.... GÉNIE, suffixe qui répond au mot grec, production, et qui, dans les termes didactiques, se joint à d autres mots avec le sens de production, par exemple : hétérogénie, etc. (jé nie) s. m. 1° Terme du polythéisme. Esprit ou… … Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré
GEnie — (General Electric Network for Information Exchange) was an online service created by a General Electric business GEIS (now GXS) that ran from 1985 through the end of 1999. In 1994, GEnie claimed around 350,000 users. [… … Wikipedia
genie — GENIE. s. m. L esprit ou le demon, soit bon, soit mauvais, qui selon la doctrine des Anciens accompagnoit les hommes depuis leur naissance jusques à leur mort. Bon genie. mauvais genie. le genie de Socrate. le mauvais genie de Brutus. le genie d… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
Genie — Genie, dem Worte nach, was angeboren, eine dem Menschen von Natur aus inwohnende besondere Kraft für diesen oder jenen Theil der Kunst; die unbewußte Wahl des jederzeit Vortrefflichsten, d. i. die gewisser Maßen unwillkürliche Verschmelzung aller … Damen Conversations Lexikon
-génie — ♦ Élément, du gr. geneia « production, formation » : embryogénie. ⇒ genèse. génie élément, du gr. geneia, formation . ⇒ GÉNIE, élém. formant Élém. formant, du gr. , dér. de , exprimant l idée de naissance, de production, de formation, entrant… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Genie — ist ein Prozent Inspiration und neunundneunzig Prozent Transpiration. «Thomas Alva Edison [1847 1931]; amerik. Erfinder» * Genie ist Fleiß. Nach Theodor Fontane [1819 1898]; dt. Schriftsteller Ohne den Staub, worin er aufleuchtet, wäre der Strahl … Zitate - Herkunft und Themen
Genie — Sn außergewöhnlich begabter Mensch; besondere Begabung std. (18. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus frz. génie m., dieses aus spl. genius m. Begabung, schöpferischer Geist , älter Schutzgeist . Die Entwicklung geht von Schutzgeist zu Schöpfergeist ;… … Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache
Genie  — Genie (franz.), Bezeichnung für militärisches Ingenieurwesen (s.d.). Österreich hat Genie und Pioniertruppen, Frankreich Genie und Verkehrstruppen, Italien Genietruppen; vgl. die Abschnitte über Heerwesen bei den einzelnen Ländern … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Genie — (spr. Scheni), 1) (Ingenium), eminentes Geistesvermögen, welches von der Natur verliehen ist (vgl. Genius). Man bezieht das G. entweder auf Geistesfähigkeiten überhaupt od. auf eine besondere Fähigkeit zu freierer Entwickelung des Geistes,… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
genie — 1650s, tutelary spirit, from Fr. génie, from L. genius (see GENIUS (Cf. genius)); used in French translation of Arabian Nights to render Arabic jinni, singular of JINN (Cf. jinn), which it accidentally resembled, and attested in English with this … Etymology dictionary