Atrophic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis
Atrophic gastritis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 K29.4
ICD-9 535.1
DiseasesDB 29503
eMedicine med/851
MeSH D005757

Atrophic gastritis (also known as Type A or Type B Gastritis more specifically) is a process of chronic inflammation of the stomach mucosa, leading to loss of gastric glandular cells and their eventual replacement by intestinal and fibrous tissues. As a result, the stomach's secretion of essential substances such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor is impaired, leading to digestive problems, vitamin B12 deficiency, and megaloblastic anemia. It can be caused by persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, or can be autoimmune in origin. Those with the autoimmune version of atrophic gastritis are statistically more likely to develop gastric carcinoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and achlorhydria.

Type A gastritis primarily affects the body/fundus of the stomach, and is more common with pernicious anemia.

Type B gastritis (most common overall) primarily affects the antrum, and is more common with H. pylori infection.



Autoimmune Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (AMAG) is an inherited form of atrophic gastritis characterized by an immune response directed toward parietal cells and intrinsic factor.[1] The presence of serum antibodies to parietal cells and to intrinsic factor are characteristic findings. The autoimmune response subsequently leads to the destruction of parietal cells, which leads to profound hypochlorhydria (and elevated gastrin levels). The inadequate production of intrinsic factor also leads to vitamin B12 malabsorption and pernicious anemia. AMAG is typically confined to the gastric body and fundus

Hypochlorhydria induces G Cell (Gastrin producing) hyperplasia, which leads to hypergastrinemia. Gastrin exerts a trophic effect on enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells are responsible for histamine secretion) and is hypothesized to be one mechanism to explain the malignant transformation of ECL cells into carcinoid tumors in AMAG.

Associated conditions

Patients with atrophic gastritis are also at increased risk for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.[2] The optimal endoscopic surveillance strategy is not known but all nodules and polyps should be removed in these patients.


Atrophic gastritis is classified depending on the level of progress as "close type" or "open type". This classification was advocated by Takemoto and Kimura of Tokyo university at 1966.


Recent research has shown that AMAG is a result of the immune system attacking the parietal cells, the attack is being triggered by H. pylori through a mechanism called molecular mimicry.[citation needed]

Environmental Metaplastic Atrophic Gastritis (EMAG) is due to environmental factors, such as diet and H. pylori infection. EMAG is typically confined to the body of the stomach. Patients with EMAG are also at increased risk of gastric carcinoma.


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Gastritis — Este artículo o sección necesita una revisión de ortografía y gramática. Puedes colaborar editándolo (lee aquí sugerencias para mejorar tu ortografía). Cuando se haya corregido, borra este aviso por favor …   Wikipedia Español

  • gastritis — n. inflammation of the lining (mucosa) of the stomach. Acute gastritis is caused by ingesting excess alcohol or other irritating or corrosive substances, resulting in vomiting. Chronic gastritis is associated with smoking and chronic alcoholism… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • atrophic-hyperplastic gastritis — a variant of atrophic gastritis in which the mucosa is of normal or even increased thickness …   Medical dictionary

  • gastritis — Synonyms and related words: abdominal hernia, adenoiditis, adrenitis, appendicitis, arteritis, arthritis deformans, arthritis fungosa, arthritis pauperum, atrophic arthritis, atrophic inflammation, blennorrhagic arthritis, brain fever, bronchitis …   Moby Thesaurus

  • Гастрит (Gastritis) — воспаление слизистой оболочки желудка. Острый гастрит (acute gastritis) развивается в результате избыточного потребления спиртных напитков или других раздражающих или разъедающих слизистую оболочку желудка веществ, вызывая у человека рвоту.… …   Медицинские термины

  • chronic follicular gastritis — a type of atrophic gastritis in which the size and number of lymphoid follicles in the mucosa and submucosa are greatly increased, with heavy infiltration of the entire mucosa by lymphocytes …   Medical dictionary

  • autoimmune gastritis — a rare type of chronic gastritis due to an autoimmune condition of the stomach, resulting from the presence of circulating autoantibodies against the parietal cells. Characteristics include inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the body of… …   Medical dictionary