- Painting of the Tarnovo Artistic School
The painting of the Tarnovo Artistic School was the mainstream of the
Bulgarian fine arts between 13th and 14th centuries named after the capital and the main cultural center of the Second Bulgarian Empire, Tarnovo. Although it was influenced by some tendencies of the Palaeogan Renaissance in the Byzantine Empire, the Tarnovo painting had its own unique features which makes it a separate Artistic School. [Graba, A. La peinture religiouse en Bulgarie., Paris, 1928, p. 95] Depending on whether it was mural decoration of the churches or easel painting it could be divided into two types: Mural paintingand Iconography. Little remains of mosaicswere found during archaeological excavation which shows that this technique was rarely used in the Bulgarian Empire. The works of that school have some extent of realism, portrait individualism and psychology. [Цончева, М. За Търновската живописна школа. - В: "Търновска книйовна школа. 1371-1971", С., 1974, с. 343.]
For the first time in
Eastern Europethe Temperamethod became wide-spread in the murals of the Tarnovo School of Art. ["Старобългарско изкуство", Том ІІ - Никола Мавродинов, издателство "Наука и изкуство", София, 1959 г.] That technique allowed the work to proceed slower than the frescomethod as well brighter and more saturated colouring and had potential for more additional colours. The fresco technique continued to be used, for instance in the beautiful frescoes of the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovoand the chapelof the Hrelyo Tower in the Rila Monastery.
During the Second Empire the murals on the church walls closely encompassed every part of the surface: walls, vaults, columns, wall piers, arches, apses. ["Старобългарско изкуство", Богдан Филов, издателство "Отечество", София, 1993 г.] Their positioning was in
horizontallayers according to the church canon. On the first layer were depicted saints who were usually stepped on a high painted plinth, which is one of the characteristic features of the School. Its lines imitated the panel plates of coloured marble. The selection of saints depended on the preferences of the " ktitors" or on the general theme of the frescoes. Typical feature of the Tarnovo Artistic School are the numerous depictions of warrior-saints. For instance, in the Boyana Churchthere are ten warrior-saints. Widely spread was the image St Demetriusof Salonica, the patron saint of the Asen dynasty, who was particularly popular in Bulgaria in 13th and 14th centuries. The "ktitors" were depicted in the narthex of the churches. Portraits of many noble Bulgariansfrom the Middle Ageshave survived throughout the centuries due to that practice. In the Boyana Church are preserved the images of Emperor Constantine Tikh Asen, his wife Irina, "sevastokrator" Kaloyan and his wife Desislava. [Дуйчев, И. Боянската църква в научната литература - В "Българското средновековие, С., 1972, 478-512] Тhere is a beautiful fresco of Emperor Ivan Alexander in the ossuaryof the Bachkovo Monasteryand in the church of Dolna Kamenitsa there are eleven despotMichael (son of Michael Shishman) his wife an unknown noble holding a model of the church; his wife and children and two clerics. Images of warrior saints and ktitors were common in the preserved detailed mural paintings on the foundations of the churches in Trapezitsa. [Димов, В. Разкопките на Трапезица в град Търново. - ИБАД, 5, 1915, 112-176] These paintings are featured with mild tones and a sense of realism in the rendered portraits and cloths. One of the churches in Trapeztisa was covered with mosaics. [Миятев, Кр. Мозайките от Трапезица - ИБАИ, 1, 1921/1922, с. 163-165] Тhe palace church also had some mosaic decoration. [Георгиева, С., Я. Николова и Н. Ангелов. Архитектурата на двореца, с. 57, обр. VII] The unique and realistic portraits in the Boyana Church are considered to be forerunners of the Renaissance. ["Старобългарско изкуство", Том ІІ - Никола Мавродинов, издателство "Наука и изкуство", София, 1959 г.] The wall piers and the arches were often decorated with medallion-shaped bust images of saints. Magnificent examples of those can be observed in SS Peter and Paul Church in Tarnovo. Along with the traditional scenes such as "Christ's passions" and "Feast cycle" in the second layer; "Christ Pantokrator" in the dome and the Madonna with the infant Christin the apse, there were also specific images and scenes. In the narthex of the SS. Forty Martyrs Churchin Tarnovo there were frescoes of St Anna nursing the infant Mary and St Elisabeth nursing the infant John the Baptist, unfortunately the last one did not survive. The iconographic type "Galaktotrophousa" was a predecessor of the widely-spread images of Madonna with the infant Christ in Western Europe. Although it was canonical, that scene was rarely used in the Byzantine Iconography. In the 35 calendar scenes from the same church some of the characters were painted with contemporary garments. The large number of images of Jesus Christ in the Boyana Church makes an impression: "Pantokrator" (All-powerful); "Emmanuel" (Young man); "Evergetes" (Blessing); "Mandilion"; "Keramidion" and the unique image "Christ Ancient of Days" in which He is depicted as a white-bearded Old man.Thеre are original themes in the Transfiguration of God Chapel in the Hrelyo Tower situated in the Rila Monastery. In the dome is depicted the composition "Sophia-Great Wisdom of God" and in the narthex "Psalms of David". The scenes "Musicians" and " Horo" are especially interesting because they represent the cloths and the way of living of the Bulgarians during the 14th century. [Прашков, Л. Хрельовата кула. С., 1973] There are scenes of Saint Ivan of Rilalife. [Прашков, Л. Един стенописен цикъл от житието на Свети Иван Пилски от XIV век. - В: "Търновската книжовна школа". 1371-1971, С., 1974, с. 429-442] Although there are relatively few preserved monuments of the Tarnovo School of Painting, they refute the popular opinion that the religious murals are inveterate and that they are inappropriate for artistic imagination.
The archaeological research shows that some public edifices and the palaces were also richly decorated with mural paintings ["Царстващият град Търновград. Археологически проучвания.", съставители Атанас Попов и Йордан Алексиев, издателство "Наука и изкуство", София, 1985 г.] but unfortunately the few remaining fragments are not enough for the themes to be determined. The fragments of richly dressed men were discovered in the throne hall [Георгиева, С., Я. Николова и Н. Ангелов. Архитектурата на двореца, с. 58, обр. VII] which suggests that probably the hall was decorated with the depictions of the Bulgarian Emperors and Empresses.
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