- John Raymond Hobbs
name = John Raymond Hobbs
image_size = 200px
caption = Professor John Hobbs
17 April 1929
13 July 2008[http://announcements.telegraph.co.uk/deaths/10-Jul-2008/21-Jul-2008/Hobbs/1/results.aspx /Daily Telegraph ]
Middlesex Hospital, London
Professorof Chemical Immunology
spouse = Patricia Hobbs
parents = Frederick Walter Haydn Hobbs, Anna Helena Hobbs.
John Raymond Hobbs BSc Hons, MD, BS, MRCS,
DObst RCOG, FRCP, FRCPath., FRCPaed. (born 17 April 1929, died 13 July 2008) was a Professor who was at the forefront of the techniques of Clinical Immunology, Protein Biochemistry and Bone Marrow Transplantation, specifically in Child Health.
John Hobbs was born in
Aldershot. He was the third son of four male children of a soldier’s Family. His family moved around considerably due to his father’s career in the British Army. The family eventually settled in his fathers home town of Plymouthin the county of Devon. During the Second World War, John along with his three brothers Frederick, William and Dennis were evacuated from blitz-torn Plymouthto Penzance. He left school at 16 and worked as a pathologyLaboratory assistant and did his National Servicein Egyptwith the British Army Medical Corps. After National Service, John used the money he had saved from his army sergeant’s pay to put himself into Plymouthand Devonport Technical College where he achieved an External Inter.B.Sc. within 9 months, gaining a state scholarshipto study medicine, where he chose the Middlesex Hospitalin Londonand won 7 prizes. From 1968-1996 Dr Hobbs received 4 national prizes, 15 international awards and 4 honorary fellowships
He specialised in
Pathologyand in 1963 was appointed consultant at Hammersmith Hospital, London. In 1970 he was appointed as Professor of Chemical Pathology at Westminster Medical School. In the early 1970’s Professor Hobbs’s Westminster team were doing ground breaking work. In 1970 the world’s first successful intended stem celltransplant for a previously fatal human disease [ Hobbs J.R.., Letter to British Medical journal., 7th December 1998: Bone marrow stem cell transplants (from alternative donors) and Leukaemia.] . In 1971 the first British Bone Marrow Transplant using bone marrowfrom a matching sibling [ Yamamura, M., Newton, R.C.F.., James, D.C.O., Humble, J.G.., Butler, L.F.., Hobbs, J.R. Uncomplicated HL-A matched sibling bone marrow graft from combined immune deficiency.1972 British Medical Journal. 2, 265-269 ] . In the following year a transplant was successful using the bone marrow from fatherto son[ Hobbs, J.R.., Humble, J.G.., Anderson, I.M.., James, D.C.O., The elective treatment of graft-versus-host disease following a bone marrow graft from a father to a so with severe combined immunodeficiency. 1976 Postgraduate Medical Journal 52, (suppl.5) 90-94] . In April of 1973 Professor Hobbs and his team were able to achieve the world's first bone marrow transplant using a matched but unrelated volunteerdonor [ Foroozanfar, H., Hobbs, J.R., Hugh-Jones, K., Humble, J.G., James, D.C.O., Selwyn, S., Watson, J.G., Yamamura, M. Bone marrow transplant from an unrelated donor for chronic granulomatous disease, 1977 Lancet I, 210-213 ] [Hugh-Jones, K., Selwyn, S., Riches, P. Who pioneered the use of alternative donors (and stem cells from peripheral blood) in bone marrow transplantation? Arch. Dis. Childhood, 1991, 66: 102 ] . With the success of this procedure steps were taken by professor Hobbs's team to set up the world's first unrelated bone marrow donor register. The tissue typing specialist of the team, Dr David James, was instrumental in the setting up and the administration of this ground breaking register which was later named after Anthony Nolan[ [http://www.anthonynolan.org.uk/] Anthony Nolan Trust] . It established the future use of unrelated donors to patients, so far for over 10,000 people. This initiative was the blue print which would be copied around the world. The Westminster team completed 285 transplants before it and its specialist unit’s sudden, unexpected, enforced closure, effectively in autumn of 1992. Tragically, this left a waiting list of children with virtually nowhere else in Britain to go for treatment of their genetic diseases and inborn errors. However Professor Hobbs had founded the COrrection of GEnetic diseases by Transplantation or COGENT movement, with a charitable trust which attracted £13 million 1971-2007. The remaining balance, with the assistance of the late Professor Anthony Oakhill, was used to create a new unit at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in the city of Bristol, and so allowing work to be continued. It is now headed by Dr Colin Steward MA (Cantab), BM, BCh (Oxon), PhD (Bristol), FRCPCH, FRCP. [ [http://www.bris.ac.uk/bcirc/members/steward_colin/] Dr Colin Steward, Bristol] . As for the children who were treated by Professor Hobbs’s bone marrow team at the Westminster hospital, most of these children now enjoy full lives as adults.
Passing on his Knowledge
Dr Hobbs became an enthusiastic and accomplished teacher and accepted invitations to lecture (over 30 endowed) in 58 different countries (in over half of Europe’s medical schools, 25 in the USA and over 30 of the Commonwealth universities)He was given the status of visiting professor on over 25 occasions and he contributed to many international meetings and committees. He was re-invited many times and Presidential status was awarded to him in 5 different scientific meetings. He acted as an advisor to Health Ministers in
Russia, Poland, Uruguay, Hong Kong, Chinaand Peru.
Throughout 30 years as a recognised teacher Dr Hobbs encouraged his juniors. 134 university higher degrees were achieved by trainees for work completed within the departments he headed; 48 full university chairs have been awarded to such staff; 70 have become members or fellows of the royal College of Pathologists (including 18 non-medical); 12 scientific staff were helped to medical degrees; together with 42 students contemporary with his daughters.
*In Protein biochemistry – proved females treated for iron deficiency achieved the male normal range for haemoglobin blood levels [Hobbs, J.R. Iron deficiency after partial gastrectomy, I Aetiology, II Treatment (1961) Gut, 2, 141-149] ; the preexisting ‘normal’ ranges for females were no longer acceptable.
*From monitoring the Myeloma Trials, the first to describe the natural history of myelomatosis [Hobbs, J.R., Paraproteins, benign or malignant? 1967
British Medical Journal., 4, 699-704 (citation classic 1986)] [Hobbs J.R., Immunocytoma o’ mice an’ men (1971) British Medical journal. 2, 67-72] and helped in 1971 to set up the Protein Reference Units which save the national health service £3million each year. Dr John Hobbs retired as PRU chairman in 1994.
*Established the first non-invasive screening test of the newborn to detect those affected by cystic fibrosis 1968 [Hobbs, J.R. First meconium in the detection of fibrocystic disease of the pancreas, (1968) Protides of the Biol Fluids, 16, 517-524]
*As Chairman of the Expert Panel on Proteins of the International Federation of Clinical Chemists (1971-1979) created International standards for many serum proteins [Hobbs, J.R., Harboe, N., Alper, C., Johansson, B.G. The human serum standard IFCC 74/1. 1979 Clin. Chim. Acta 98, 179F-186F.] .
*Developed successful uses of human tumour markers [Hobbs, J.R., Melino, G, Riches, P. Successful uses of tumour markers in man. In ‘Protides of the Biological Fluids’ 31. ed. H. Peeters. (1984) Pergamon/Oxford, pp. 255-262]
*In Clinical Immunology,
*Standardised methods and reagents (some for WHO) to provide normal ranges from 12 weeks gestation to old age for caucasian populations
*Immunoglobolin levels [Hobbs, J.R. Immunoglobulins in clinical chemistry, Chapter in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 14, Eds. O. Bodansky, A.L. Latner, Academic Press, N.Y. pp. 219-317] .
*Responses to candida albicans [Foroozanfar, N., Yamamura, M. and Hobbs, J.R. Standardization of lymphocyte transformation to candida immunogen, (1974) Clin.Exp.Immunol. 16, 301-310] .
*Complement activation [Versey, J.M.B., Slater, L., Hobbs, J.R. Activation of complement in relation to disease, (1975) J.Clin.Path. 28, Suppl. 6. 38-44] .
*Mixed lymphocyte reaction [Yamamura, M., Nikbin, B., Hobbs, J.R. Standardisation of the mixed lymphocyte reaction (1976) Journal of Immunological Methods 10, 367-8] T-cell receptors [Hobbs, J.R., Malka, S., Byrom, N.A. Density and inducibility of T-cell receptors in relation to the age of the lymphocyte donor and the conditions of culture. Protides Biol. Fluids 25, 605-610] [Robinson, M., O’Donohue, J., Dadian, G., Wankowicz, A., Barltrop, B., Hobbs, J.R., An analysis of the normal ranges of lymphocyte subpopulations in children aged 5-13 years, Eur.J.Pediatr. 1996; 155: 535-539] .
*Phagocyte function [Hobbs, J.R., Foroozanfar, N., Grohmann,Preci, H., Yegin, O. Deficienza fagocitarie(1984) La Clinica Terapeutica. 110: 367-373] .
*First to fully describe IgA deficiency [Hobbs, J.R., Immune imbalance in dysgammaglobulinaemia, Type IV (now IgA deficiency) Lancet i1968 110-114] .
*IgM deficiency [Hobbs, J.R. IgM Deficiency (1975) Birth Defects: Original Article Series IX, 1, 112-6. Publ. Sinauer/Sunderland, Mass., U.S.A. ] selective deficiency to staphylococci [Monteil, M., Hobbs, J.R., Citron, K. Selective immunodeficiency affecting staphylococcal response, (1987) Lancet, ii, 880-883] .
*Early to recognise a circulating subset of T-cells co-optable through Fc-receptors to become killer cells [Fakhri, O., Hobbs, J.R. Target cell death without added complement after cooperation of 7S-antibodies with non-immune lymphocytes. (1972) Nature New Biol. 235, 177-178] .
*Defined secondary deficiencies of B-cells> [Hobbs, J.R. Secondary antibody deficiency,1968 Proc.R.Soc.Med. 61, 883-887] and T-cells [Hobbs, J.R. Deficiencias de linfocitos T, (1980) Rev.Bras.Alerg.Imunop., 2, 243-248] and their possible treatments [Riches, P.G., Hobbs, J.R. Mechanisms in secondary hypogammaglobulinaemia, (1979) J.Clin.Path, 32, Suppl. (Roy Coll Path) 13, 15-22] [Byrom, N.A., Hobbs, J.R., eds Thymic factor therapy, (1985) Serono Symposia Publications, Vol. 16: 457pp. Raven Press NY.] predictable by cytofluorometry [Hobbs, J.R. Cytofluorometry to predict effects of biological response modifiers in Poulik D. et al eds. ‘Protides of the biological fluids’ 1989; 36: 3-17]
*In Bone Marrow Transplantation he had been taught at Registrar level, by the late Dr Joseph G Humble at Westminster Hospital in 1959-61 and was a volunteer donor of 500 ml of his own bone marrow (under anaesthesia) to be used for research purposes. When he returned in 1970 as head of chemical Pathology and Immunology he created the Westminster Children’s Bone Marrow Team and lead it until 1992 in its pioneering work to treat 133 children with otherwise fatal genetic diseases [Hobbs, J. R., Barrett, A. J., Chambers, J. D., James, D. C. O., Hugh-Jones, K., Byrom, N., Henry, K. and Lucas, C. F. Reversal of clinical features of Hurler's disease and biochemical improvement after treatment by bone marrow transplantation. Lancet 2 1981 709–712] [Hobbs, J. R. Bone marrow transplantation for inborn errors.Lancet 2 1981 735–739] [ Hobbs, J. R. The scope of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In Losowsky, M. and Bolton, R. (eds.),Advanced Medicine Leeds, Pitman, Bath, 1983, pp. 378–391] [Hobbs, J. R. Correction of 34 genetic diseases by displacement bone marrow transplantation.Plasma Ther. Transpl. Tech. 61985 221–246] [Hobbs, J. R. and Hugh-Jones, K. Immunodeficiencies better treated by transplantation.Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med. 10 1985 85–97] [Hobbs, J.R., Williamson, S., Chambers, J.D., James, D.C.O., Joshi, R., Shaw, P. and Hugh-Jones, K. Use of donors sharing one genetic haplogype for bone marrow transplantation. Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med. 10 1985 207-214] [Hobbs, J. R., Hugh-Jones, K., Shaw, P., Lindsay, I. and Hancock, M., Beneficial effect of pretransplant splenectomy on displacement bone marrow transplantation for Gaucher's syndrome. Lancet 1 (1987) 1111–1115] [Hobbs, J.R., Displacement bone marrow transplantation and immunoprophylaxis for genetic diseases, Adv. Inter. Med. 33 1987 81-118] [ Hobbs, J.R. (ed.) The correction of certain genetic diseases by transplantation, 1989, COGENT Press, Westminster, 1989, pp. 147-159] [ J. R. Hobbs, M. Monteil, D. R. McCluskey, E. Jurges and M. El Tumi, Chronic granulomatous disease 100% corrected by displacement bone marrow transplantation from a volunteer unrelated donor, 1992 Europ.J.Paed.151: 806-810] . The team became so skilled that, of their last 56 transplants from matched family donors, all survived for over 100 days (a criterion for safety of the procedure). From matched unrelated donors 91% survived over 100 days. By 1992 these results were probably among the best in the world. The improvements in bone marrow transplantation introduced by Westminster have been published [Hobbs, J.R., The achievements of the Westminster children’s bone marrow team for some genetic diseases. In Steward C.G. Hobbs, J.R. eds. Correction of genetic diseases by transplantation III, London COGENT, 1995:1-15] [Hobbs, J.R., Immunology and replacement treatments of some genetic diseases. In Ringden, O., Hobbs, J.R., Steward C.G., eds. Correction of Genetic Diseases by Transplantation IV 1997, NOBEL symposium, COGENT press/ London 1997: 101-110] [ Hobbs, J.R., The Westminster contribution to the correction of thalassaemia major and other inborn anaemias. In Steward C.G., Hobbs, J.R. eds. Correction of genetic diseases by transplantation III, London COGENT, 1995: 80-89]
*In Current Contents 1972, Dr John Hobbs was one of 11 British medical doctors included in a list of ‘The World’s top 1,000 scientists’.
John Raymond Hobbs was third eldest of four brothers. He was also the father of three daughters and eight grandchildren.
Publications (some of 630)
7. Hobbs J.R., Bayliss, R.I.S., MacLagan, N.F. The routine use of 132-I in the diagnosis of thyroid disease (1963) Lancet, i, 8-13.(M.D. Thesis, London)
Hobbs, J. R. Displacement bone marrow transplantation and immunoprophylaxis for genetic diseases.Adv. Intern. Med. 33 (1987) 81–118
126 Valdimarrson, J.H., Higgs, J.M., Wells, R.S., Yamamura, M, Hobbs, J.R., Holt, P.J. Immune abnormalities associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, (1973) Cell Immunol. 6, 348-61
144 Ezeoke, A., Ferguson, N, Fakhri, O, Hekkens, W and Hobbs, J.R. Antibodies in the sera of celiac patients which can co-opt K-cells to attack gluten-labelled targets (1974) in W Hekkens, A.S. Pena (eds) Coeliac Disease, Stenfert Kroese/Leiden, pp 176-188
174 Hobbs, J.R., Barrett, A, de Souza, I., Morgan, L., Raggatt, P., Salih, H., Selection of anti-hormonal therapy of some cancers (1975) in D Minzuni et al (eds) Host Defense Against Cancer and Its Potentiation, Univ of Tokyo Press, Tokyo/Univ. Park Press/Baltimore, pp 451-6
204 Hobbs J.R., Encouragement from research on the cancer of the individual patient (1977) in R.W. Raven, Outlook on Cancer, Plenum/London, pp 147-162
319 Hobbs J.R., AIDS (1984) letter B.J. Hosp. Med. 32:51
448 Hobbs J.R., The use of volunteer unrelated donors in J R Hobbs (ed) Correction of certain genetic diseases by transplantation, 1989, COGENT/London 1989: 147-158
484 Henderson D.C., Sheldon J., Riches P.G., Hobbs J.R. Cytokine induction of neopterin production, Clin Exp Immunol 1991; 83: 479-482
497 Wang Q., Rowbottom A., Riches P.G., Dadian G., Hobbs J.R. Combined detection of phenotype and Y chromosome by immunoenzymelabelling and in situ hybridisatin on peripheral lymphocytes, J Immunol Methods 1991; 139: 251-5
547 Hobbs J.R., Wang Q., Henderson D.C., Downie C., Obaro S., Busulphan-cyclophosphamide induction used twice with 9/12 successes in the second bone-marrow transplant, COGENT 1992; 2: 127-135
630 Hobbs J.R., Further aspects of human immunoglobulin A deficiency, Ann Clin Biochem 2007; 44: 496-7
References Compiled and amended with the help of J R Hobbs.
* John's Brother, Canadian artist
William G. Hobbs.
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