- Herbert Baker
this = the British architect
use1 = the Canadian politician of the same name
page1 = Herbert Baker (Alberta politician)
this = the architect
use2 = the songwriter and screenwriter of the same name
page2 = Herbert Baker (screenwriter)
Sir Herbert Baker (
9 June 1862in Cobham, Kent- 4 February 1946in Cobham, Kent) was a British architect.
Baker was the dominant force in
South African architecturefor two decades, 1892–1912. He designed the Union Buildingsin Pretoria, South Africa; and with Edwin Lutyenswas instrumental in designing New Delhi. His tomb is in Westminster Abbey.
Born on the family farm "Owletts" near
Cobham, Kent, in England, the fourth son of nine children of Thomas Henry Baker and Frances Georgina Davis, Herbert was from the outset exposed to a tradition of good craftsmanship, preserved through isolation in the neighbourhood of his home. As a boy, walking and exploring the historical ruins found in the area, were his favourite pastimes. Here he observed and learned to appreciate the time-honoured materials of brick and plaster, the various aspects of timber use, especially in roof construction - tie-beam and arch-braced collar-beam trusses. He was profoundly influenced by the stone construction used in Norman cathedrals and Anglo-Saxon churches, as well as the ornamentation and symbolism of the Renaissancebuildings in Kent. This early influence is apparent in the churches, schools and houses he later designed in South Africa.
He received his first education at
Tonbridge Schoolwhich instilled in him his lifelong qualities of leadership and loyalty. In 1879 he was articled to his cousin Arthur Baker, embarking on the accepted pattern of architectural education comprising three years of apprenticeship and the attending of classes at the Architectural Association School and the Royal Academy Schools. Study tours of Europe were regarded as an essential part of the course. In 1891 Baker passed his examination for Associateship of the Royal Institute of British Architectsand was awarded the Ashpital Prizefor being top of his class.
He worked initially for
Ernest Georgeand Harold Petoin London from 1882-87, then opened his own office in Gravesend, Kent in 1890.
He embarked for South Africa in 1892 ostensibly to visit his brother, and was commissioned in 1893 by
Cecil Rhodesto remodel Groote Schuur, Rhodes' house on the slopes of Table Mountainin Cape Town, and the residence of South African prime ministers. Rhodes sponsored Baker's further education in Greece, Italy and Egypt, after which he returned to South Africa and stayed the next 20 years.
He had the patronage of
Lord Milner, and was invited to the Transvaal to design and build residences for the British colonials, Much taken with the country, and notably with the Cape Dutch homes in the Cape Province, Baker resolved to remain in South Africa and to establish an architectural practice, which went under the name of "Herbert Baker, Kendall & Morris". Baker undertook work in widespread parts of the country including Durban, Grahamstown, King William's Town, Bloemfontein, George and Oudtshoorn, and even further afield in Salisbury Rhodesiawhere he designed the Anglican Cathedral and a house for Julius Weil, the general merchant.
In 1902 Baker left his practice at the Cape in the hands of his partner and went to live in Johannesburg, where he built Stonehouse. On a visit to Britain in 1904 he married his cousin, Florence Edmeades, daughter of Gen. Henry Edmund Edmeades, bringing her back to Johannesburg, where two sons, the first of four children, were born. Baker quickly became noted for his work, and was commissioned by a number of the "
Randlords" (the wealthy mining magnates of Johannesburg) to design houses, particularly in the suburbs of Parktownand Westcliff. He also designed commercial premises and public buildings.
ome Herbert Baker buildings in South Africa
*Bishop's Lea, George
King William's Town
Groot Constantiain Cape Town
* [http://www.southafricaholiday.org.uk/places/c_nc_kimberley.htm Honoured Dead Memorial] in
Kimberley, Northern Cape
*McClean telescope building, Royal Observatory,
Michaelhouse, Balgowan, KwaZulu-Natal
*Pilrig House, 1 Rockridge Road, Parktown
* [http://www.southafricaholiday.org.uk/places/m_g_pretoriastation.htm Pretoria Station]
Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town
Rhodes University, Grahamstown
*South African Institute for Medical Research,
*St Andrew's School for Girls,
*St Anne's College Chapel in
*St George's Anglican Cathedral,
*St John's College,
*St Margaret's (1905) Rockridge Road,
*Stone House, Rockridge Road, Parktown. Baker's own house and the first he built in Johannesburg
Union Buildings, Pretoria
Wynberg Boys' High School, Cape Town
Union Buildings, South Africa
In 1909 Herbert Baker was commissioned to design the Government Building of the Union of South Africa (which was formed on 31st May1910) in Pretoria. Pretoria was to become the administrative centre for the new government. In November 1910 the cornerstone of the Union Building was laid.
Baker chose Meintjies Kop as the site for his design which was inspired by the Acropolis of Athens. The site was that of a disused quarry and the existing excavations were used to create the amphitheatre, which was set about with ornamental pools, fountains, sculptures, balustrades and trees.
The design consisted of two identical wings, joined by a semicircular colonnade forming the backdrop of the amphitheatre. The colonnade was terminated on either side by a tower. Each wing had a basement and three floors above ground. The interiors were created in the Cape Dutch Style with carved teak
fanlights, heavy doors, dark ceiling beams contrasting with white plaster walls and heavy wood furniture. Baker used indigenous materials as far as possible. The granite was quarried on site while Buiskop sandstone was used for the courtyards. Stinkwood and Rhodesian teak were used for timber and wood panelling. The roof tiles and quarry tiles for the floors were made in Vereeniging. The Union Buildings were completed in 1913, after which Herbert Baker left for New Delhi from where he returned home to England.
In 1912 Baker went to India to work with Lutyens on the
Secretariat buildingand Parliament House in New Delhiand the bungalows of Members of Parliament. Baker designed the two Secretariat buildings flanking the great axis leading to what was then the Viceroy of India's Palace.
In 1913 Baker began his practice in London with his partner Alexander Scott. Near the end of the most productive phase of his career, Baker received a knighthood, was elected to the
Royal Academy, had conferred on him the Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architectsin 1927, and received honorary degrees from Witwatersrand and Oxford Universities.
Baker died in
South Africa House, the South African High Commissionbuilding in Trafalgar Square, London
India House, Aldwych (1925-1930), the Indian High Commission, opened by King George V on 8 July 1930.
*The mansion of Port Lympne (now a zoo) in
Kentin south-east England
*One of the grandstands at
Lord's Cricket Groundin London; Baker presented the Marylebone Cricket Clubwith a weather vanein the shape of Father Time, which adorned his stand until it was replaced in 1996. The weather vane, now a famous symbol of the home of cricket, was moved to another stand at the ground.
*The North Range of
Downing CollegeCambridge. The design was based on that of the original architect of the college, Williams Wilkins, but 'changed the original design just enough to annoy' Fact|date=February 2007
*Rebuilding of the
Bank of England, London, demolishing most of Sir John Soane's original building. Described by Nikolaus Pevsnerin 'Buildings of England' as "the greatest architectural crime, in the City of London, of the twentieth century".
*The War Cloister in
Rhodes Housein Oxford, headquarters of the Rhodes Scholarships.
Following the First World War, Baker was approached to assist in the design of suitable monuments to the efforts of British Commonwealth soldiers. Out of this came the design for
Tyne Cot Cemetery, the largest British war cemetery in the world sited in Passchendaelenear Ypresin Belgium, unveiled in July 1927. Baker had earlier designed the war memorial at Winchester College, influences for which he carried over to his work on Tyne Cot.
Edward Grigg, Governor of Kenya from 1925 to 1931, invited Baker to visit Kenya in 1925.
Baker wrote: “The Governor and Director of Education were much concerned to provide a healthy education for the European youth under the conditions of the climate. So with their encouragement I designed a school at Nairobi with a crypt as a playground – like the undercroft of Wren’s library at
Trinity College, Cambridge, – where the boys could stay at mid-day instead of going home under the vertical rays of the sun. At the larger ‘public school’ at Kabete all the detached classrooms and houses were designed and built with connecting colonnades, in which respect I followed the excellent example set by [United States] President Jefferson in his beautiful University of Virginia.” The use of colonnades accords with advice given to Baker by T. E. Lawrence, who regarded the tropical sun as "an enemy" and told him “All pavements should be covered over with light vaulting.” The foundation stone was laid by Sir Edward Grigg on 24 September 1929, and the Prince of Wales Schoolwas opened in 1931 - (the original idea for the name of the school was Kabete Boys Secondary School, but the first headmaster, [http://www.oldcambrians.com/Nicholson.html Captain Bertram W. L. Nicholson] , thought this to be too clumsy and therefore the name of The Prince of Wales School was suggested and eventually adopted).
Other impressive buildings in Nairobi designed by Baker and completed with his assistant, Jan Hoogterp, include the Law Courts and Government House (now State House), described as a Palladian mansion. However, the building with the closest resemblance to the Prince of Wales School may well be Baker’s Government House (now State House) near the lighthouse at Ras Serani,
Mombasa. Not only has it “large columned loggias”, but it also has an archway, through which can be glimpsed the Indian Ocean, leading Baker to wax poetic: “One can live out between these columns both by day and night in the warm and soft sea air."
* [http://www.oldcambrians.com/Baker,SirHerbert.html Prince of Wales School, Nairobi]
Baker was the architect of a number of Cemeteries in France in the aftermath of the
First World War, including Delville Wood Cemetery and the nearby South African War Memorial, the London Cemetery and Extension, Adanac Military Cemetery for the Canadians, the AIF Burial Ground for the Australian Imperial Force, a memorial within the Caterpillar Valley Cemetery, Courcelette British Cemetery, Dantzig Alley British Cemetery, Flatiron Copse Cemetery, Guards Cemetery, Les Bouefs, Ovillers Military Cemetery and Quarry Cemetery. [http://www.thiepval.org.uk/thiepval.pdf]
Fairbridge Chapel was built at
Pinjarra, Western Australia in 1924 according to Herbert Baker's design, which he provided free of charge. The farm was started by Kingsley Fairbridgeas part of a scheme to help destitute English children improve their lot by emigration to Australia and Canada.
* [http://www.fairbridgekids.com/farm-recent-HTM/VRCHU01.htm Fairbridge Church, Pinjarra Western Australia]
* [http://www.api-network.com/main/index.php?apply=reviews&webpage=api_reviews&flexedit=&flex_password=&menu_label=&menuID=homely&menubox=&Review=5400 Review of book on Fairbridge Chapel]
* [http://www.westminster-abbey.org/faq/faq_burial.htm www.westminster-abbey.org]
* [http://www.joburg.org.za/november/baker.stm Herbert Baker walking tour in Johannesburg]
* [http://www.stgeorgescathedral.com/history.html St George's Cathedral, Cape Town]
* [http://www.lib.uct.ac.za/mss/baker/showsubj.php3 University of Cape Town Archives - Architectural drawings]
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Herbert baker (scénariste) — Herbert Baker est un scénariste américain né le 25 décembre 1920 à New York, New York (États Unis), décédé le 30 juin 1983 à Encino (États Unis). Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Filmographie … Wikipédia en Français
Herbert Baker (Alberta politician) — Infobox Politician (general) name= Herbert Baker imagesize=300 title= Alderman on the Edmonton City Council term start= December 13, 1926 term end= December 10, 1928 term start1= December 9, 1929 term end1= November 8, 1933 birth date= Birth… … Wikipedia
Herbert Baker (architecte) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Herbert Baker. Herbert Baker … Wikipédia en Français
Herbert Baker (scénariste) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Herbert Baker. Herbert Baker est un scénariste américain né le 25 décembre 1920 à New York, New York (États Unis), décédé le 30 juin 1983 à Encino (États Unis). Sommaire 1 … Wikipédia en Français
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