AA battery


AA battery
An AA size rechargeable cell

An AA battery is a standard size of battery. Batteries of this size are the most commonly used type of in portable electronic devices. An AA battery is composed of a single electrochemical cell. The exact terminal voltage and capacity of an AA size battery depends on the cell chemistry.

The AA battery size was standardized by the American National Standards Institute in 1947, but had been used in flashlights and electrical novelties for some time before formal standardization. Battery nomenclature gives different designations depending on cell size and chemistry. For example, a zinc–carbon (Leclanché) AA cell is designated "15" by ANSI, and R6 in the IEC system.

In 2011, AA batteries accounted for approximately 60% of alkaline primary (non-rechargeable) battery sales in the United States. In Japan, 58% of alkaline primary batteries sold were AA. In Switzerland, AA batteries totaled 55% in both primary and secondary(rechargeable) battery sales. [1] [2] [3]

  Zinc–carbon Alkaline Li-FeS2 NiCd NiMH NiZn
IEC name R6 LR6 FR6 KR6 HR6  ?
ANSI/NEDA name 15D 15A 15LF 1.2K2 1.2H2  ?
Capacity under 500mA constant drain 400-1000 mAh 1800-2600 mAh 2700-3400 mAh 600– 1000 mAh 2200–2900 mAh 1500-1800 mAh
Nominal voltage 1.50 V 1.50 V 1.50 V 1.25 V 1.25 V 1.65 V
Rechargeable No No No[4] Yes Yes Yes

Contents

Dimensions

D, C, AA, AAA, AAAA & 9-Volt batteries

An AA battery measures 51 mm (2.0 in) in length—50.1 mm (1.97 in) without the button terminal—and 13.5–14.5 mm (0.53–0.57 in) in diameter. [5]

Alkaline AA batteries have a mass of roughly 23 g (0.81 oz), lithium AA batteries have a mass around 15 g (0.53 oz), and rechargeable NiMH batteries around 31 g (1.1 oz).[citation needed]

Primary chemistry and capacity

Primary (non-rechargeable) zinc–carbon (Leclanché cell) AA batteries have around 400–900 milli amp-hours capacity, depending entirely on test conditions, duty cycle, and cut-off voltage selected. Zinc–carbon batteries are usually marketed as "general purpose" batteries. Zinc-chloride batteries store around 1000 to 1500 mAh are often sold as "heavy duty" or "super heavy duty". Alkaline batteries from 1700 mAh to 3000 mAh cost a little more than zinc-chloride batteries, but last proportionally longer.

Non-rechargeable lithium batteries are manufactured for devices that drain a large amount of power such as digital cameras, where their high cost is offset by longer running time between battery changes.

Rechargeable chemistry and capacity

A solar-powered charger for rechargeable AA batteries

Rechargeable Nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd or NiCad) AAs with a capacity of 500 – 1100 mAh are available, cost increasing with capacity. Nickel–metal hydride (NiMH) AAs are also available in various capacities of 1300 – 3000 mAh.

Low self-discharge NiMh batteries are also made in the AA size.

Rechargeable AA-sized batteries based on Li-ion chemistry have also been introduced. These batteries are rated at 3.6 volts and are incompatible with most AA-based devices.[6] AA lithiums have a relatively low internal resistance that effectively provides very high current if shorted. Equipment designed to rely on a battery's internal resistance to limit current may not tolerate higher inrush current with lithium cells.

Where space permits, a pair of AA batteries can sometimes be replaced by a single CR-V3 battery. [7]

See also

References

External links


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