- Grammatical conjugation
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, or other grammatical categories. All the different forms of the same verb constitute a lexeme and the form of the verb that is conventionally used to represent the canonical form of the verb (one as seen in dictionary entries) is a lemma. Inflection of nouns and adjectives is known as declension.
Conjugated forms of a verb are called finite forms. In many languages there are also one or more forms that remain unchanged with all or most of grammatical categories: the non-finite forms, such as the infinitive or the gerund. A table giving all the conjugated variants of a verb in a given language is called a conjugation table or a verb paradigm.
A regular verb has a set of conventions for conjugation (paradigm) that derives all forms from a few specific forms or principal parts (maybe only one, such as the infinitive in English), in spelling or pronunciation. A verb that has conjugations deviating from this convention is said to be an irregular verb. Typically the principal parts are the root and/or several modifications of it (stems).
Conjugation is also the traditional name of a group of verbs that share a similar conjugation pattern in a particular language (a verb class). This is the sense in which teachers say that Latin has four conjugations of verbs. This means that any regular Latin verb can be conjugated in any person, number, tense, mood, and voice by knowing which of the four conjugation groups it belongs to, and its principal parts.
In Latin the present conjugation is o, s, t, mus, tis, nt, which respectively means I__, You (singular) __, He/she/it__, we__, you (plural)__, they__. Indo-European languages usually inflect verbs for several grammatical categories in complex paradigms, although some, like English, have simplified verb conjugation to a large extent. Afrikaans and Swedish have gone even further and virtually abandoned verb conjugation altogether. Below is the conjugation of the verb to be in the present tense (of the infinitive, if it exists, and indicative moods), in English, German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Icelandic, Swedish, Latvian, Bulgarian, Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Polish, Slovenian, Hindi, Persian, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Albanian, Armenian, Ancient Attic Greek and Modern Greek. This is usually the most irregular verb. The similarities in corresponding verb forms may be noticed. Some of the conjugations may be disused, like the English thou-form, or have additional meanings, like the English you-form, which can also stand for second person singular or be impersonal.
"To be" in several Indo-European languages Branch Language Present
Present indicative Singular persons Plural persons 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Germanic English be am are
is are German sein bin bist ist sind seid sind Dutch zijn ben bent
is zijn zijn
zijn Afrikaans wees is Icelandic vera er ert er erum eruð eru Swedish vara är är(o) Italic Latin esse sum es est sumus estis sunt Italian essere sono sei è siamo siete sono French être suis es est sommes êtes sont Spanish ser soy eres es somos sois son Portuguese ser sou és é somos sois são Romanian fi sunt ești este suntem sunteți sunt Greek Ancient2
Albanian none4 jam je është
jemi jeni janë Armenian Western
Slavic Czech být jsem jsi je jsme jste jsou Slovak byť som si je sme ste sú Polish być jestem jesteś jest jesteśmy jesteście są Serbian strong
Croatian strong biti jesam jesi jest(e) jesmo jeste jesu Croatian clitic none sam si je smo ste su Slovenian biti sem si je smo ste so Bulgarian
Baltic Latvian būt esmu esi ir esam esat ir Lithuanian būti esu esi yra esame esate yra Indo-Iranian Persian būdan hastam
Hindi hũũ hai hai hãĩ ho hãĩ
- 1In Flemish dialects.
- 2 Attic.
- 3 'eínai' is only used as a noun ("being, existence").
- 4 Ptc: qenë.
- 5 In the Tosk and Geg dialects, respectively.
Verbal agreement or concord is a morpho-syntactic construct in which properties of the subject and/or objects of a verb are indicated by the verb form. Verbs are then said to agree with their subjects (resp. objects).
Many English verbs exhibit subject agreement of the following sort: whereas I go, you go, we go, they go are all grammatical in standard English, she go is not. Instead, a special form of the verb to go has to be used to produce she goes. On the other hand I goes, you goes etc. are not grammatical in standard English. (Things are different in some English dialects that lack agreement.) A few English verbs have no special forms that indicate subject agreement (I may, you may, she may), and the verb to be has an additional form am that can only be used with the pronoun I as the subject.
Verbs in written French exhibit more intensive agreement morphology than English verbs: je suis (I am), tu es ("you are", singular informal), elle est (she is), nous sommes (we are), vous êtes ("you are", plural), ils sont (they are). Historically, English used to have a similar verbal paradigm. Some historic verb forms are used by Shakespeare as slightly archaic or more formal variants (I do, thou dost, she doth, typically used by nobility) of the modern forms.
Some languages with verbal agreement can leave certain subjects implicit when the subject is fully determined by the verb form. In Spanish, for instance, subject pronouns do not need to be explicitly present, even though in French, its close relative, they are obligatory. The Spanish equivalent to the French je suis (I am) can be simply soy (lit. "am"). The pronoun yo (I) in the explicit form yo soy is only required for emphasis or to clear ambiguity in complex texts.
Some languages have a richer agreement system in which verbs also agree with some or all of their objects. Ubykh exhibits verbal agreement for the subject, direct object, indirect object, benefaction and ablative objects (a.w3.s.xe.n.t'u.n, you gave it to him for me).
Basque can show agreement not only for subject, direct object and indirect object, but it also on occasion exhibits agreement for the listener as the implicit benefactor: autoa ekarri digute means "they brought us the car" (neuter agreement for listener), but autoa ekarri ziguten means "they brought us the car" (agreement for feminine singular listener).
Languages with a rich agreement morphology facilitate relatively free word order without leading to increased ambiguity. The canonical word order in Basque is subject–object–verb. However, all permutations of subject, verb and object are permitted.
Nonverbal person agreement
In some languages, predicative adjectives and copular complements receive a form of person agreement that is distinct from that used on ordinary predicative verbs. Although this is a form of conjugation in that it refers back to the person of the subject, it is not “verbal” because it always derives from pronouns that have become cliticised to the nouns to which they refer. An example of nonverbal person agreement, along with contrasting verbal conjugation, can be found from Beja (person agreement morphemes in bold):
- wun.tu.wi, “you (fem.) are big”
- hadá.b.wa, “you (masc.) are a sheik”
- e.n.fór, “he flees”
- fèmba.di, “I am a Tungus”
- dɨ.fen, “I am standing”
In Turkic, and a few Uralic and Australian Aboriginal languages, predicative adjectives and copular complements take affixes that are identical to those used on predicative verbs, but their negation is different. For example, in Turkish:
- koş.u.yor.sun “you are running”
- çavuş.sun “you are a sergeant”
but under negation this becomes (negative morphemes boldface):
- koş.mu.yor.sun “you are not running”
- çavuş değil.sin “you are not a sergeant”
For this reason, the person agreement morphemes used with predicative adjectives and nominals in Turkic languages are considered to be nonverbal in character. In some analyses, they are viewed as a form of verbal takeover by a copular strategy.
Factors that affect conjugation
Common grammatical categories according to which verbs can be conjugated are the following:
- Finite verb forms:
- Non-finite verb forms.
Other factors which may affect conjugation are:
- Degree of formality (see T-V distinction, Honorific speech in Japanese)
- Inclusiveness and exclusiveness in the 1st. person plural
Conjugations by language
- Indo-European copula
- Agreement (linguistics)
- Redundancy (language)
- Strong inflection
- Verb argument
- Volition (linguistics)
- Weak inflection
- Conjugations at Wiktionary, Wikipedia's sister project
- the conjugation English,Spanish and French conjugator.
- Onoma Spanish conjugator. It provides information about the irregularities and conjugates invented verbs.
- Excellent English Verb Conjugation Site All verbs - all forms - all tenses, Many variants, No mistakes: www.conjugation.com
- English Verb Conjugations • English verb phonetic and orthographic constraints
- Lexicon of Linguistics: Conjugation
- Verbix (Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, English, &c.)
- Multi-Language conjugation (English and Portuguese)
- French conjugation (More 12000 verbs)
- Italian Verbs Coniugator and Analyzer Regular and Irregular Verbs, and also Neologisms
- spanish.verbconjugation.net shows you how to conjugate Spanish verbs
- Korean conjugation A Korean verb conjugation tool that explains the conjugations for learners of Korean
- Online verb conjugation online English, Spanish, Italian, French and German verb conjugation
- Kaso Verb Conjugation System (FOSS) Side by side conjugations in English, Italian, and Spanish
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