- Higher Life movement
The Higher Life movement was a movement devoted to Christian holiness in
England. Its name comes from a book by William Boardman, entitled The "Higher Christian Life", which was published in 1858. The movement is sometimes referred to as the Keswick movement, because it was promoted at conventions in that town, which continue to this day.
The main idea of the Higher Life movement is that the Christian should move on from his initial conversion experience to also experience a second work of God in his life. This work of God is called “entire
sanctification,” “the second blessing,” “the second touch,” “being filled with the Holy Spirit,” and various other terms. Higher Life teachers promoted the idea that Christians who had received this blessing from God could live a more holy, that is less sinful or even a sinless, life. This teaching has its roots in John Wesley’s doctrine of Christian perfection.
The Higher Life movement was precipitated by The American
Holiness movement, which had been gradually springing up, but made a definite appearance in the mid-1830’s. It was at this time that Methodists in the northeastern United States and non-Methodists at Oberlin Collegein Ohiobegan to accept and promote the Wesleyan doctrine of Christian perfection or entire sanctification. The American Holiness movement began to spread to England in the 1840’s and 1850’s. Methodist evangelist James Caughey, as well as Presbyterian Asa Mahanand Presbyterian-turned-Congregationalist Charles Finneybegan to teach the concept to evangelical churches in England and then in Irelandand Scotland.
Soon after these initial infusions of Holiness ideas, Dr.
Walter Palmerand his wife Phoebe Palmerof New York Citywent to England in the 1850’s and 1860’s to promote them. Oddly enough, they were banned from ministering in Wesleyan Churches, even though they were promoting Wesleyan doctrines and were themselves Methodist. During their time in England many people experienced initial conversion and many more who were already converted believed that they had received entire sanctification.
In the 1870’s William Boardman, author of "The Higher Christian Life" began his own evangelistic campaign in England, bringing with him
Robert Pearsall Smithand his wife, Hannah Whitall Smith, to help spread the Holiness message.
On May 1st 1873, Rev'd
William Haslamintroduced Robert Pearsall Smith to a small meeting of Anglican clergymen held at Curzon Chapel, Mayfair, London. Two men whose lives were revolutionised by what they heard were Evan Henry Hopkinsand Edward William Moore[ [http://williamhaslam.org/board/viewtopic.php?p=883#883 William Haslam and the Keswick Movement] - cited in a forum on the William Haslam website.] .
Little by little, Methodist churches in the
Londonarea became open to the concept of Christian holiness, which was their rightful inheritance from their founder. Robert Pearsall Smith warned them that they would end up falling behind other churches who had embraced the movement, and they began to invite Higher Life teachers to explain the doctrine to them.
The first large-scale Higher Life meetings took place from July 17-23, 1874, at the Broadlands estate of Lord and Lady Mount Temple. The meetings were held primarily for Christian students at Cambridge University. At the end of these meetings, Sir Arthur Blackwood, Earl of Chichester and president of the Church Missionary Society, suggested that another series of meetings for the promotion of holiness be conducted at
Oxfordlater that summer. A Convention for the Promotion of Holiness was held at Brightonfrom May 29-June 7, 1875. The prominent American evangelist Dwight L. Moodytold his London audiences that the Brighton meeting was to be a very important one. About eight thousand people attended it. T. D. Harford-Battersby attended this convention and made arrangements to have one in his parish in Keswick. He was the recognized leader of this annual convention for several years until his death.
A gradual distinction developed between traditional Methodists and the newer Keswick speakers. Keswick took on a more Calvinistic tone, as Keswick preachers took pains to distance themselves from the Wesleyan doctrine of eradication (the doctrine that original sin could be completely extinguished from the Christian soul prior to death). Keswick speakers began using the term "counteraction" to describe the Holy Spirit's effect on original sin, often comparing it to how air pressure counteracts gravity in lifting an airplane. Modern Wesleyan-Arminian theologians regard the Keswick theology as something different from their own dogma of entire sanctification.
Harford-Battersby organized and led the first
Keswick Conventionin 1875. Over four hundred people met under the banner of “All One in Christ Jesus.” British speakers included Anglicans, such as the J. W. Webb-Peploe, Evan H. Hopkins, and Handley Moule, as well as Frederick Brotherton Meyer, a Baptist, and Robert Wilson, a Friend. An annual convention has met in Keswick ever since and has had worldwide influence on Christianity.
Columbia Bible College and Seminary (Columbia, SC) was founded by one of the early leaders of the American Keswick movement, Robert C. McQuilkin. His son, Robertson McQuilkin, contributed the Keswick chapter to the book "Five Views of Sanctification."
Keswick doctrine has been sharply criticized as a disguised form of perfectionism by other Christian traditions, particularly the Reformed. Princeton theologian B.B. Warfield wrote a trenchant attack on the Keswick doctrine that is still referenced today in Reformed circles. Such a critique is included in one of
J. I. Packer's books.
*Harford, C. F., ed. "The Keswick Convention; its Message, its Method and its Men", London, 1907.
*Harford-Battersby, T. D. "Memoirs of the Keswick Convention", 1890.
*Hopkins, E. H., "The Story of Keswick", London, 1892.
*Pierson, A. T., "The Keswick Movement", New York.
*B.B. Warfield, "Perfectionism", Philadelphia, 1958, ISBN 0-87552-528-8.
*Robertson McQuilkin, "The Keswick View: Five Views of Sanctification", ISBN 0-310-21269-3 Zondervan Pub.
*Pollock, J. C., "A Cambridge Movement", London, John Murray, 1953.
*Packer, J. I., "Keep In Step With The Spirit", 1984, ISBN 0-8010-6558-5. — See chapter 4.
Cambridge Inter-Collegiate Christian Unionwhich can (in part) trace its beginnings to the meetings at Broadlands in 1874.
Quietism (Christian philosophy)which through T. C. Upham's biography (1854) of Madame Guyonwas a significant influence on holiness-oriented circles in the second half of the nineteenth century.
* [http://dbts.edu/5-1/5-14.asp#08 Audio-visual material on Keswick theology ] by [http://andynaselli.com/theology/keswick-theology Andrew David Naselli] , whose Ph.D. dissertation is entitled “Keswick Theology: A Historical and Theological Survey and Analysis of the Doctrine of Sanctification in the Early Keswick Movement, 1875–1920"
* [http://www.slts.edu/Documents/Article_Packer_CritiquesKeswick.rtf A Critique of the Keswick Movement] taken (by the author's permission) from "Keep in Step with the Spirit" by J. I. Packer.
* [http://www.babylonfalls.org/forchristians/exchangedlife11july06.html "The Exchanged Life."] Is it possible to consistently enjoy an abundant, victorious Christian life?
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Singapore Dads for Life movement — Dads for Life (DFL) is a national men s movement in Singapore promoting active fatherhood. Contents 1 History 2 Effects of Father Involvement 3 Organisation … Wikipedia
Church of the Higher Life — Part of a series on related to New Thought Beliefs … Wikipedia
Life — • The enigma of life is still one of the two or three most difficult problems that face both scientist and philosopher Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Life Life … Catholic encyclopedia
Higher education in China — is continuously growing, changing and developing. There are over 2,000 universities and colleges, with more than six million enrollments in total. China has set up a degree system, including Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral degrees that are… … Wikipedia
Life extension — refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. Average lifespan is determined by vulnerability to accidents and age related afflictions such as cancer or… … Wikipedia
Higher self — is a term associated with multiple belief systems and with eternal, conscious, and intelligent being. The term has been popularized by new age and new religious movements (Neopaganism); however, it is used by many different groups and can… … Wikipedia
Higher education in Nova Scotia — (also referred to as post secondary education) refers to education provided by higher education institutions in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. In Canada, education is the responsibility of the provinces and there is no Canadian federal… … Wikipedia
Life Teen — is a Catholic youth ministry organization and movement originating in the United States. It was established in 1985 at St. Timothy s Parish in Mesa, Arizona. Pastor Fr. Dale Fushek, Youth Minister Phil Baniewicz, and Music Minister Tom Booth came … Wikipedia
Life Pacific College — was originally founded in Echo Park, Los Angeles, California, in 1923 as Echo Park Evangelistic and Missionary Training Institute by Aimee Semple McPherson. Its name was changed to LIFE Bible College in 1926 upon moving into a newly constructed… … Wikipedia
Life Sciences — ▪ 2009 Introduction Zoology In 2008 several zoological studies provided new insights into how species life history traits (such as the timing of reproduction or the length of life of adult individuals) are derived in part as responses to… … Universalium