- History of Central Asia
The history of Central Asia has been determined primarily by the area's
climateand geography. The aridity of the region makes agriculturedifficult, and its distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region. Nomadic horse peoples of the steppedominated the area for millennia.
Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around
Central Asiawere marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, due to the devastating techniques and ability of their horse archers. [O'Connell, Robert L.: "Soul of the Sword.", page 51. The Free Press, New York, 2002.] Periodically, tribal leaders or changing conditions would organize several tribes into a single military force. A few of these tribal coalitions included the Huns' invasion of Europe, Turkic migrations into Transoxiana, the Wu Huattacks on China and most notably the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia.
The dominance of the nomads ended in the
16th centuryas firearms allowed settled people to gain control of the region. The Russian Empire, the Qing Dynastyof China, and other powers expanded into the area and seized the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union incorporated most of Central Asia; only Mongoliaand Afghanistanremained nominally independent, although Mongolia existed as a Soviet satellite stateand Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in the late 20th century. The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialisationand construction of infrastructure, but also the suppression of local cultures and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, five Central Asian countries gained independence. In all of the new states, former
Communist partyofficials retained power as local strongmen.
Recent genetic studies have concluded that humans arrived in the region 40,000 to 50,000 years ago, making the region one of the oldest known sites of human habitation. The archaeological evidence of population in this region is sparse, whereas evidence of human habitation in
Africaand Australiaprior to that of Central Asia is well-known. Some studies have also identified this region as the likeliest source of the populations who later inhabited Europe, Siberia, and North America. [ [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/PNAS_2001_v98_p10244.pdf The report on the genetic study of Central Asians] , [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1502189.stm A BBC article summarizing these findings] .] The region is also often considered to be the source of the root of the Indo-European languages.
As early as 4500 BCE, small communities had developed permaneant settlements and began to engage in agricultural practices as well as herding. Around this time, some of these communities began the
domestication of the horse. Initially, the horses were bred solely for their meat, as a source of food. However, by 4000 BCE it is believed that they were used for transportation purposes; wheeled wagons began making an appearance during this time. Once the utility of the horse as a means of transportation became clear the horses (actually ponies) began being bred for strength, and by the 3rd millennium BCE they were strong enough to pull chariots. By 2000 BCE, war chariots had spoked wheels, thus being made more manoeuverable, and dominated the battlefields. The growing use of the horse, combined with the failure, roughly around 2000 BCE, of the always precarious irrigation systems that had allowed for extensive agriculture in the region, gave rise and dominance of pastoral nomadismby 1000 BCE, a way of life that would dominate the region for the next several millennia.
Scattered nomadic groups maintained herds of sheep, goats, horses, and camels, and conducted annual migrations to find new pastures (a practice known as
transhumance). The people lived in yurts (or gers) - tents made of hides and wood that could be disassembled and transported. Each group had several yurts, each accommodating about five people.
While the semi-arid plains were dominated by the nomads, small city-states and sedentary agrarian societies arose in the more humid areas of Central Asia. The
Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complexof the early 2nd millennium BCE was the first sedentary civilizationof the region, practicing irrigation farming of wheatand barleyand possibly a form of writing. Bactria-Margiana probably interacted with the contemporary Bronze Agenomads of the Andronovo culture, the originators of the spoke-wheeled chariot, who lived to their north in western Siberia, Russia, and parts of Kazakhstan, and survived as a culture until the 1st millennium BCE. These cultures, particularly Bactria-Margiana, have been posited as possible representatives of the hypothetical Aryanculture ancestral to the speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages(see Indo-Iranians), and possibly the Uralicand Altaiccultures as well.
Later the strongest of
Sogdiancity states of the Fergana Valleyrose to prominence. After the 1st century BCE, these cities became home to the traders of the Silk Roadand grew wealthy from this trade. The steppe nomads were dependent on these settled people for a wide array of goods that were impossible for transient populations to produce. The nomads traded for these when they could, but because they generally did not produce goods of interest to sedentary people, the popular alternative was to carry out raids.
A wide variety of people came to populate the steppes. Nomadic groups in Central Asia included the
Hunsand other Turks, the Tocharians, Persians, Scythians and other Indo-Europeans, and a number of Mongol groups. Despite these ethnic and linguistic differences, the steppe lifestyle led to the adoption of very similar culture across the region.
In the 2nd and 1st millennia BCE, a series of large and powerful states developed on the southern periphery of Central Asia (the
Ancient Near East). These empires launched several attempts to conquer the steppe people, but met with only mixed success.Fact|date=February 2007 The Median Empire and Achaemenid Empireboth ruled parts of Central Asia. XiongnuEmpire maybe seen as the first central Asian empire which set an example for later Tujueand Mongol empire. Following the success of Sino-Xiongnu War, Chinese states would also regularly strive to extend their power westwards. Despite their military might, these states found it difficult to conquer the whole region. When faced by a stronger force, the nomads could simply retreat deep into the steppe and wait for the invaders to leave. With no cities and little wealth other than the herds they brought with them the nomads had nothing they could be forced to defend. An example of this is given by Herodotus's detailed account of the futile Persian campaigns against the Scythians. The Scythians, like most nomad empires, had permanent settlements of various sizes, representing various degrees of civilization.Herodotus, IV, [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin///ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0126&layout=&loc=4.83.1 83-144] ] The vast fortified settlement of Kamenkaon the DnieperRiver, settled since the end of the 5th century BC, became the centre of the Scythian kingdom ruled by Ateas, who lost his life in a battle against Philip II of Macedonin 339 BC.cite encyclopedia|title=Central Asia, history of|encyclopedia=Encyclopaedia Britannica|year=2002]
Some empires, such as the Persian and
Macedonian empires, did make deep inroads into Central Asia by founding cities and gaining control of the trading centres. Alexander the Great's conquests spread Hellenistic civilizationall the way to Alexandria Eschate(Lit. “Alexandria the Furthest”), established in 329 BCE in modern Tajikistan. After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, his Central Asian territory fell to the Seleucid Empireduring the Wars of the Diadochi. In 250 BCE, the Central Asian portion of the empire ( Bactria) seceded as the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, which had extensive contacts with India and China till its end in 125 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom, mostly based in the Punjab but controlling a fair part of Afghanistan, pioneered the development of Greco-Buddhism. The Kushan Kingdomthrived across a wide swath of the region from the Second Century BCE to the Fourth Century AD, and continued Hellenistic and Buddhist traditions. These states prospered from their position on the Silk Roadlinking China and Europe. Later, external powers such as Sassanid Empire would come to dominate this trade.
One of those powers, the
Parthian Empirewas of Central Asian origin, but adopted Persian cultural traditions. This is an early example of a recurring theme of Central Asian history: occasionally nomads of Central Asian origin would conquer the kingdoms and empires surrounding the region, but quickly merge into the culture of their conquered peoples.
At this time Central Asia was a heterogeneous region with a mixture of cultures and religions. Buddhism remained the largest religion, but was concentrated in the east. Around Persia,
Zoroastrianismbecame important. Nestorian Christianity entered the area, but was never more than a minority faith. More successful was Manichaeism, which became the third largest faith. Many Central Asians practiced more than one faith, and almost all of the local religions were infused with local shamanistic traditions. Turkic expansionbegan in the 6th century, and following the Göktürkemipre, Turkic tribes quickly spread westward across all of Central Asia. The Turkic speaking Uyghurs were one of many distinct cultural groups brought together by the trade of the Silk Route at Turfan in Chinese Central Asia. The Uyghurs, primarily pastoral nomads, observed a number of religions including Manichaeism, Buddhism, and Nestorian Christianity. Many of the artifacts from this period were found in the 19th century in this remote desert region of China.
In the eighth century, Islam began to penetrate the region and soon became the sole faith of most of the population, though Buddhism remained strong in the east. The desert nomads of Arabia could militarily match the nomads of the steppe, and the early
Arab Empiregained control over parts of Central Asia. The Arabinvasion also saw Chinese influence expelled from western Central Asia. At the Battle of Talasan Arab army decisively defeated a Tang Dynastyforce and for the next several centuries Middle Eastern influences would dominate the region.
Return of indigenous rule
Over time, as new technologies were introduced, the nomadic horsemen grew in power. The
Scythiansdeveloped the saddle, and by the time of the Alansthe use of the stirruphad begun. Horses continued to grow larger and sturdier so that chariots were no longer needed as the horses could carry men with ease. This greatly increased the mobility of the nomads; it also freed their hands, allowing them to use the bow from horseback. Using small but powerful composite bows, the steppe people gradually became the most powerful military force in the world. From a young age, almost the entire male population was trained in riding and archery, both of which were necessary skills for survival on the steppe. By adulthood, these activities were second nature. These mounted archers were more mobile than any other force at the time, being able to travel forty miles a day with ease.
The steppe peoples quickly came to dominate Central Asia, forcing the scattered city states and kingdoms to pay them tribute or face annihilation. The martial ability of the steppe peoples was limited, however, by the lack of political structure within the tribes. Confederations of various groups would sometimes form under a ruler known as a khan. When large numbers of nomads acted in unison they could be devastating, as when the
Hunsarrived in Western Europe. However, tradition dictated that any dominion conquered in such wars should be divided among all of the khan's sons, so these empires often declined as quickly as they formed.
Once the foreign powers were expelled, several indigenous empires formed in Central Asia. The
Hephthaliteswere the most powerful of these nomad groups in the sixth and seventh century and controlled much of the region. In the tenth and eleventh centuries the region was divided between several powerful states including the Samanid dynasty, that of the Seljuk Turks, and the Khwarezmid Empire. The most spectacular power to rise out of Central Asia developed when Genghis Khanunited the tribes of Mongolia. Using superior military techniques, the Mongol Empirespread to comprise almost all of Central Asia, as well as large parts of China, Russia, and the Middle East. After Genghis Khan died in 1227, most of Central Asia continued to be dominated by the successor Chagatai Khanate. This state proved to be short lived, as in 1369 Timur, a Turkic leader in the Mongol military tradition, conquered most of the region.
Even harder than keeping a steppe empire together was governing conquered lands outside the region. While the steppe peoples of Central Asia found conquest of these areas easy, they found governing almost impossible. The diffuse political structure of the steppe confederacies was maladapted to the complex states of the settled peoples. Moreover, the armies of the nomads were based upon large numbers of horses, generally three or four for each warrior. Maintaining these forces required large stretches of grazing land, not present outside the steppe. Any extended time away from the homeland would thus cause the steppe armies to gradually disintegrate. To govern settled peoples the steppe peoples were forced to rely on the local bureaucracy, a factor that would lead to the rapid assimilation of the nomads into the culture of those they had conquered. Another important limit was that the armies, for the most part, were unable to penetrate the forested regions to the north; thus, such states as Novgorod and
Muscovybegan to grow in power.
In the fourteenth century much of Central Asia, and many areas beyond it, were conquered by Timur (1336-1405) who is known in the west as Tamerlane. It was during Timur’s reign that the nomadic steppe culture of Central Asia fused with the settled culture of Iran. One of its consequences was an entirely new visual language that glorified Timur and subsequent Timurid rulers. This visual language was also used to articulate their commitment to Islam. [ [http://www.turks.org.uk/] A Journey of a Thousand Years ] Timur's large empire collapsed soon after his death, however. The region then became divided among a series of smaller Khanates, including the
Khanate of Khiva, the Khanate of Bukhara, the Khanate of Kokand, and the Khanate of Kashgar.
Conquest of the steppes
The lifestyle that had existed largely unchanged since 500 BCE began to disappear after 1500. An important change in the world economy in the fourteenth and fifteenth century was brought about by the development of nautical technology. Ocean trade routes were pioneered by the Europeans, who were cut off from the
Silk Roadby the Muslim states that controlled its western termini. The trade between East Asia, India, Europe, and the Middle East began to move over the seas and not through Central Asia. The disunity of the region after the end of the Mongol Empire also made trade and travel far more difficult and the Silk Road went into steep decline.
An even more important development was the introduction of
gunpowder-based weapons. The gunpowder revolution allowed settled peoples to defeat the steppe horsemen in open battle for the first time. Construction of these weapons required the infrastructure and economies of large societies and were thus impractical for nomadic peoples to produce. The domain of the nomads began to shrink as, beginning in the fifteenth century, the settled powers gradually began to conquer Central Asia.
The last steppe empire to emerge was that of the
Dzungarswho conquered much of East Turkestanand Mongolia. However in a sign of the changed times they proved unable to match the Chinese and were decisively defeated by the forces of Qing Dynasty. In the eighteenth century the Qing emperors, themselves originally from the far east edge of the steppe, campaigned in the west and in Mongolia with the Qianlong Emperortaking control of Xinjiangin 1758. The Mongol threat was overcome and much of Inner Mongoliawas annexed to China. The Chinese dominions stretched into the heart of Central Asia and included the Khanate of Kokand, which paid tribute to Peking. Outer Mongolia and Xinjiang did not become provinces of the Chinese empire, but rather were directly administered by the Qing dynasty. The fact that there was no provincial governor meant that the local rulers retained most of their powers and this special status also prevented emigration from the rest of China into the region. Persia also began to expand north, especially under the rule of Nadir Shahwho extended Persian dominion far past the Oxus. After his death, however, the Persian empire slowly crumbled and was annexed by Britain and Russia.
The Russians also expanded south, first with the transformation of the Ukrainian steppe into an agricultural heartland, and subsequently onto the fringe of the Kazakh steppes, beginning with the foundation of the fortress of
Orenburg. The slow Russian conquest of the heart of Central Asia began in the early nineteenth century, although Peter the Great had sent a failed expedition under Prince Bekovitch-Cherkasskyagainst Khivaas early as the 1720s. By the 1800s, the locals could do little to resist the Russian advance, although the Kazakhs of the Great Horde under Kenesary Kasimovrose in rebellion from 1837 - 46. Until the 1870s, for the most part, Russian interference was minimal, leaving native ways of life intact and local government structures in place. With the conquest of Turkestanafter 1865 and the consequent securing of the frontier, the Russians gradually expropriated large parts of the steppe and gave these lands to Russian farmers, who began to arrive in large numbers. This process was initially limited to the northern fringes of the steppe and it was only in the 1890s that significant numbers of Russians began to settle farther south, especially in Zhetysu(Semirechye).
Foreign control of Turkestan
The forces of the
khanateswere poorly equipped and could do little to resist Russia's advances, although the Kokandian commander Alimqulled a quixotic campaign before being killed outside Chimkent. The main opposition to Russian expansion into Turkestan came from the British, who felt that Russia was growing too powerful and threatening the northwest frontiers of British India. This rivalry came to be known as The Great Game, where both powers competed to advance their own interests in the region. It did little to slow the pace of conquest north of the Oxus, but did ensure that Afghanistanremained independent as a buffer statebetween the two Empires.
After the fall of
Tashkentto General Cherniaevin 1865, Khodjend, Djizak, and Samarkandfell to the Russians in quick succession over the next three years as the Khanate of Kokandand the Emirate of Bukharawere repeatedly defeated. In 1867 the Governor-Generalship of Russian Turkestanwas established under General Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman, with its headquarters at Tashkent. In 1881-85 the Transcaspian region was annexed in the course of a campaign led by Generals Mikhail Annenkovand Mikhail Skobelev, and Ashkhabad, Mervand Pendjehall came under Russian control. Russian expansion was halted in 1887 when Russia and Great Britain delineated the northern border of Afghanistan. Bukharaand the Khanate of Khivaremained quasi-independent, but were essentially protectorates along the lines of the Princely Statesof British India. Although the conquest was prompted by almost purely military concerns, in the 1870s and 1880s Turkestan came to play a reasonably important economic role within the Russian Empire. Because of the American Civil War, cottonshot up in price in the 1860s, becoming an increasingly important commodity in the region, although its cultivation was on a much lesser scale than during the Soviet period. The cotton trade led to improvements: the Transcaspian Railwayfrom Krasnovodskto Samarkand and Tashkent, and the Trans-Aral Railwayfrom Orenburgto Tashkent were constructed. In the long term the development of a cotton monoculture would render Turkestan dependent on food imports from Western Siberia, and the Turkestan-Siberia Railwaywas already planned when the First World Warbroke out. Russian rule still remained distant from the local populace, mostly concerning itself with the small minority of Russian inhabitants of the region. The local Muslims were not considered full Russian citizens. They did not have the full privileges of Russians, but nor did they have the same obligations, such as military service. The Tsarist regime left substantial elements of the previous regimes (such as Muslimreligious courts) intact, and local self-government at the village level was quite extensive.
During the 17th and 18th Centuries the
Qing Dynastymade several campaigns to conquer DzungarsMongols. In the meantime,they incorporated parts of central Asia into the Chinese Empire.Internal turmoil largely halted Chinese expansion in the nineteenth century. In 1867 Yakub Begled a rebellion that saw Xinjiang regain its independence as the Taiping and Nian Rebellions in the heartland of the Empire prevented the Chinese from reasserting their control. Instead the Russians expanded, annexing the Chuand IliValleys and the city of Kuldjafrom the Chinese Empire. After Yakub Beg's death at Korlain 1877 his state collapsed as the area was reconquered by China. After lengthy negotiations Kuldjawas returned to Peking by Russia in 1884.
Revolution and revolt
First World Warthe Muslim exemption from conscription was removed by the Russians, sparking the Central Asian Revoltof 1916. When the Russian Revolution of 1917occurred, a provisional Government of JadidReformers, also known as the Turkestan Muslim Councilmet in Kokandand declared Turkestan's autonomy. This new government was quickly crushed by the forces of the Tashkent Soviet, and the semi-autonomous states of Bukhara and Khiva were also invaded. The main independence forces were rapidly crushed, but guerrillas known as basmachicontinued to fight the Communists until 1924. Mongoliawas also swept up by the Russian Revolution and, though it never became a Soviet republic, it became a communist People's Republicin 1924.
There was some threat of a
Red Armyinvasion of Chinese Turkestan, but instead the governor agreed to cooperate with the Soviets. The creation of the Republic of Chinain 1911 and the general turmoil in China affected its holdings in Central Asia. Kuomintangcontrol of the region was weak and there was a dual threat from Islamic separatists and communists. Eventually the region became largely independent under the control of the provincial governor. Rather than invade, the Soviet Unionestablished a network of consulates in the region and sent aid and technical advisors. By the 1930s, the governor of Xinjiang's relationship with Moscow was far more important than that with Nanking. The Chinese Civil Warfurther destabilized the region and saw Turkic nationalists make attempts at independence. In 1933, the First East Turkistan Republicwas declared, but it was destroyed soon after with the aid of the Soviet troops. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Governor Sheng Shicaiof Xinjiang gambled and broke his links to Moscow, moving to ally himself with the Kuomintang. This led to a civil war within the region. Sheng was eventually forced to flee and the Soviet backed Second East Turkistan Republicwas formed. This state was annexed by the People's Republic of Chinain 1949.
oviet and PRC domination
After being conquered by
Bolshevikforces, Soviet Central Asiaexperienced a flurry of administrative reorganization. In 1918 the Bolsheviks set up the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, and Bukhara and Khiva also became SSRs. In 1919 the Conciliatory Commission for Turkestan Affairs was established, to try to improve relations between the locals and the Communists. New policies were introduced, respecting local customs and religion. In 1920, the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, covering modern Kazakhstan, was set up. It was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republicin 1925. In 1924, the Soviets created the Uzbek SSRand the Turkmen SSR. In 1929 the Tajik SSRwas split from the Uzbek SSR. The Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblastbecame an SSR in 1936.
These borders had little to do with ethnic makeup, but the Soviets felt it important to divide the region. They saw both
Pan-Turkismand Pan-Islamismas threats, which dividing Turkestan would limit. Under the Soviets, the local languages and cultures were systematized and codified, and their differences clearly demarcated and encouraged. New Cyrillicwriting systems were introduced, to break links with Turkey and Iran. Under the Soviets the southern border was almost completely closed and all travel and trade was directed north through Russia.
Stalinat least a million persons died, mostly in the Kazakh SSR, during the period of forced collectivization. Islam, as well as other religions, were also attacked. In the Second World Warseveral million refugees and hundreds of factories were moved to the relative security of Central Asia; and the region permanently became an important part of the Soviet industrial complex. Several important military facilities were also located in the region, including nuclear testing facilities and the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The Virgin Lands Campaign, starting in 1954, was a massive Soviet agricultural resettlement program that brought more than 300,000 individuals, mostly from the Ukraine, to the northern Kazakh SSR and the Altai region of the Russian SFSR. This was a major change in the ethnicity of the region.
Similar processes occurred in Xinjiang and the rest of Western China where the PRC quickly established absolute control. The area was subject to a number of development schemes and, like West Turkestan, one focus was on the growing of the cotton cash crop. These efforts were overseen by the
Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. The XPCC also encouraged Han Chinesemigration to Xinjiang leading to a major demographic shift and by the year 2000 some 40% of the population of Xinjiang were Han. [Includes only citizens of the PRC. Does not include members of the People's Liberation Armyin active service. Source: 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料，民族出版社，2003/9 (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)] As with the Soviet Union local languages and cultures were mostly encouraged and Xinjiang was granted autonomous status. However, Islam was much persecuted, especially during the Cultural Revolution. Similar to the Soviet Union, many in Xinjiang died due to the failed agricultural policies of the Great Leap Forward.
From 1988 to 1992, a free press and multiparty system developed in the Central Asian republics as
perestroikapressured the local Communist parties to open up. What Svat Soucek calls the "Central Asian Spring" was very short-lived, as soon after independence former Communist Party officials recast themselves as local strongmen, [Svat Soucek "A History of Inner Asia."] Political stability in the region has mostly been maintained, with the major exception of the Tajik Civil Warthat lasted from 1992 to 1997. 2005 also saw the largely peaceful ousting of Kyrgyzpresident Askar Akayevin the Tulip Revolutionand an outbreak of violence in Andijan, Uzbekistan. Much of the population of Soviet Central Asia was indifferent to the collapse of the Soviet Union, even the large Russian populations in Kazakhstan (roughly 40% of the total) and Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Aid from the Kremlin had also been central to the economies of Central Asia, each of the republics receiving massive transfers of funds from Moscow. Independence largely resulted from the efforts of the small groups of nationalistic, mostly local intellectuals, and from little interest in Moscow for retaining the expensive region. While never a part of the Soviet Union, Mongolia followed a somewhat similar path. Often acting as the unofficial sixteenth Soviet republic, it shed the communist system only in 1996, but quickly ran into economic problems. See: History of independent Mongolia.
The economic performance of the region since independence has been mixed. It contains some of the largest reserves of natural resources in the world, but there are important difficulties in transporting them. Since it lies farther from the ocean than anywhere else in the world, and its southern borders lay closed for decades, the main trade routes and pipelines run through Russia. As a result, Russia still exerts more influence over the region than in any other former Soviet republics. Nevertheless, the rising energy importance of the
Caspian Seaentails a great involvement in the region by the US. The former Soviet republics of the Caucasus now have their own US Special Envoyand inter-agency working groups. Former US Secretary of Energy Bill Richardsonhad claimed that "the Caspian region will hopefully save us [the US] from total dependence on Middle Eastoil". [M. Jaffe-R.A. Manning, "The Real Geopolitics of Energy", 112] Some analysts, such as Myers Jaffe and Robert A. Manning, estimate however that US' entry into the region (with initiatives such us the US-favored Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline) as a major actor may complicate Moscow's chances of making a decisive break with its past economic mistakes and geopolitical excesses in Central Asia. They also regard as a myth the assertion that Caspian oil and gas will be a cheaper and more secure alternative to supplies from the Persian Gulf. [M. Jaffe-R.A. Manning, "The Real Geopolitics of Energy", 113]
Despite these reservations and fears, since the late 1980s,
Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan have gradually moved to centre stage in the global energy markets and are now regarded as key factors of the international energy security. Azerbaijan and Kzakhstan in particular have succeeded in attracting massive foreign investment to their oil and gassectors. According to Gawdat Bahgat, the investment flow suggests that the geological potential of the Caspian region as a major source of oil and gas in not in doubt. [G. Bahgat, "Central Asia and Energy Security", 3] Russia and Kazakhstan started a closer energy co-operation in 1998, which was further consolidated in May 2002, when Presidents Vladimir Putinand Nursultan Nazarbayevsigned a protocol dividing three gas fields - Kurmangazy, Tsentralnoye, and Khvalynskoye - on an equal basis. Following the ratification of bilateral treaties, Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan declared that the norther Caspian was open for business and investment as they had reached a consensus on the legan status of the basin. Iran and Turkmenistan refused however to recognize the validity of these bilateral agreements; Iran is rejecting any bilateral agreement to divide the Caspian. On the other hand, US' choices in the region (within the framework of the so-called "pipeline diplomacy"), such as the strong support of the Baky pipeline (the project was eventually approved and was completed in 2005), reflect a political desire to avoid both Russia and Iran. [G. Bahgat, "Central Asia and Energy Security", 8]
Increasingly, other powers have begun to involve themselves in Central Asia. Soon after the Central Asian states won their independence
Turkeybegan to look east, and a number of organizations are attempting to build links between the western and eastern Turks. Iran, which for millennia had close links with the region, has also been working to build ties and the Central Asian states now have good relations with the Islamic Republic. One important player in the new Central Asia has been Saudi Arabia, which has been funding the Islamic revival in the region. Olcott notes that soon after independence Saudi money paid for massive shipments of Qur'ans to the region and for the construction and repair of a large number of mosques. In Tajikistanalone an estimated 500 mosques per year have been erected with Saudi money. [Martha Brill Olcott. "Central Asia's New States"] The formerly atheistic Communist Party leaders have mostly converted to Islam. Small Islamistgroups have formed in several of the countries, but radical Islam has little history in the region; the Central Asian societies have remained largely secular and all five states enjoy good relations with Israel. Central Asia is still home to a large Jewish population, the largest group being the Bukharan Jews, and important trade and business links have developed between those that left for Israel after independence and those remaining.
People's Republic of Chinasees the region as an essential future source of raw materials; most Central Asian countries are members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This has affected Xinjiang and other parts of western China that have seen infrastructure programs building new links and also new military facilities. Chinese Central Asia has been far from the centre of that country's economic boom and the area has remained considerably poorer than the coast. China also sees a threat in the potential of the new states to support separatist movements among its own Turkic minorities.
One important Soviet legacy that has only gradually been appreciated is the vast ecological destruction. Most notable is the gradual drying of the
Aral Sea. During the Soviet era, it was decided that the traditional crops of melons and vegetables would be replaced by water-intensive growing of cotton for Soviet textile mills. Massive irrigation efforts were launched that diverted a considerable percentage of the annual inflow to the sea, causing it to shrink steadily. Furthermore, vast tracts of Kazakhstan were used for nuclear testing, and there exists a plethora of decrepit factories and mines.
In the first part of 2008 Central Asia experienced a severe energy crisis, a shortage of both electricity and fuel, aggravated by abnormally cold temperatures, failing infrastructure, and a shortage of food.
History of Kazakhstan
History of Kyrgyzstan
History of Tajikistan
History of Turkmenistan
History of Uzbekistan
History of Afghanistan
History of Mongolia
History of Xinjiang
History of Pakistan
History of Kashmir
*cite journal|last=Bahgat|first=Gawdat|title=Central Asia and Energy Security |journal=Asian Affairs|volume=37|issue=No.1|pages=1–16|month=March | year=2006|publisher=Routledge - Taylor and Francis Group|doi=10.1080/03068370500456819
*cite encyclopedia|title=Central Asia, history of|encyclopedia=Encyclopaedia Britannica|year=2002
*Herodotus, "Histories", IV. See original text in [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0125:book=1:chapter=1:section=0 perseus project] .
*cite journal|last=Mayers Jaffe|first=Manning Robert A.|title=The Myth of the Caspian "Great Game": The Real Geopolitics of Energy |journal=Survival|volume=40|issue=No.4|pages=112–129|date=Winter 1998-1999|url=http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/(bofh5h551nevqfadmwvfby55)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,7,12;journal,33,36;linkingpublicationresults,1:111409,1|publisher=International Institute for Strategic Studies
V.V. Barthold, "Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion" (London) 1968 (Third Edition)
*Brower, Daniel "Turkestan and the Fate of the Russian Empire" (London) 2003. ISBN 0-415-29744-3
*Dani, A.H. and V.M. Masson eds. "UNESCO History of Civilizations of Central Asia" (Paris:
*Hildinger, Erik. "Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia, 500 B.C. to 1700 A.D." (Cambridge: Da Capo) 2001. ISBN 0-306-81065-4
*O'Brien, Patrick K. (General Editor). "Oxford Atlas of World History." New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
*Olcott, Martha Brill. "Central Asia's New States: Independence, Foreign policy, and Regional security." (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press) 1996. ISBN 1-878379-51-8
*Sinor, Denis "The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia" (Cambridge) 1990 (2nd Edition). ISBN 0-521-24304-1
*Soucek, Svat "A History of Inner Asia." (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 2000. ISBN 0-521-65169-7
*В.В. Бартольд "История Культурной Жизни Туркестана" ("Istoriya Kul'turnoy zhizni Turkestana")(Москва) 1927
*Н.А. Халфин; "Россия и Ханства Средней Азии" ("Rossiya i Hanstva Sredney Azii") (Москва) 1974
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v5_articles/central_asia/pre-islamic_times&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html Encyclopaedia Iranica: Central Asia in pre-Islamic Times (R. Fryer)]
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v5_articles/central_asia/islamic_period_to_mongols&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html Encyclopaedia Iranica: Central Asia from the Islamic Period to the Mongol Conquest (C. Bosworth)]
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v5_articles/central_asia/mongol_and_timurid_periods&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html Encyclopaedia Iranica: Central Asia in the Mongol and Timurid Periods (B. Spuler)]
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v5_articles/central_asia/10th-12th_16th-18th_centuries&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html Encyclopaedia Iranica: Central Asia from the 16th to the 18th centuries (R.D. McChesney)]
* [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/pdfarticles/v5_articles/central_asia/12th-13th_18th-19th_centuries&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/newsite/logs/pdfdownload.html Encyclopaedia Iranica: Central Asia in the 18th-19th centuries (
* [http://www.csen.org/? Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
History of South Asia — and India Stone age (7000–1300 BCE) … Wikipedia
History of East Asia — History of religions Ancestor worshipWhat we know today as the ancient Chinese culture were developed in the northern area of modern China. The southern or western people spoke different languages and had their own cultures. Other areas, both the … Wikipedia
Central Asia — Area 4,003,400 km2 (1,545,721 sq mi) Population 61,551,945 … Wikipedia
Central Asia, history of — Introduction history of the area from prehistoric and ancient times to the present. In its historical application the term Central Asia designates an area that is considerably larger than the heartland of the Asian continent. Were it… … Universalium
Central Asia Institute — The Central Asia Institute (CAI) is a non profit organization whose mission is to promote and provide community based education and literacy programs, especially for girls, in remote mountain regions of Central Asia. [… … Wikipedia
Central Asia-China gas pipeline — The Central Asia China gas pipeline (known also as Turkmenistan China gas pipeline ) is a planned natural gas pipeline to transport natural gas from Central Asia to Xinjiang in China. It is expected that Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan… … Wikipedia
Central Asia — central region of Asia, extending from the Caspian Sea in the west to the border of western China in the east. It is bounded on the north by Russia and on the south by Iran, Afghanistan, and China. The region consists of the former Soviet… … Universalium
Central Asia-Center gas pipeline system — Central Asia Center is a Gazprom controlled system of natural gas pipelines, which run from Turkmenistan via Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to Russia. The eastern branch consists Central Asia Center (CAC) 1, 2, 4 and 5 pipelines, which start from the… … Wikipedia
Central Asia — In the 1990s, the Asian countries absorbed into the Russian Empire and ruled by the Soviet Union became independent as all emerged as autonomous nations. Georgia and Armenia were predominantly Eastern Orthodox in faith, while the others were… … Encyclopedia of Protestantism
Geostrategy in Central Asia — Central Asia has long been a geostrategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass. The region itself never held a dominant stationary population, nor was able to make use of natural resources… … Wikipedia