- AGM-45 Shrike
AGM-45 Shrike is an American
anti-radiation missiledesigned to home in on hostile antiaircraft radars. The Shrike was developed by the Naval Weapons Center at China Lake in 1963by mating a seeker head to the rocket body of an AIM-7 Sparrow. It was phased out by U.S. in 1992 and at an unknown time by the Israeli Air Force(the only other major user), and has been superseded by the AGM-88 HARMmissile. The Israel Defense Forcesdeveloped a version of the Shrike that could be ground-launched and mounted it on an M4 Shermanchassis as the Kilshon (Hebrew for "Trident").
The Shrike was first employed during the
Vietnam Warby the Navy in 1965 using A-4 aircraft. The Air Force adopted the weapon the following year using F-105F and G Thunderchief Wild Weasel SEADaircraft, and later the F-4 Phantom IIin the same role. The range was nominally shorter than the SA-2 Guidelinemissiles the system was used against although it was a great improvement over the early method of attacking SAM sites with rockets and bombs from F-100F Super Sabres. A Shrike was typically lofted about 30 degrees above the horizon at a Fan Song radar some 15 miles (25 km) away for a flight time of 50 seconds. Tactics incrementally changed over the campaigns of 1966 and 1967 until the advent of the AGM-78 Standard ARM. This new weapon allowed launches from significantly longer range with a much easier attack profile, as the ARM could be launched up to 180 degrees off target and still expect a hit and its speed allowed it to travel faster than the SA-2. Even after the AGM-78 entered service, the Weasels still carried the Shrike because the ARM cost about $200,000, while a Shrike cost only $7,000. If USAF pilots expended an ARM they would have to fill out a lengthy form during debriefing. A somewhat standard load for the F-105G was a 650 US gal (2,500 L) centerline fuel tank, two AGM-78s on inboard pylons and two Shrikes on the outboards. The mix varied slightly for jamming pods and the occasional AIM-9 Sidewinderbut this was the baseline.
Although the Shrike missile did not enter regular service with the
United Kingdom, it was supplied to the RAF for use in the Falklands Warof 1982. RAF Shrikes were fitted to modified Vulcan bombers in order to attack Argentinian radar installations during Operation Black Buck. The main target was a Westinghouse AN/TPS-43long range 3D radar that the Argentine Air Forcedeployed during April to guard the Falklands' surrounded airspace. The Argentine operators were aware of the US-supplied anti-radar missiles and would simply turn it off during the Vulcan's approaches. This radar would remain intact during the whole conflict. However, air defences remain operational during the attacks and the Shrikes hit two of the less valuable and rapidly replaced secondary fire control radars. As a result of this experience next generation missiles were designed to "remember" the radar position even if they were turned off. Also, following a Vulcan making an emergency landing at Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian authorities confiscated one Shrike which was never returned.
The Shrike's limitations are characterized primarily in the fact that subvariants abound, each tuned to a different radar band.
Angle gating, used to prioritize targets, was included in every subvariant of the AGM-45A and B after the A-2 and B-2. It was also slow and the lack of punch in the warhead made it difficult for bomb damage assessment, as well as inflicting any damage to the Fan Song Radar vans beyond a shattered radar dish, an easy item to replace or repair. The short range, combined with its lack of speed (compared to the SA-2 SAM) made for a difficult attack. The missile had to be well within the range of the SAM and if a SAM was fired the SAM would get to the aircraft first. Also the missile had few tolerances and had to be launched no more than + or - 3 degrees from the target. Many pilots in Vietnam did not like the Shrike because of its limitations and its success rate of around 25%.
The differences between the AGM-45A and B are in the rocket motor used, and in the warheads capable of being fitted. The AGM-45A used the
RocketdyneMk 39 Mod 0 (or apparently in some cases the AerojetMk 53 Mod 1) motor, while the AGM-45B used Aerojet Mk 78 Mod 0 which greatly increased the range of the missile. As for warheads, the Mk 5 Mod 0, Mk 86 Mod 0, and WAU-8/B could all be fitted to the AGM-45A and were all blast-fragmentation in nature. The AGM-45B made use of the improved Mk 5 Mod 1 and Mk 86 Mod 1 warheads, as well as, the WAU-9/B, again all blast-fragmentation in type.
The following table provides information on what radar bands were associated with certain guidance sections, and the subvariant designation.
For unknown reasons, -5 and -8 were not produced.
* [http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-45.html The AGM-45 Shrike at Designation Systems.net]
International Signal and Control
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Look at other dictionaries:
AGM-45 Shrike — an einer F 4G Wild Weasel Phantom II Allgemeine Angaben … Deutsch Wikipedia
AGM-45 Shrike — AGM 45 Shrike. El AGM 45 Shrike es un misil antirradiación de origen estadounidense diseñado para destruir radares antiaéreos enemigos. Referencias Este artículo fue creado a partir de la traducción del artículo … Wikipedia Español
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AGM-45 Shrike — L’AGM 45 Shrike est un missile anti radar américain conçu pour atteindre des stations de radar anti aéronef. Il fut mis au point en 1963 au Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake en mariant une tête chercheuse au corps d un AIM 7 Sparrow. Il fut… … Wikipédia en Français
AGM-45 — AGM 45A Shrike Anti Radar Rakete Technische Daten Hersteller Texas Instruments Aufgabe: Luftbodenrakete zur Radarabwehr Antrieb: einstufiges Feststoffraketentriebwerk Länge: 3,0 m (10 ft) Gewicht: 177 kg (390 lb) … Deutsch Wikipedia
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AGM-78 Standard ARM — Tipo Misil aire superficie antirradiación País de origen … Wikipedia Español
AGM-78 Standard ARM — Allgemeine Angaben Typ: Luft Boden Rakete … Deutsch Wikipedia
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